nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒05‒14
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Product market competition and gender discrimination By Dudley Cooke; Ana P. Fernandes; Priscila Ferreira
  2. Gender Gap in educational investment and outcome in Japan: Empirical Findings from Japan Child Panel Survey By Hideo Akabayashi; Kayo Nozaki; Shiho Yukawa
  3. The Role of Parenthood on the Gender Gap among Top Earners. By Bütikofer, Aline; Jensen, Sissel; Salvanes, Kjell G.
  4. The Road Not Taken: Gender Gaps along Paths to Political Power By Iyer, Lakshmi; Mani, Anandi
  5. Labor Market Quotas By Suzanne Bijkerk; Silvia Dominguez-Martinez; Jurjen Kamphorst; Otto Swank
  6. Undressed for Success? The Effects of Half-Naked Women on Economic Behavior By Bonnier, Evelina; Dreber, Anna; Hederos, Karin; Sandberg, Anna
  7. Parenthood and couples’ relative earnings in Norway 2005-2014 By Janna Bergsvik; Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik; Ragni Hege Kitterød

  1. By: Dudley Cooke (University of Exeter); Ana P. Fernandes (University of Exeter); Priscila Ferreira (University of Minho, NIMA)
    Abstract: This paper presents novel empirical evidence for the prediction from Becker’s (1957) famous theory, that competition will drive discrimination out of the market. We use a comprehensive firm entry deregulation reform in Portugal as a quasi-natural experiment to study the effect of increased product market competition on gender discrimination. We use employer-employee data for the universe of private sector firms and workers, and exploit the staggered implementation of the reform across municipalities for identification. Increased competition following the deregulation reduces the gender pay gap for medium- and high-skill workers but not for the low-skilled. The gender pay gap is also reduced for workers in managerial positions, except for the CEO. We also find that the share of females in managerial positions increased in affected municipalities. Existing evidence has shown that gender discrimination reduces output; our findings suggest that deregulation can contribute to reduce inefficiencies arising from gender discrimination.
    Keywords: Deregulation, Discrimination, Entry, Gender Pay Gap, Product Market Competition, Wage Structure.
    JEL: J16 J31 J71
    Date: 2018–05
  2. By: Hideo Akabayashi (Faculty of Economics, Keio University); Kayo Nozaki (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Kochi University); Shiho Yukawa (Faculty of Economics, Teikyo University)
    Abstract: Recent research suggests that family background such as parental education and poverty may have different influences on children by gender of the child. In developed countries, the gender gap in the proportion majoring in science and mathematics (STEM) does not necessarily shrink as the overall gender disparity narrows in educational achievement. There are, however, few studies on the specific roles of household background, particularly the difference in investment behavior of money and time, and the role of interaction between cognitive ability and non-cognitive ability. In this paper, using the Japan Child Panel Survey, we first examine the gender differences in the test scores of mathematics and language, preference for these subjects, and educational investment from parents. Next, we analyzed whether the family environment has different effects on these variables for each gender. Our main results are follows. Firstly, we did not find statistically significant gender differences in the average score of mathematical test scores and ratio of top 10% students. Compared to boys, girls did not show statistically significant differences in preferences for mathematics, but did showed statistically significant preferences for languages. Secondly, the income elasticity of expenditure on after school activities were larger to girls, especially of expenditure on artistic lessons.
    Keywords: Education, Academic outcome, Panel Data, Gender gap, STEM
    JEL: I20 I24 J16
    Date: 2018–03–28
  3. By: Bütikofer, Aline (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Jensen, Sissel (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Salvanes, Kjell G. (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: Is the wage penalty due to motherhood larger among highly qualified women? In this paper, we study the effect of parenthood on the careers of high-achieving women relative to high-achieving men in a set of high-earning professions with either nonlinear or linear wage structures. Using Norwegian registry data, we find that the child earnings penalty for mothers in professions with a nonlinear wage structure, MBAs and lawyers, is substantially larger than for mothers in professions with a linear wage structure. The gender earnings gap for MBA and law graduates is around 30%, but substantially less for STEM and medicine graduates, 10 years after childbirth. In addition, we provide some descriptive statistics on the role of fertility timing on the child earnings penalty.
