nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒11‒12
nine papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Male Gatekeepers Gender Bias in the Publishing Process? By Bransch, Felix; Kvasnicka, Michael
  2. I (Don't) Like You! But Who Cares? Gender Differences in Same Sex and Mixed Sex Teams By Leonie Gerhards; Michael Kosfeld
  3. Is there a Glass Ceiling over Germany? By Matthias Collischon
  4. The Gender Wage Gap in Developed Countries By Astrid Kunze
  5. The effect of old age pensions on child deprivation: revisiting the role of gender By Chloé van Biljon
  6. Gender representation in economics across topics and time: evidence from the NBER By Chari, Anusha; Goldsmith-Pinkham, Paul
  7. How Entry into Parenthood Shapes Gender Role Attitudes: New Evidence from Longitudinal UK Data By Grinza, Elena; Devicienti, Francesco; Rossi, Mariacristina; Vannoni, Davide
  8. Do Boys Benefit from Male Teachers in Elementary School? Evidence from Administrative Panel Data By Puhani, Patrick A.
  9. An Experimental Test of Gender Differences in Charitable Giving: Empathy Is at the Heart of the Matter By van Rijn, Jordan; Quinones, Esteban J.; Barham, Bradford L.

  1. By: Bransch, Felix (Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg); Kvasnicka, Michael (Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg)
    Abstract: Using data on articles published in the top-five economic journals in the period 1991 to 2010, we explore whether the gender composition of editorial boards is related to the publishing success of female authors and to the quality of articles that get published. Our results show that female editors reduce, rather than increase, the share of articles that are (co-)authored by females. We also find evidence that female editors benefit article quality at low levels of representation on editorial boards, but harm article quality at higher levels. Several robustness checks corroborate these findings. Our results are broadly consistent with existing evidence on the behavior of gender-mixed hiring committees and of relevance for gender equality policy.
    Keywords: gender bias, citations, journals, editors
    JEL: A14 J16 J71
    Date: 2017–10
  2. By: Leonie Gerhards; Michael Kosfeld
    Abstract: We study the effect of likability on female and male team behavior in a lab experiment. Extending a two-player public goods game and a minimum effort game by an additional pre-play stage that informs team members about their mutual likability we find that female teams lower their contribution to the public good in case of low likability, while male teams achieve high levels of cooperation irrespective of the level of mutual likability. In mixed sex teams, both females’ and males’ contributions depend on mutual likability. Similar results are found in the minimum effort game. Our results offer a new perspective on gender differences in labor market outcomes: mutual dislikability impedes team behavior, except in all-male teams.
    Keywords: gender differences, likability, experiment, team behavior
    JEL: C90 J16
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Matthias Collischon
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the gender wage gap across the wage distribution using 2010 data from the German statistical agency. I investigate East and West Germany and the public sector separately to account for potential heterogeneities in wage gaps. I apply unconditional and conditional quantile regression methods to investigate the differences between highly paid men and women in distributions conditional and unconditional on covariates. The results indicate increasing gender wage gaps in all estimations, suggesting that there is indeed a glass ceiling over Germany even after controlling for a large set of observable characteristics (including occupation and industry). This finding is even more pronounced when also taking bonus payments into account.
    Keywords: Gender wage gap; gender pay gap; glass ceiling
    JEL: C21 J16 J31
    Date: 2017–11
  4. By: Astrid Kunze
    Abstract: Despite the increased attachment of women to the labour force in nearly all developed countries, a stubborn gender pay gap remains. This chapter provides a review of the economics literature on the gender wage gap, with an emphasis on developed countries. We begin with an overview of the trends in the gender differences in wages and employment rates. We then review methods used to decompose the gender wage gap and the results from such decompositions. We discuss how trends and differences in the gender wage gap across countries can be understood in light of non-random selection and human capital differences. We then review the evidence on demand-side factors used to explain the existing gender wage gap and then discuss occupational segregation. The chapter concludes with suggestions for further research.
    Keywords: wages, gender wage gap, wage differentials, labor force participation, discrimination, human capital investment, non-random selection, developed countries
    JEL: J16 J24 J31 J71
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Chloé van Biljon (Research on Socio-Economic Policy, Department of Economics, Stellenbosch University)
    Abstract: Existing work suggests that the South African state old age pension, through, increasing female decision-making, has a positive impact on the well being of children. This study investigates this concept in two parts. Part 1 aims to answer the question of whether the old age pension has a different impact on child depravation depending on the gender of the pension recipient. Part 2 investigates whether the old age pension influences household decision-making dynamics. Using all four waves of the national income dynamics study, identification comes from comparing each individual before and after receiving a pension. This study finds some evidence of a gender bias by both male and female pension recipients; females favour girls while males favour boys. The effect of the state old age pension on child deprivation (as measured by weight for height) is however not found to be robust to different model specifications. This paper exploits the effect of income on bargaining power to explain the effect of pensions on the relative decision making power within a household. We find evidence of shifts in the decision-making dynamics with pension receipt. These shifts are greater when the pension recipient is female. The results indicate that resources held by grandmothers enable woman within the household to be primary decision makers. We conclude that the reason we see a differential effect on child outcomes depending on the gender of the pension recipient is because of a change in household decision-making dynamics. The gains in decision-making power of females, caused by the pensions, lead to lower child deprivation rates. The evidence indicates that although the state old age pension is meant for the elderly it has important implications for child deprivation. Some light is shed on the mechanism through which the pension results in positive impacts for children – by increasing the decision making power of women. The evidence supports the hypothesis that resource control matters for intra-household allocation.
