nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒04‒09
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. How Do Gender Quotas Affect Hierarchical Relationships? Complementary Evidence from a Respresentative Survey and Labor Market Experiments By Edwin Ip; Andreas Leibbrandt; Joseph Vecci
  2. Gender Norms and the Motherhood Penalty: Experimental Evidence from India By Bedi, Arjun S.; Majilla, Tanmoy; Rieger, Matthias
  3. Can Women Have Children and a Career? IV Evidence from IVF Treatments By Lundborg, Petter; Plug, Erik; Würtz Rasmussen, Astrid

  1. By: Edwin Ip; Andreas Leibbrandt; Joseph Vecci
    Abstract: Gender quotas are frequently proposed to address persistent gender imbalances in managerial roles. However, it is unclear how quotas for female managers affect organizations and whether quotas improve or damage relationships between managers and their subordinates. We conduct a representative survey to study opinions on quotas for female managers and based upon design a novel set of experiments to investigate how quotas influence wage setting and effort provision. Our findings reveal that both opinions about gender quotas and workplace behavior crucially depend on the workplace environment. In our survey, we observe that approval for gender quotas is low if women are not disadvantaged in the manager selection process, regardless of whether there are gender differences in performance. Complementing this evidence, we observe in our experiments that quotas lead to lower effort levels and lower wages in such environments. By contrast, in environments in which women are disadvantaged in the selection process, we observe a higher approval of quotas as well as higher effort levels and higher wages. These findings are consistent with the concept of meritocracy and suggest that it is important to evaluate the existence of gender disadvantages in the workplace environment before implementing quotas.
    Keywords: gender quota, hierarchical relationships, fairness, meritocracy
    JEL: C92 J71 J30
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Bedi, Arjun S. (ISS, Erasmus University Rotterdam); Majilla, Tanmoy (ISS, Erasmus University Rotterdam); Rieger, Matthias (ISS, Erasmus University Rotterdam)
    Abstract: This paper uses a field experiment to study the effect of perceived gender norms on the motherhood penalty in the Indian labor market. We randomly reported motherhood on fictitious CVs sent to service sector job openings. We generated exogenous variation in gender norms by prominently signaling patrilineal or matrilineal community origins of applicants. Employers are less likely to callback mothers relative to women or men without children, but only if they are of patrilineal origin. Mothers of matrilineal origin face no such penalty. We discuss the results in relation to the competing influence of ethnicity, the Indian context and theories of discrimination.
    Keywords: gender, culture, motherhood penalty, ethnic discrimination, field experiment, India
    JEL: J16 J71
    Date: 2018–02
  3. By: Lundborg, Petter (Department of Economics, Lund University); Plug, Erik (Amsterdam School of Economics, University of Amsterdam); Würtz Rasmussen, Astrid (Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus)
    Abstract: This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF (in vitro fertilization) induced fertility variation among childless women to estimate the causal effect of having children on their career. For this purpose, we use administrative data on IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of IVF success do not depend on labor market histories, IVF treatment success provides a plausible instrument for childbearing. Our IV estimates indicate that fertility effects on earnings are: (i) negative, large and long lasting; (ii) driven by fertility effects on hourly earnings and not so much on labor supply; and (iii) much stronger at the extensive margin than at the intensive margin.
    Keywords: Children; extensive and intensive fertility margins; female labor supply;
    JEL: D82 J13 J16 J22 J31 J32
    Date: 2018–03–28

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