nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒12‒18
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. How Stress Affects Performance and Competitiveness across Gender By Jana Cahlikova; Lubomir Cingl; Ian Levely
  2. What drives the gender wage gap? Examining the roles of sorting, productivity differences, and discrimination. By Isabelle Sin; Steven Stillman; Richard Fabling
  3. In search of a comprehensive picture of the gender gap: An examination of male and female choices of labor supply, leisure, consumption, and home production By Piao, Xiangdan
  4. Gender differences in the choice of major: The importance of female role models By Catherine Porter; Danila Serra
  5. Probing the Effects of the Australian System of Minimum Wages on the Gender Wage Gap By Barbara Broadway; Roger Wilkins
  6. Gender longevity gap and socioeconomic indicators in developed countries By Fedotenkov, Igor; Derkachev, Pavel
  7. Gender and Labor Markets in Tunisia’s Lagging Regions By Lucia Hanmer; Edinaldo Tebaldi; Dorte Verner
  8. Intergenerational Effects of Improving Women's Property Rights: Evidence from India By Nayana Bose; Shreyasee Das

  1. By: Jana Cahlikova; Lubomir Cingl; Ian Levely
    Abstract: Since many key career events, such as exams and interviews, involve competition and stress, gender differences in response to these factors could help to explain the labor-market gender gaps. In a laboratory experiment, we manipulate psychosocial stress using the Trier Social Stress Test, and conï¬ rm that this is effective by measuring salivary cortisol. Subjects perform a realeffort task under both tournament and piece-rate incentives and we elicit willingness to compete. We ï¬ nd that women under heightened stress do worse than women in the control group when compensated with tournament incentives, while there is no treatment difference for performance under piece-rate incentives. For males, stress does not affect output under competition. We also ï¬ nd that stress decreases willingness to compete overall, and for women, this is related to performance. These results help to explain previous ï¬ ndings on gender differences in performance under competition both in and out of the lab.
    Keywords: competitiveness, performance in tournaments, psychosocial stress, gender gap
    JEL: C91 D03 J16 J33
    Date: 2017–03
  2. By: Isabelle Sin (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Steven Stillman (Free University of Bozen Bolzano); Richard Fabling (Independent Researcher)
    Abstract: As in other OECD countries, women in New Zealand earn substantially less than men with similar observable characteristics. In this paper, we use a decade of annual wage and productivity data from New Zealand’s Linked Employer-Employee Database to examine different explanations for this gender wage gap. Sorting by gender at either the industry or firm level explains less than one-fifth of the overall wage gap. Gender differences in productivity within firms also explain little of the difference seen in wages. The relationships between the gender wage-productivity gap and both age and tenure are inconsistent with statistical discrimination being an important explanatory factor for the remaining differences in wages. Relating across industry and over time variation in the gender wage-productivity gap to industry-year variation in worker skills, and product market and labour market competition, we find evidence that is consistent with taste discrimination being important for explaining the overall gender wage gap. Explanations based on gender differences in bargaining power are less consistent with our findings.
    Keywords: Gender wage gap; discrimination; sorting; productivity; competition
    JEL: J16 J31 J71
    Date: 2017–08
  3. By: Piao, Xiangdan
    Abstract: This paper investigates single individuals’ different choices over time use (labor supply, home production time input, and leisure) and consumption (market consumption goods, home production goods). To this effect, I use the structural model of the Almost Ideal Demand System with a Cobb-Douglas home production function. Consequently, the simulation results indicate that, if women are paid the same hourly wages as men, they receive a similar income (98.7%), and the market labor supply gap almost disappears. However, in home production, the gender gap persists. That is, women are more involved in home production than men, even if their wages are identical. Women’s home production technology reduces the labor supply by only 1.7% compared to men’s. Overall, the results indicate that the income gap would disappear by diminishing the hourly wage gap. However, the home production gap is not likely to disappear, and it most probably caused by gender identity.
    Keywords: single households, labor supply, consumption, home production, almost ideal demand system
    JEL: D13 J12 J16
    Date: 2017–09
  4. By: Catherine Porter (Heriot-Watt University); Danila Serra (Southern Methodist University)
    Abstract: Women have been traditionally underrepresented in several fields of study, notably those with the highest returns. While in the last two decades many disciplines, including mathematics and physical sciences, have made significant progress in attracting and retaining women, there has been little improvement in the field of economics, which remains heavily male-dominated. We report results from a field experiment aimed at increasing the percentage of women majoring in economics through exposure to carefully chosen female role models. We randomly selected a subset of Principles of Economics classes to be assigned to our role model treatment. Since the same classes were also offered and taught by the same instructors the previous year, we are able to employ a difference-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the role model intervention increased the percentage of women planning to major in economics (survey-based) and enrolling in intermediate economics classes (administrative data) the semester and year following the intervention. Our results suggest that, while the role model intervention had no impact on male students, it significantly increased female students' likelihood of expressing interest in the economics major and enrolling in further economics classes.
