nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒02‒12
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. How long do early career decisions follow women? The impact of industry and firm size history on the gender and motherhood wage gaps By Holly Monti; Lori Reeder; Martha Stinson
  2. Women empowerment and good times: Which one leads to the other? By Taniya Ghosh; Sanika Sulochani Ramanayake
  3. Gender Stereotype in Academia: Evidence from Economics Job Market Rumors Forum By Alice Wu
  4. Gender inequality in employment in Mozambique By Carlos Gradín; Finn Tarp
  5. Gender and promotions: evidence from academic economists in France By Bosquet, Clément; Combes, Pierre-Philippe; Garcia-Penalosa, Cecilia
  6. Financial Literacy and Intra-Household Decision Making: Evidence from Rwanda By Antonia Grohmann; Annekathrin Schoofs
  7. Fishermen’s wives: On the cultural origins of violence against women By Vincent Leyaro; Pablo Selaya; Neda Trifkovic
  8. Work-Life Balance and Labor Force Attachment at Older Ages By Marco Angrisani; Maria Casanova; Erik Meijer

  1. By: Holly Monti; Lori Reeder; Martha Stinson
    Abstract: We add to the gender wage gap literature by considering how characteristics of past employers are correlated with current wages and whether differences between the work histories of men and women are related to the persistent gender wage gap. Our hypothesis is that women have spent less time over the course of their careers in higher paying industries and have less job- and industry-specific human capital and that these characteristics are correlated with male-female earnings differences. Additionally, we expect that difference in the work histories between women with children and childless women might help explain the observed motherhood wage gap. We use unique administrative employer history data to conduct a standard decomposition exercise to determine the impact of differences in observable job history characteristics on the gender and motherhood wage gaps. We find that industry work history has two opposing effects on both these wage gaps. The distribution of work experience across industries contributes to increasing the wage gaps, but the share of experience spent in the industry sector of the current job works to decrease earnings differences.
    Date: 2018–01
  2. By: Taniya Ghosh (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Sanika Sulochani Ramanayake (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)
    Abstract: Does substantial women empowerment lead to significant output, or do good times lead to women empowerment? Using a panel VAR study as well as a comprehensive gender gap index and its sub-indices from the World Economic Forum, this study investigates the association between gender gap and per capita output for OECD countries, developing countries, as well as Latin American and African countries. Results confirm the existence of bidirectional Granger causality between gender gap and output. On the one hand, good times encourage equity for both sexes. On the other hand, women empowerment helps middle- and low-income countries prosper and significantly improve their human capital, which, in turn, drives long-run economic growth. Moreover, the Latin American and African nations show qualitatively similar but quantitatively greater responses compared with developing nations. By contrast, closing the gender gap negatively affects OECD output. For the sample of developing countries, the aforementioned results are robust to sub-indices measured by gender gap in economic participation as well as opportunity, educational attainment, and political empowerment. We recommend that gender policies specifically aim at eliminating gaps in female education.
    Keywords: African countries, Developing countries, gender gap, Latin American countries, OECD countries, output, per capita output
    JEL: D63 I24 F43
    Date: 2018–01
  3. By: Alice Wu (Princeton University)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether people in academia portray and judge women and men differently in everyday “conversations†that take place online. I combine methods from text mining, machine learning and econometrics to study the existence and extent of gender stereotyping on the Economics Job Market Rumors forum. I first design a propensity score model to infer the gender a post mainly refers to from text, and simultaneously identify the individual words with the strongest association with gender. The words selected provide a direct look into the gender stereotyped language on this forum. Through a topic analysis of the posts, I find that when women are under discussion, the discourse tends to become significantly less academic or professionally oriented, and more about personal information and physical appearance. Moreover, a panel data analysis reveals the state dependence between the content of posts within a thread. In particular, once women are mentioned in a thread, the topic is likely to shift from academic to personal. Finally, I restrict the analysis to discussions about specific economists, and find that high-profile female economists tend to receive more attention on EJMR than their male counterparts.
