nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒02‒26
nine papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Homophily in Referral Networks: Consequences for the Medicare Physician Earnings Gap By Zeltzer, Dan
  2. Parental Leaves and Female Skill Utilization: Evidence from PIAAC By KAWAGUCHI Daiji; TORIYABE Takahiro
  3. Structural change and female participation in recent economic growth: A multisectoral analysis for the Spanish economy. By Rosa Duarte; Cristina Sarasa; Mònia Serrano
  4. The Gender Earnings Gap in the Gig Economy: Evidence from over a Million Rideshare Drivers By Cody Cook; Rebecca Diamond; Jonathan Hall; John List; Paul Oyer
  5. Identifying Age Penalty in Women's Wages: New Method and Evidence from Germany 1984-2014 By Tyrowicz, Joanna; Van der Velde, Lucas; van Staveren, Irene
  6. Gender Quotas: Challenging the Boards, Performance, and the Stock Market By Giulia Ferrari; Valeria Ferraro; Paola Profeta; Chiara Pronzato
  7. What accounts for the increase in female labor force participation in Spain By Osuna, Victoria
  8. The intergenerational transmission of gender role attitudes: Evidence from immigrant mothers-in-law By Bredtmann, Julia; Höckel, Lisa Sofie; Otten, Sebastian
  9. Reducing Discrimination through Norms or Information: Evidence from a Field Experiment on Student Evaluations of Teaching By Boring, Anne; Philippe, Arnaud

  1. By: Zeltzer, Dan (Tel Aviv University)
    Abstract: In this paper, I assess the extent to which the gender gap in physician earnings may be driven by physicians' preference for working with specialists of the same gender. By analyzing administrative data on 100 million Medicare patient referrals, I provide robust evidence that doctors refer more to specialists of their same gender, a tendency known as homophily. I propose a new measure of homophily that is invariant to differences between the genders in the propensity to refer or receive referrals. I show that biased referrals are predominantly driven by physicians' decisions rather than by endogenous sorting of physicians or patients or by gender differences in the labor supply. As 75% of doctors are men, estimates suggest biased referrals generate a 5% lower demand for female relative to male specialists, pointing to a positive externality for increased female participation in medicine.
    Keywords: networks, referrals, gender, physician markets
    JEL: I11 J16 L14
    Date: 2017–12
  2. By: KAWAGUCHI Daiji; TORIYABE Takahiro
    Abstract: Most developed countries adopt parental leave policies to promote women's labor force participation without sacrificing family formation. Studies find that short-term parental leaves for women increase the time spent at home and promote their return to the labor force after childbearing, but some studies point out that long-term parental leaves hinder the career advancement of high-skilled women. This paper analyzes heterogeneous impacts of parental leave policies on women's skill-use intensity by skill level, drawing on rich information on individual skill and skill-use intensity available from the micro data of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), which covers 30 countries. The results show that longer parental leaves narrow the gender gap in skill-use intensity among low-skilled workers but widen it among high-skilled workers. This finding is robust after controlling for international differences in gender norms and labor market institutions and allowing for country fixed effects. The findings corroborate with the claim that a longer parental leave period suppresses the career advancement of high-skilled women.
    Date: 2018–01
  3. By: Rosa Duarte (Universidad de Zaragoza); Cristina Sarasa (Universidad de Zaragoza); Mònia Serrano (Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: Economic growth has different impacts on gender gaps. Despite that the incorporation of women into the labour market drove towards a convergence with male participation in recent decades, a notable gender pay gap still persists standing at around 15% on average in the European Union. In this context, this paper evaluates the impact of economic growth patterns on the evolution of female employment and gender pay gaps. As a case study, we examine Spanish economic growth from 1980 to 2007 and the influences on the size, composition (by skill), and distribution (by sector) of female and male employment, as well as the consequences for gender gaps. First, sectorial feminization, direct discrimination, and structural change factors are identified and evaluated as sources of change in gender pay gap. Second, we explore the influence of demand, technology, and intensity factors on the evolution of employment in Spain, combining gender, skill, sectorial, and temporal perspectives.
    Keywords: Female participation, Gender pay gap, Structural change, Structural decomposition analysis, Input-output analysis.
    JEL: A30 B54 C67 E24
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Cody Cook; Rebecca Diamond; Jonathan Hall; John List; Paul Oyer
    Abstract: The growth of the "gig" economy generates worker flexibility that, some have speculated, will favor women. We explore one facet of the gig economy by examining labor supply choices and earnings among more than a million rideshare drivers on Uber in the U.S. Perhaps most surprisingly, we find that there is a roughly 7% gender earnings gap among drivers. The uniqueness of our data - knowing exactly the production and compensation functions - permits us to completely unpack the underlying determinants of the gender earnings gap. We find that the entire gender gap is caused by three factors: experience on the platform (learning-by-doing), preferences over where/when to work, and preferences for driving speed. This suggests that, as the gig economy grows and brings more flexibility in employment, women's relatively high opportunity cost of non-paid-work time and gender-based preference differences can perpetuate a gender earnings gap even in the absence of discrimination.