    Keywords: education gender gap, role models, field experiment, economics.
    JEL: A22 I23 I24 J16 C93
    Date: 2017–12
  5. By: Barbara Broadway (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Roger Wilkins (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: When wage setting is more regulated, the gender wage gap tends to decrease. We examine whether this holds for a complex system of occupation- and industry-specific minimum wages, which cover both low-pay and high-pay segments of the labour market. The system has the potential to close the gender wage gap by ensuring equal minimum pay for equal jobs, but i also has the potential to widen it by discriminating against jobs more commonly held by women. We carefully describe wage levels as well as returns to experience and their association with individual gender as well as the male employment share in the individual’s field (industry or occupation) of work. We find that the gender wage gap among employees receiving a minimum wage is less than half the magnitude of the gap among other employees. Despite this, there is nonetheless evidence that, within the minimum-wage system, there is a wage penalty for employment in jobs more commonly held by women, although only for employees without university degrees. Our results suggest that, for university-educated women, the regulated setting of minimum wages helps to close the gender wage gap and counteracts the undervaluation of work typically undertaken by women. However, for less-educated women, who comprise approximately 82% of female minimum-wage employees, minimum wages could do more to close the gender wage gap if they were neutral with respect to the gender composition of jobs.
    Keywords: Gender wage gap, minimum wagesn
    JEL: J31 J16
    Date: 2017–12
  6. By: Fedotenkov, Igor; Derkachev, Pavel
    Abstract: In most countries, women live longer than men. Differences in longevities are country-specific and change over time. We perform a cross-country panel data analysis in developed countries (OECD and EU) to study the gender-longevity gap dependence on various socio-economic indicators and test a number of contradicting theories. We show that a lower gender longevity gap is associated with a higher real GDP per capita, a higher level of urbanization, lower income inequality, lower per capita alcohol consumption and a better ecological environment. An increase in women's aggregate unemployment rate and a decline in men's unemployment are associated with a higher gap in life expectancies. The effect of the share of women in parliaments in the gender-longevity gap is estimated to have a U-shape; it has a better descriptive efficiency if taken with a 5-years lag, which approximately corresponds to the length of political cycles.
    Keywords: Gender longevity gap, inequality, cross-country analysis, life expectancy
    JEL: J11 J14 J16 J71
    Date: 2017–12–08
  7. By: Lucia Hanmer (The World Bank); Edinaldo Tebaldi; Dorte Verner
    Abstract: There are significant differences between men and women’s labor market outcomes Tunisia. The size of these gender gaps shows substantial variation across regions, notably between the richer coastal and eastern regions and the poorer southern and western regions. This Paper uses the 2014 Tunisia Labor Market Panel Survey (TLMPS) to examine the characteristics of male and female labor market participants in the lagging southern, western, and central regions, and in the leading regions. It also discusses the factors that influence monthly wages and the probability of employment for men and women respectively. Our results show that gender plays a huge role in labor market outcomes: women are less likely to participate in the labor force and are more likely to be unemployed and to receive lower wages. Young people and educated women in lagging regions are particularly disadvantaged as they are less likely to find a job and may not have the option to move to places where the prospect of employment is better. Moreover, our results suggest that wage discrimination against women is prevalent outside the leading region in Tunisia.
    Date: 2017–06–12
  8. By: Nayana Bose (Department of Economics, Scripps College, Claremont); Shreyasee Das (Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin - Whitewater)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the intergenerational effects following the positive changes in women’s inheritance rights. The amendment to the Hindu Succession Act, the law governing inheritance for Hindus, empowered unmarried daughters at the time of the reform to have equal rights to inherit ancestral property as their brothers. We employ a difference-in-differences strategy and exploit the state level variation in a woman’s exposure to the reform. Using the Indian Human Development Survey data for rural India, we find that the property rights reform significantly increased women’s education. We find a significant decrease in her sons’ education, the effect is magnified in households where fathers are less educated than mothers. We further explore the role of birth order and the gender composition of children to assess the intergenerational impact of this more gender equal inheritance law. Regardless of the child’s gender, our results show a significant decrease in educational attainment for younger children.
    Keywords: Property Rights, Hindu Inheritance Law, Education, Intergenerational Transfers, India
    JEL: D13 I25 J16 K36 O12
    Date: 2017–11

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