    Keywords: Female autonomy, Household decision-making, Child nutrition, Public pensions, South Africa
    JEL: J16 C21 D13 H57
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Chari, Anusha (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and NBER); Goldsmith-Pinkham, Paul (Federal Reserve Bank of New York)
    Abstract: We document the representation of female economists on the conference programs at the NBER Summer Institute from 2001 to 2016. Over the 2013-16 period, women made up 20.6 percent of all authors on scheduled papers. However, there was large dispersion across programs, with the share of female authors ranging from 7.3 percent to 47.7 percent. While the average share of women rose slightly—from 18.5 percent in 2001-04—a persistent gap between the finance, macroeconomics, and microeconomics subfields remains, with women representing 14.4 percent of authors in finance, 16.3 percent of authors in macroeconomics, and 25.9 percent of authors in microeconomics. We examine three channels potentially affecting female representation. First, using anonymized data on submissions, we show that the rate of paper acceptance for women is statistically indistinguishable from that of men. Second, we find that the share of female authors is comparable to the share of women among all tenure-track professors, but is 10 percentage points lower than the share of women among assistant professors. Finally, within conference programs, we find that when a woman organizes the program, the share of female authors and discussants is higher.
    Keywords: gender; economics; representation
    JEL: A11 A14 J10 J16
    Date: 2017–10–01
  7. By: Grinza, Elena (University of Turin); Devicienti, Francesco (University of Turin); Rossi, Mariacristina (University of Turin); Vannoni, Davide (University of Turin)
    Abstract: Attitudes of women and men about how paid and unpaid work should be divided in the couple largely determine women's earnings and career prospects. Hence, it is important to understand how people's gender role attitudes are formed and evolve over the lifetime. In this paper, we concentrate on one of the most path-breaking events in life: becoming a parent. Using longitudinal panel data for the UK, we first show that, in general, entry into parenthood significantly shifts women's attitudes toward more conservative views, while leaving men unaffected. We also show that the impact on women emerges only after some time from the childbirth, suggesting that attitudes change relatively slowly over time and do not react immediately after becoming a parent. Finally, we show that the impact gets large and strongly significant for women and men whose prenatal attitudes were progressive. In particular, we find that the change in attitudes for such individuals increases as the postnatal arrangements are more likely to be traditional. Overall, these findings suggest that the change in attitudes is mainly driven by the emergence of a cognitive dissonance. Broad policy implications are drawn.
    Keywords: gender equality, gender role attitudes, entry into parenthood, cognitive dissonance, changes in the hormonal production, Understanding Society (US) data set
    JEL: J16 J13
    Date: 2017–10
  8. By: Puhani, Patrick A.
    Abstract: With girls having overtaken boys in many education indicators, the “feminization” of elementary school teaching is causing debates about disadvantages for male students. Using administrative panel data on the universe of students, teachers and schools for a German state, I exploit within school and within teacher variation to determine teacher characteristics’ effects on students’ tracking outcomes. Germany tracks students at age 10 into more or less academic school types. I find hardly any effects of teacher’s gender, age, pay level, qualifications, or working hours on boys’ or girls’ school track recommendations or school choice. Even when following students into middle school, no effects of elementary-school teacher gender on school type change or grade repetition can be detected.
    Keywords: education,gender,identification,fixed effect,teacher quality
    JEL: I21 J45 J71 J78
    Date: 2017
  9. By: van Rijn, Jordan (University of WI and Credit Union National Association); Quinones, Esteban J. (University of WI and Center for Demography and Ecology); Barham, Bradford L. (University of WI and Center for Demography and Ecology)
    Abstract: This study uses a dictator game with a charitable organization as the donation recipient to test whether inequality aversion, empathic concern and feelings of manipulation explain gender differences in giving found in the literature. We first explore whether we can evoke these feelings in the lab by exogenously varying the content of a charitable appeal video. Then we examine whether the evoked feelings help explain heterogeneity in giving between males and females. We find that females donate significantly more than males in the treatments that include personal stories from children, with females donating 63 percent more than males in these treatments. Using instrumental variable (IV) methods, we also show that empathic concern that results from the videos with the children's personal stories increases average donations among females but not males. Although we evoke feelings of empathic concern and inequality aversion among males, this does not translate into increases in donations; on the other hand, empathic concern among females that is evoked via treatments with children's personal stories does lead to increases in average female donations. Our study is novel in demonstrating that females not only have larger stocks of empathic concern than do males, but also donate more in response to empathic concern that results from an emotional charitable appeal featuring children's stories. This highlights the importance of empathic concern in explaining gender differences in giving found in the literature.
    Date: 2017–09

This nep-gen issue is ©2017 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.