    JEL: J16 J23 M51 J71 I23
    Date: 2017–09
  4. By: Carlos Gradín; Finn Tarp
    Abstract: We investigate the trend in the gender employment gap in the expanding nonsubsistence sector of the economy in Mozambique, a country still characterized by a large subsistence agricultural sector. We show evidence that the gender gap has widened over time and we identify two factors strongly associated with it. One factor is the still relatively lower level of female human capital, with less attained education, as well as literacy and Portuguese proficiency rates. The lower conditional employment probabilities of married women, as compared with men, is the other factor. These findings point at expanding women´s education and facilitating the access of married women to the emerging labour market as the most effective ways of achieving a more inclusive growth path that does not leave women behind.
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Bosquet, Clément; Combes, Pierre-Philippe; Garcia-Penalosa, Cecilia
    Abstract: The promotion system for French academic economists provides an interesting environment to examine the promotion gap between men and women. Promotions occur through national competitions for which we have information both on candidates and on those eligible to be candidates. We can then examine the two stages of the process: application and success. Women are less likely to seek promotion and this accounts for up to 76% of the promotion gap. Being a woman also reduces the probability of promotion conditional on applying, although the gender difference is not statistically significant. Our results highlight the importance of the decision to apply
    Keywords: gender gaps; promotions; academic labour markets
    JEL: I23 J16 J7
    Date: 2017–11–01
  6. By: Antonia Grohmann; Annekathrin Schoofs
    Abstract: Despite considerable policy efforts, women continue to be underrepresented in positions of power and decision making. As an important aspect of women empowerment, we examine women’s participation in intrahousehold financial decision making and how this is affected by financial literacy. Using both OLS and IV regression analysis, we show that women with higher financial literacy are more involved in household financial decisions. In line with the literature, we further find that women are less financially literate than men. Results from decomposition analysis show that education and personality traits (openness, happiness, and depression) drive this financial literacy gender gap.
    Keywords: financial literacy, women empowerment, intra-household decision making
    JEL: D14 J16 G02
    Date: 2018
  7. By: Vincent Leyaro; Pablo Selaya; Neda Trifkovic
    Abstract: We study the roots of violence against women, and propose that it partly originates in cultural norms that derive from (a) characteristics of the traditional subsistence problem in different societies, and (b) differences in the sexual division of labor for solving that problem in each society. We construct this hypothesis on economics and anthropology research showing the potential of traditional livelihoods to shape persistent cultural norms at the local level, and arguing that this concept can be extended to explain outcomes at the domestic level. We test our main hypothesis by examining differences in the incidence of domestic violence across areas with different historical livelihoods in modern-day Tanzania, where we observe a large degree of spatial variation in both attitudes and actions of violence against women. Using rich individual survey and high-resolution georeferenced data, we find systematically less violence against women in traditionally sea-fishing areas vis-à-vis traditionally lake-fishing, agricultural, and pastoralist ones. Our results are consistent with anthropological accounts of the idea that women in sea-fishing societies tend to be comparatively more independent in decision-making, and to acquire skills that are complementary to demands in non-agrarian sectors. We interpret this as evidence for direct mechanisms helping to sustain egalitarian gender norms in general, and less violence against women in particular. By exploiting sub-national variation, this research allows us to move beyond studying the socio-economic and institutional determinants of violence against women, and to analyse the formation of specific cultural traits that explain where and why some women tolerate less violence against them.
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Marco Angrisani (University of Southern California); Maria Casanova (California State University-Fullerton); Erik Meijer (University of Southern California)
    Abstract: We use data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the role of work-life balance (WLB) as a nonmonetary determinant of retirement transitions, conditional on job attributes such as hours of work, compensation and benefits. We show that low levels of WLB are significantly associated with subsequent reductions in labor supply for workers aged 51 to 79, and document heterogeneity by gender and employment status. Moreover, WLB mediates labor supply responses to spousal health shocks. Workers who report higher levels of work-to-life interference are significantly more likely to reduce their labor supply in the next two periods following a spouse’s health shock, and this effect is once more heterogeneous. The moderating effect of WLB is stronger for women than men. Among female workers, it is stronger for those employed part-time at baseline.
    Date: 2017–09

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