nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2018‒02‒05
nine papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Differences in Competitiveness and Risk-Taking among Children, Teenagers, and College Students: Evidence from Jeopardy! By Jetter, Michael; Walker, Jay K.
  2. Explaining the Gender Test Score Gap in Mathematics: The Role of Gender Inequality By Gevrek, Z. Eylem; Neumeier, Christian; Gevrek, Deniz
  3. Do Women Socialize Better? Evidence from a Study on Sociality Effects on Gender Differences in Cooperative Behavior By Peshkovskaya, Anastasia; Myagkov, Mikhail; Babkina, Tatiana; Lukinova, Evgeniya
  4. Probing the Effects of the Australian System of Minimum Wages on the Gender Wage Gap By Broadway, Barbara; Wilkins, Roger
  5. Closing the Gender Gap in Leadership Positions: Can Expanding the Pipeline Increase Parity? By Brown, Ryan; Mansour, Hani; O'Connell, Stephen D.
  6. Gender Differences in Alternating-Offer Bargaining: An Experimental Study By Hernandez-Arenaz,; Iriberri, Nagore
  7. Women's Empowerment, the Gender Gap in Desired Fertility, and Fertility Outcomes in Developing Countries By Doepke, Matthias; Tertilt, Michèle
  8. Voting Patterns and the Gender Wage Gap By Adnan, Wifag; Miaari, Sami H.
  9. Identifying Age Penalty in Women's Wages: New Method and Evidence from Germany 1984-2014 By Joanna Tyrowicz; Lucas van der Velde; Irene van Staveren

  1. By: Jetter, Michael (University of Western Australia); Walker, Jay K. (Old Dominion University)
    Abstract: Studying competitiveness and risk-taking among Jeopardy! contestants in the US, this paper analyzes whether and how gender differences emerge with age and by gender of opponent. Our samples contain 186 children (aged 10–12), 310 teenagers (aged 13–17), and 299 undergraduate college students. We measure competitiveness via the likelihood of (i) winning an episode, (ii) responding to a clue (i.e., 'buzzing' in), and (iii) responding correctly to a clue. Risk-taking is assessed via Daily Double wagering decisions. We identify no noticeable gender differences in our competitive measures throughout all three samples, but this result changes when considering risk-taking. Although we identify no gender differences in wagering for children, males begin to wager substantially more as they become teenagers, leading to the emergence of the gender gap. In terms of magnitude, teenage girls wager 7.3 percentage points less of their maximum wager than teenage boys, equivalent to approximately $451. This gap persists for college students, albeit with a somewhat smaller magnitude of $297. Finally, male teenagers and college students wager substantially less when competing against females. In turn, the gender of opponents does not influence female competitive behavior and risk-taking.
    Keywords: competitiveness, risk preferences, gender differences, performance under high pressure, gender of opponents
    JEL: D81 D91 J16
    Date: 2017–12
  2. By: Gevrek, Z. Eylem (Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto); Neumeier, Christian (University of Konstanz); Gevrek, Deniz (Texas A&M University Corpus Christi)
    Abstract: Using data from the 2012 PISA across 56 countries, this study examines the link between societal gender inequalities and the gender test score gap in mathematics. We employ a novel two-stage empirical strategy in which the first stage involves decomposing the gender mathematics gap into a part that is explained by gender differences in observable characteristics and a part that remains unexplained. We use a semiparametric Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) decomposition to analyze the gap in each country individually. In the second stage, we investigate whether the decomposition components of the gap are systematically related to country-level gender inequality measures. The results indicate that the gap is not statistically significantly associated with the indicators of gender inequality, but the unexplained part of the gap is. In more gender-equal countries, the unexplained part of the gap favoring boys appears smaller. Moreover, we find that the relationship between the unexplained part of the gap and the societal gender inequality varies within the test score distribution, and tends to become less pronounced at the upper end of the distribution.
    Keywords: gender math gap, Semiparametric Oaxaca Blinder decomposition, culture
    JEL: C14 I24 I25 J16
    Date: 2018–01
  3. By: Peshkovskaya, Anastasia; Myagkov, Mikhail; Babkina, Tatiana; Lukinova, Evgeniya
    Abstract: Human behavior is greatly influenced by the social context. The currrent study on men’ and women’s cooperative behavior investigated the influence of long-term and short-term effects of socializing in group. The repeated Prisoner’s dilemma carried out in groups of 6 participants was used as the main experimental situation. The differences were found in changes in the level of cooperation, taking in to account the effects of mixing social and gender variables. Socialization made cooperation of group members strength and sustainable. However, men’ and women’s cooperative behavior in groups differed. Women were initially more inclined to cooperate in interaction with strangers. Men showed greater sensitivity to sociality effects. They tended to make cooperative decisions more often if there are friends in the group. Furthermore, men cooperated with previously unknown people after socializing with them significantly more than women.
