nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒12‒03
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. The gender pay gap: statistical discrimination and self-selection By Ernesto Cárdenas
  2. How Costly Are Labor Gender Gaps? Estimates by Age Group for the Balkans and Turkey By David Cuberes; Marc Teignier
  3. Gender and Promotions: Evidence from Academic Economists in France By Clément Bosquet; Pierre-Philippe Combes; Cecilia García-Peñalosa
  4. Sickness absence from work in Spain: are there gender differences? By López-Mourelo, Elva; Alba Ramírez, Alfonso

  1. By: Ernesto Cárdenas (Faculty of Economics and Management, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali)
    Abstract: We develop a two sector competitive equilibrium model that rationalizes the gender pay gap by the coexistence of two mechanisms: a statistical discrimination mechanism linked to a stereotype belief in which women engage in child-rearing activities while men do not and a self-selection mechanism that makes men and women choose differently among unskilled jobs based on their physical endowments. We prove the existence of a competitive equilibrium where the gender pay gap arises. The model explains other empirical regularities related to women in the workplace like the motherhood penalty and the reversal education trend. We found that technological advancements reduce the gap among unskilled workers while an equal parental leave policy can reduce the gap among skilled workers. We study an Equal pay for Equal work policy and that in our model it may be an ineffective way to reduce the gender pay gap The version here presented corresponds to the updated study.
    Keywords: gender pay gap, statistical discrimination, self-selection, equal pay for equal work.
    JEL: J13 J16 J24 J71
    Date: 2017–11
  2. By: David Cuberes (Clark University); Marc Teignier (Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: In this paper, survey data are used to document the presence of gender gaps in selfemployment, employership, and labor force participation in seven Balkan countries and Turkey. The paper examines the quantitative effects of the gender gaps on aggregate productivity and income per capita in these countries. In the model used to carry out this calculation, agents choose between being workers, self-employed, or employers, and women face several restrictions in the labor market. The data display very large gaps in labor force participation and in the percentage of employers and self-employed in the labor force. In almost all cases, these gaps reveal a clear underrepresentation of women. The calculations show that, on average, the loss associated with these gaps is about 17 percent of income per capita. One-third of this loss is due to distortions in the choice of occupations between men andwomen. The remaining two-thirds corresponds to the costs associated with gaps in labor force participation. The dimensions of these gender gaps and their associated costs vary considerably across ages groups, with the age bracket 36–50 years being responsible for most of the losses.
    Keywords: gender inequality, entrepreneurship talent, factor allocation, aggregate productivity, span of control, Balkans, Turkey
    JEL: E2 J21 J24 O40
    Date: 2017–11
  3. By: Clément Bosquet; Pierre-Philippe Combes; Cecilia García-Peñalosa
    Abstract: The promotion system for French academic economists provides an interesting environment to examine the promotion gap between men and women. Promotions occur through national competitions for which we have information both on candidates and on those eligible to be candidates. We can then examine the two stages of the process: application and success. Women are less likely to seek promotion and this accounts for up to 76% of the promotion gap. Being a woman also reduces the probability of promotion conditional on applying, although the gender difference is not statistically significant. Our results highlight the importance of the decision to apply.
    Keywords: gender gaps, promotions, academic labour markets
    JEL: J16 J7 I23
    Date: 2017–11
  4. By: López-Mourelo, Elva; Alba Ramírez, Alfonso
    Abstract: We use a sample of social security records containing work histories and sick leave episodes to investigate gender differences in the incidence and duration of absence from work due to sickness in Spain. For sick leave incidence we apply a competing risk model to a panel of newly employed workers who can be followed for two years until an episode of sick leave occurs or the job ends. For the duration of sick leave spells, we estimate a Weibull model. We distinguish between sick leave due to occupational illness or injury and sick leave due to common disease or accident. This distinction is important because only for the latter women have higher incidence and longer duration than men. In this respect, the presence of children under 3 years of age in the household becomes a significant explanatory factor.
    Keywords: Proportional hazard model; Competing risks; Cumulative incidence; Gender differences; Sick leave
    JEL: J81 J28 J14
    Date: 2017–11–01

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