    Keywords: Parenthood on the careers; wage structure
    JEL: E24 J16
    Date: 2018–04–26
  4. By: Iyer, Lakshmi (University of Notre Dame); Mani, Anandi (Blavatnik School of Government, Oxford University)
    Abstract: Using an original survey conducted in India’s largest state, we offer systematic evidence on the gender gaps in a rich set of electoral and non-electoral participation metrics. We find that gender gaps in non-electoral forms of participation (such as involvement in public petitions, interactions with public officials and attendance of village meetings) are larger than those in election-related activities, including political candidacy. The gender gaps in political participation persist even after we account for women’s poorer knowledge of political institutions, self-assessment of leadership skills, literacy rates and asset ownership, as well as constraints on their mobility and voice in household decisions. Using an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition approach, we find that bringing women’s attributes on par with men would bridge less than half the gender gap. This suggests that external factors, such as the role played by voters, parties or societal groups, may constitute important barriers to women’s political participation. The presence of a woman leader in the village increases women’s propensity to meet with government officials, but is not enough to close the gender gap. Our evidence points to the need to consider a wider set of policy tools beyond quotas to encourage women’s civic and political engagement.
    Keywords: political participation, civic engagement, gender gap, India, women leaders, gender quotas JEL Classification:
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Suzanne Bijkerk (Erasmus School of Economics); Silvia Dominguez-Martinez (University of Amsterdam); Jurjen Kamphorst (Erasmus School of Economics); Otto Swank (Erasmus School of Economics)
    Abstract: Under-representation of women in high level positions is widespread and persistent. We analyze the consequences of labor market quotas for the wages of women in high level positions. The key point of our paper is that quotas cause asymmetric information about why women work in high level positions. Firms know why they have assigned their own female employees to high level positions, but do not know why women at other firms have been assigned to those positions. A winner’s curse, reducing competition for women in high level positions, results. This widens the gender pay gap. We show that ex ante women are better-off without quotas. Next, we investigate how quotas affect incentives for employers to learn the abilities of women to make better job-assignment decisions. Then, under specific conditions women may benefit from quotas.
    Keywords: labor market quota; winners curse; screening
    JEL: D83 J22
  6. By: Bonnier, Evelina (Stockholm School of Economics); Dreber, Anna (Stockholm School of Economics); Hederos, Karin (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University); Sandberg, Anna (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: Images of half-naked women are in many societies ubiquitous in advertising and popular culture. Yet relatively little is known about the potential impacts of such images on economic decision making. In this paper, we examine how exposure to images of half-naked women affect risk taking, willingness to compete and math performance. We perform a lab experiment with a total of 648 participants of both genders, randomly exposing participants to advertising images including either women in bikini or underwear, fully dressed women, or no women. Exposure to images of half-naked women could potentially have effects on economic preferences and performance through channels such as arousal, cognitive load and stereotyping. Following a pre-registered pre-analysis plan, we find no treatment effects on any of the outcome measures for female participants. For male participants, we also find no effect on willingness to compete or math performance, but suggestive evidence that men take more risk after having been exposed to images of half-naked women compared to images including no women. We thus do not find any strong support for the hypothesis that exposure to images of half-naked women impact economic preferences, but given the suggestive evidence for risk taking future studies should explore this further.
    Keywords: Experiment; Gender; Economic decision making; Risk preferences; willingness to compete; Advertising
    Date: 2018–05–08
  7. By: Janna Bergsvik; Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik (Statistics Norway); Ragni Hege Kitterød
    Abstract: In the current paper, we investigate within-couple inequality in earnings using Norwegian register data on married and cohabiting couples. We are particularly interested in assessing whether the negative relation between children and women’s relative earnings changed during the study period 2005 to 2014. In this period, work-family policy measures meant to facilitate mothers’ employment and promoting fathers’ family involvement were strengthened, and there was a sharp increase in women’s level of education. Controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables, results showed that women on average still earn less than their male partners and that the presence of small children in the household was negatively related to women’s earnings. However, results from interaction models showed that the negative association between having young children and women’s relative earnings was reduced during the study period. Additional analyses confirmed that this latter finding was mainly due to an income reduction among new fathers.
    Keywords: Women’s relative earnings; Parenthood; Cohabitation; Marriage; Family policy; Gender equality
    JEL: D13 J12 J13 J16
    Date: 2018–04

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