    Keywords: cooperation, social dilemma, Prisoner’s Dilemma, sociality, gender differences, group, experiment
    JEL: C7 J16
    Date: 2017–09–17
  4. By: Broadway, Barbara (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research); Wilkins, Roger (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research)
    Abstract: When wage setting is more regulated, the gender wage gap tends to decrease. We examine whether this holds for a complex system of occupation- and industry-specific minimum wages, which cover both low-pay and high-pay segments of the labour market. The system has the potential to close the gender wage gap by ensuring equal minimum pay for equal jobs, but it also has the potential to widen it by discriminating against jobs more commonly held by women. We carefully describe wage levels as well as returns to experience and their association with individual gender as well as the male employment share in the individual's field (industry or occupation) of work. We find that the gender wage gap among employees receiving a minimum wage is less than half the magnitude of the gap among other employees. Despite this, there is nonetheless evidence that, within the minimum-wage system, there is a wage penalty for employment in jobs more commonly held by women, although only for employees without university degrees. Our results suggest that, for university-educated women, the regulated setting of minimum wages helps to close the gender wage gap and counteracts the undervaluation of work typically undertaken by women. However, for less-educated women, who comprise approximately 82% of female minimum-wage employees, minimum wages could do more to close the gender wage gap if they were neutral with respect to the gender composition of jobs.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, minimum wages
    JEL: J31 J16
    Date: 2017–12
  5. By: Brown, Ryan (University of Colorado Denver); Mansour, Hani (University of Colorado Denver); O'Connell, Stephen D. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Gender gaps in leadership roles may be reduced by increasing the number of women in career stages that typically precede high-status positions. This can occur by increasing the supply of experienced women, inspiring new female candidates for these positions, and/or changing beliefs about women as leaders. In this study, we investigate whether and how adding women to a career pipeline can reduce gender gaps in higher-ranking positions over time. Specifically, we examine the effects of women's local electoral success on subsequent female candidacy at higher levels of government in India from 1977 to 2014. We use close elections won by women contesting state legislature seats to identify the effect of pipeline expansion on later candidacy for the national parliament. The results indicate that for each additional lower-level seat won by a woman, there is a 30 percent increase in the number of female candidates in subsequent national legislature elections. This effect is driven by new candidates and not by career politicians, and women receive a disproportionately favorable increase in the vote share. These effects are strongest in areas with low levels of existing female political participation and empowerment. The findings are consistent with a mechanism in which exposure reduces bias, allowing for updated beliefs about the viability of latent candidates who then run for higher office.
    Keywords: gender gap, political candidacy, female politicians, India
    JEL: J16 J71 P16
    Date: 2018–01
  6. By: Hernandez-Arenaz,; Iriberri, Nagore
    Abstract: A laboratory study is carried out to study gender differences and gender interaction effects in structured alternating-offer bargaining. In a symmetric environment, where the 50:50 split is the expected sharing norm, we find no gender differences. In asymmetric environments, where there is no clear sharing norm, but one bargaining party is expected to get more than the other (due to empowerment, entitlement and informational asymmetries), we find that men are less likely to reach an agreement, and that when they do, they bargain for longer and obtain a larger share of the pie. When gender differences are compared between symmetric and asymmetric bargaining environments, gender is not an effect-modifying factor.
    Date: 2018–01
  7. By: Doepke, Matthias (Northwestern University); Tertilt, Michèle (University of Mannheim)
    Abstract: We document evidence on preferences for childbearing in developing countries. Across countries, men usually desire larger families than women do. Within countries, we find wide dispersion in spouses' desired fertility: there are many couples whose ideal family size differs by five children or more. This disagreement between spouses suggests that the extent to which women are empowered should matter for fertility choices. We point to evidence at both the macro and micro levels that this is indeed the case. We conclude that taking account of household bargaining and women's empowerment in analyses of fertility is an important challenge for research.
    Keywords: women's empowerment, desired fertility, marital bargaining
    JEL: J12 J13 J16 O10
    Date: 2018–01
  8. By: Adnan, Wifag (New York University, Abu Dhabi); Miaari, Sami H. (Tel Aviv University)
    Abstract: Striving for gender equality presents major challenges but the benefits are vast, ranging from reduced conflict, both within and between communities, to higher economic growth. Unfortunately, Israel's gender wage gap remains one of the highest among developed countries, despite a growing reverse gender gap in educational attainment. Investigating the gender wage gap for the Jewish majority and for the Arab minority, we find evidence of gender segregation by industry and occupations in addition to a glass ceiling effect for Jewish and Arab women. Using data from the Israeli Household Income Survey and electoral data from the Israeli parliamentary elections (2009), this paper provides novel evidence of the role of voter preferences in explaining the persistence of gender pay gaps. Importantly, we find strong evidence of an association between a higher share of votes allocated to nationalist parties, in a given locality, and a larger, (adjusted), gender wage gap for both Jewish-Israelis and Arab-Israelis.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, voting behavior, glass ceiling, glass door, social attitudes, discrimination
    JEL: J21 J31 J61 J45 C14 C24
    Date: 2018–01
  9. By: Joanna Tyrowicz (Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE); University of Warsaw; Institut für Arbeitsrecht und Arbeitsbeziehungen in der Europäischen Union (IAAEU); Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)); Lucas van der Velde (Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE); Warsaw School Economics); Irene van Staveren (Institute of Social Studies (ISS))
    Abstract: Given theoretical premises, gender wage gap adjusted for individual characteristics is likely to vary over age. We adapt DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996) semi-parametric technique to disentangle year, cohort and age effects in adjusted gender wage gaps. We rely on a long panel of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel covering the 1984-2015 period. Our results indicate that the gender wage gap increases over the lifetime, for some birth cohorts also in the post-reproductive age.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, age, cohort, decomposition, non-parametric estimates, Germany
    JEL: J31 J71
    Date: 2017

This nep-gen issue is ©2018 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.