nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒12‒11
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Fix the Game - Not the Dame: A Team Intervention to Restore Gender Equity in Leadership Evaluations By Jamie L. Gloor; Manuela C. Morf; Samantha Paustian-Underdahl; Uschi Backes-Gellner
  2. Masculine vs Feminine Personality Traits and Women’s Employment Outcomes in Britain: A Field Experiment By Drydakis, Nick; Sidiropoulou, Katerina; Patnaik, Swetketu; Selmanovic, Sandra; Bozani, Vasiliki
  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Risk Attitudes: The Role of Gender, Parents and Grandparents in Burkina Faso By Sephavand, Mohammad; Shahbazian, Roujman
  4. Gender and climate change: Do female parliamentarians make a difference? By Astghik Mavisakalyan; Yashar Tarverdi
  5. Intra-household entitlements and gender inequality: An Australian perspective By Jaslin Kaur

  1. By: Jamie L. Gloor (Technical University of Munich); Manuela C. Morf (Erasmus University of Rotterdam); Samantha Paustian-Underdahl (Florida International University); Uschi Backes-Gellner (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: The leadership literature shows consistent, sizeable, and persistent effects indicating that female leaders face significant biases in the workplace compared with male leaders. However, the social identity leadership literature suggests these biases might be overcome at the team level by adjusting the number of women in the team. Building on this work, we conducted 2 multiple source, multiple wave, multi-level randomized field experiments to test if the gender composition of teams helps to restore equity in leadership evaluations of men and women. Across two samples of university students engaged in a team-building exercise, we find that male leaders are rated as more prototypical leaders than female leaders despite no differences in leaders' self-reported prototypicality; however, this male leadership advantage is eliminated in gender-balanced teams. In Study 2, we extend this finding by supporting a moderated mediation model showing that leader gender and the team's gender composition interact to relate to perceived trust in the leader, through the mediating mechanism of leader prototypicality. Findings support the social identity model of organizational leadership and indicate a boundary condition of role congruity theory, bolstering our need for a more social relational, context-based approach to leadership.
    Keywords: gender; leadership; teams; social identity; prototypicality
    Date: 2017–01
  2. By: Drydakis, Nick; Sidiropoulou, Katerina; Patnaik, Swetketu; Selmanovic, Sandra; Bozani, Vasiliki
    Abstract: In the current study, we utilized a correspondent test to capture the way in which firms respond to women who exhibit masculine and feminine personality traits. In doing so, we minimized the potential for reverse causality bias and unobserved heterogeneities to occur. Women who exhibit masculine personality traits have a 4.3 percentage points greater likelihood of gaining access to occupations than those displaying feminine personality traits. In both male- and female-dominated occupations, women with masculine personality traits have an occupational access advantage, as compared to those exhibiting feminine personality traits. Moreover, women with masculine personality traits take up positions which offer 10 percentage points higher wages, in comparison with those displaying feminine personality traits. Furthermore, wage premiums are higher for those exhibiting masculine personality traits in male-dominated occupations, than for female-dominated positions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first field experiment to examine the effect of masculine and feminine personality traits on entry-level pay scales. As feminine personality traits are stereotypically attributed to women, and these characteristics appear to yield fewer rewards within the market, they may offer one of many plausible explanations as to why women experience higher unemployment rates, whilst also receiving lower earnings, as compared to men.
    Keywords: Masculine traits,Feminine traits,Occupational Access,Wages,Field experiment
    JEL: J16 J31
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Sephavand, Mohammad (Department of Economics); Shahbazian, Roujman (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: This study investigates the intergenerational transmission of risk attitudes for three risk domains in Burkina Faso. First, our results shows a strong transmission of attitudes from parents to children. Although, estimates from intergenerational transmission of risk attitudes in developing countries should not be compared directly with those from developed countries, our results goes in the same direction as previous literature from Germany. That is risk attitudes are transmitted from; parents to children, local enviorment to children and positive assortative mating of parents strengthens the parents’ transmission of attitudes to her child. Second we analyze three generations of risk attitude transmission. Our results indicates that it exist a transmission of risk attitudes from grandparents to their grandchildren. The strength and significance of this socialization decreases when we control for parents risk attitudes. Third, since there are strong gender roles in Burkina Faso, we test if mothers and fathers transmission of risk attitudes on their daughter is the same as on their son. We find that mother’s transmission of risk attitudes is stronger on their daughters than sons. For fathers the pattern is reverse. However, our findings show that it exist a heterogenity in the transmission of risk attitudes in male and female dominated risk domains. This gives support for the gender-specific role model hypothesis in terms of risk attitudes.
    Keywords: risk attitudes; inter and multigenerational transmission; socialization; Burkina Faso
    JEL: D81
    Date: 2017–11–20
  4. By: Astghik Mavisakalyan (Bankwest Curtin Economic Centre, Curtin University); Yashar Tarverdi (Bankwest Curtin Economic Centre, Curtin University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether female political representation in national parliaments influences climate change policy outcomes. Based on data from a large sample of countries, we demonstrate that female representation leads countries to adopt more stringent climate change policies. We exploit a combination of full and partial identification approaches to suggest that this relationship is likely to be causal. Moreover, we show that through its effect on the stringency of climate change policies, the representation of females in parliament results in lower carbon dioxide emissions. Female political representation may be an underutilized tool for addressing climate change.
    Keywords: language; gender, political representation, climate change, environmental policy.
    JEL: D70 J16 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2017–11
  5. By: Jaslin Kaur (Bankwest Curtin Economic Centre, Curtin University)
    Abstract: This paper analyses factors which affect the intra-household distribution of entitlements between men and women in Australian couple households. Several studies have been undertaken into the effects of intra-household bargaining on labour, domestic violence, fertility decisions, and wealth. However, Australian studies of the intra-household distribution of economic resources are rare. Following the methodology in De Hanau and Himmelweit’s (2013) British study as published in the Journal of Marriage and Family this paper generates new data and analysis which accounts for the distribution of entitlements between Australian men and women in couple households. The study exploits quantitative data from the survey of Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA), whereby, between 2001 to 2014, individuals in 7902 couple households responded to questions on their satisfaction with their financial situation (SWFS). Changes in SWFS indicate changes in perceived benefits from pooled household finances and thus provide insights into the intra-household distribution of entitlements.
    Keywords: intra-household entitlements, gender, employment
    Date: 2017–11

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