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Tyrowicz, Joanna (University of Warsaw); Van der Velde, Lucas (Warsaw University); van Staveren, Irene (ISS, Erasmus University Rotterdam)
    Abstract: Given theoretical premises, gender wage gap adjusted for individual characteristics is likely to vary over age. We extend DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996) semi-parametric technique to disentangle year, cohort and age effects in adjusted gender wage gaps. We rely on a long panel of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel covering the 1984-2015 period. Our results indicate that the gender wage gap increases over the lifetime, for some birth cohorts also in the post-reproductive age.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, age, cohort, decomposition, non-parametric estimates, Germany
    JEL: J31 J71
    Date: 2018–01
  6. By: Giulia Ferrari; Valeria Ferraro; Paola Profeta; Chiara Pronzato
    Abstract: In 2011, Italy introduced gender quotas for boards of directors of companies listed on its stock market. Comparing before and after the reform within firms, we find that quotas are associated with a higher share of female board directors, higher levels of education of board members, and a lower share of older members. We then use the reform period as an instrument for the share of female directors and find no significant impact on firms’ performance. Interestingly, we find that the share of female directors is associated with a lower variability of stock market prices. We also run event studies on the stock price reaction to the introduction of gender quotas. A positive effect of the quota law on stock market returns emerges at the date of the board’s election. Our results are consistent with gender quotas giving rise to a beneficial restructuring of the board, which is positively received by the market.
    Keywords: education, age, financial markets
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Osuna, Victoria
    Abstract: Over the last three decades, Spanish female labor force participation (LFP) has tremendously increased, particularly, that of married women. At the same time, the income tax structure, the fiscal treatment of families, policies to reconcile family and work, and the education distribution of married couples have substantially changed. By contrast, the gender wage gap has remained quite stable. In this paper the author investigates the relevance of these factors in accounting for the growth in Spanish married women labor force participation from 1994 to 2008. For that purpose, she uses Kaygusuz (Taxes and female labor supply, 2010) model of household labor market participation, and data from Eurostat to calibrate the model and evaluate its performance. The model successfully accounts for the rise in aggregate female labor force participation, and matches hours worked by males and females. The model is also able to replicate the pattern of female labor force participation by age and education. From this analysis we can conclude that changes in tax rates and in the education distribution are the main factors behind the increase in female LFP during the late nineties, while changes in child care costs and earning profiles are mainly responsible for the subsequent growth in the 2000s.
    Keywords: female labor force participation,gender wage gap,income tax,educational distribution,wage profiles,child care costs
    JEL: J11 J12 J13 J22 J31
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Bredtmann, Julia; Höckel, Lisa Sofie; Otten, Sebastian
    Abstract: The recent literature on intergenerational mobility has shown that attitudes and preferences are an important pathway for the intergenerational transmission of economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by documenting that intergenerationally transmitted gender role attitudes also explain economic outcomes of individuals other than immediate relatives. Focusing on daughters-in-law, we examine whether the gender role attitudes of foreign-born mothers-in-law affect the fertility and labor supply decisions of native US women. Our results reveal that women's labor market participation is significantly positively related to the gender role attitudes in her mother-in-law's country of origin. Employing a new identification strategy, we show that this finding is due to the intergenerational transmission of gender roles rather than other unobservable characteristics of the mother-in-law's country of origin. These results suggest that the cultural values held in their source country do not only influence the behavior of immigrants and their descendants, but can also affect the labor force participation of native women. We do, however, not find any evidence that intergenerationally transmitted gender role attitudes affect the fertility behavior of native women.
    Keywords: intergenerational transmission,gender role attitudes,culture,immigration,fertility,female labor force participation
    JEL: J13 J15 J22 D1
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Boring, Anne; Philippe, Arnaud
    Abstract: We conduct a field experiment to assess the impact of two different interventions designed to reduce gender biases in student evaluations of teaching (SET). In the first intervention, students received a normative statement by email, essentially reminding them that they should not discriminate in SETs. In the second intervention, the normative statement was augmented with precise information on how other students in the exact same situation had discriminated against female teachers in the past. While the pure normative statement had no significant impact on SETs, the informative statement appears to have reduced gender biases against female teachers. This effect mainly comes from a change in male students’ evaluation of female teachers.
    JEL: C93 I23 J71
    Date: 2017–11

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