nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒04‒02
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender inequality and the gender job satisfaction paradox in Europe By Vladisavljević, Marko; Perugini, Cristiano
  2. Gender and Peer Effects on Performance in Social Networks By Julie Beugnot Marie Claire Villeval; Bernard Fortin; Guy Lacroix; Marie Claire Villeval
  3. Why Women Don't Ask: Gender Differences in Fairness Perceptions of Own Wages and Subsequent Wage Growth By Pfeifer, Christian; Stephan, Gesine
  4. Understanding the gender gap among turn-of-the-century Swedish compositors By Burnette, Joyce; Stanfors, Stanfors
  5. Specializing in growing sectors: Wage returns and gender differences By Graves, Jennifer.; Kuehn, Zoë.
  6. Gender & Collaboration By Ductor, L; Goyal, S.; Prummer, A.

  1. By: Vladisavljević, Marko; Perugini, Cristiano
    Abstract: Although women are paid less than men, face worse working conditions, lower promotion opportunities, and work-place discrimination, they typically report job satisfaction higher or similar to men's. Twenty years ago Clark (Clark, 1997) suggested that the reason behind women's higher job satisfaction are their lower expectations, driven by a number of factors related to current and past positions of women on the labour market. Although this hypothesis is one of the leading explanations of the gender differences in the job satisfaction, cross-country research investigating the relationship between the gender inequality and gender job satisfaction gap are rare and only descriptive. In this paper we use the data from EU-SILC module on subjective well being from 2013 to analyse adjusted gender job satisfaction gaps in 32 European countries and relate them to the country differences in gender inequalities. Results provide extensive and robust evidence of a relationship between exposure to more gender equal settings in the early stages of life and smaller gender gaps in job satisfaction, once all other possible drivers are controlled for. This suggests that women who experienced higher gender equality have expectations increasingly aligned to those of their male counterparts. Our results also show that this alignment is further favoured by being employed in typically male occupations, whereas higher levels of education do not play a similar effect.
    Keywords: Gender inequality, Job satisfaction, Europe
    JEL: J16 J28 O52
    Date: 2018–03
  2. By: Julie Beugnot Marie Claire Villeval; Bernard Fortin; Guy Lacroix; Marie Claire Villeval
    Abstract: We investigate whether peer effects at work differ by gender and whether gender differences in peer effects -if any- depend on work organization. We develop a social network model with gender heterogeneity that we test in a real-effort laboratory experiment. We compare sequential networks in which information flows from peers to the worker and simultaneous networks where it disseminates bi-directionally. We identify strong gender differences as females disregard their peers’ performance in simultaneous networks, while males are influenced by peers in both networks. Females may perceive the environment in simultaneous networks as being more competitive than in sequential networks.
    Keywords: Gender, Peer effects, Social Networks, Work effort, Experiments
    JEL: C91 J16 J24 J31 M52
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Pfeifer, Christian (Leuphana University Lüneburg); Stephan, Gesine (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg)
    Abstract: The authors analyze gender differences in fairness perceptions of own wages and subsequent wage growth. The main finding is that women perceive their wage more often as fair if controls for hourly wage rates, individual and job-related characteristics are taken into account. Furthermore, the gender difference is more pronounced for married than for single women. This points to the fact that social norms, gender roles, and gender identity are at least partly responsible for the gap in fairness perceptions. Further analysis shows that individuals, who perceive their wage as unfair, experience larger wage growth in subsequent years. An explanation would be that a wage perceived as unfair triggers negotiations for a better wage or induces individuals to search for better paid work. Thus, differences in wage perceptions can contribute to explain the nowadays still persistent gender wage gap.
    Keywords: gender differences, fairness, social norms, wages, wage growth
    JEL: J16 J31 J71 A12
    Date: 2018–02
  4. By: Burnette, Joyce (Wabash College); Stanfors, Stanfors (Lund University)
    Abstract: Women have always earned less than men, with men’s greater physical strength explaining a large portion of the difference. This raises the question of why the gender gap did not disappear when the importance of physical strength waned with the emergence of the modern labor market. This paper explores the wage gap among Swedish compositors, an occupation featuring the main traits of modernity, circa 1900. We exploit matched employer-employee data with national coverage,and examine information on men and women holding the same jobs. On average, women’s hourly wage was about 70 percent of men’s. Individual characteristics explain much, but not all, of this gender gap. To explain the remainder of the gap, we examine training and differences across firms. Our findings suggest that women received less training than men, and accounting for differences across firms explains the gender gap. We also find differences across firms by size and location. Smaller firms outside the major cities treated men and women fairly, but large firms in big cities did not offer women the same opportunities as men, creating a gender wage gap. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that firms which set up internal labor markets treated men and women differently.
    Keywords: earnings; manufacturing industry; firm-level data
    JEL: J16 J31
    Date: 2018–03–23
  5. By: Graves, Jennifer. (Departamento de Economía y Hacienda Pública. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.); Kuehn, Zoë. (Departamento de Análisis Económico (Teoría e Historia Económica). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.)
    Abstract: We test whether specializing in a field of study when related sectors are growing matters for future labor market outcomes. For eight high-income OECD countries we match data on individuals' specialization decisions in higher education from PIAAC (Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies) with national statistics on value added of related economic sectors. We find that individuals who chose fields of studies when related sectors were growing earn higher wages later in life. We also find that men are less likely to specialize in growing sectors. However, this is entirely driven by the fact that men avoid specializing in traditionally female fields, whose related sectors have grown more over recent decades (e.g. health, education). Only for men who obtained at least a Bachelor's degree can this avoidance be explained by lower wages. Men who obtained a vocational degree in growing female fields earn similar wages later in life as those specializing in shrinking male fields. We present suggestive evidence that gendered specialization decisions, paired with growth in traditionally female sectors could have contributed to narrowing gender wage gaps in recent decades
    Keywords: higher education, specialization, sectors, labor market, gender, PIAAC
    JEL: I21 I23 J16 J24 O57
    Date: 2018–01
  6. By: Ductor, L; Goyal, S.; Prummer, A.
    Abstract: The fraction of women in economics has grown significantly over the last forty years. In spite of this, the differences in research output between men and women are large and persistent. These output differences are related to differences in the co-authorship networks of men and women: women have fewer collaborators, collaborate more often with the same co-authors, and a higher fraction of their co-authors are co-authors of each other. Moreover, women collaborate more and do so with more senior co-authors. Standard models of homophily and discrimination cannot account for these differences. We discuss how differences in risk aversion and an adverse environment for women can explain them.
    Keywords: Gender Inequality, Network Formation, Discrimination, Homophily, Risk Taking.
    JEL: D8 D85 J7 J16 O30
    Date: 2018–03–13

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