nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒10‒29
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Overeducation and the Gender Pay Gap in Italy. A Double Selectivity Approach By Carolina Castagnetti; Luisa Rosti; Marina Toepfer
  2. Gender, Access to Finance, Occupational Choice, and Business Performance By Nelli S. Gazanchyan; Nigar Hashimzade; Yulia Rodionova; Natalia Vershinina
  3. Gender Differences in the Development of Other-Regarding Preferences By John, Katrin; Thomsen, Stephan L.

  1. By: Carolina Castagnetti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Pavia); Luisa Rosti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Pavia); Marina Toepfer (Institute of Economics, University of Hohenheim)
    Abstract: We use a large Italian data set (ISFOL-PLUS 2005-2014) to estimate the gender pay gap (GPG) among overeducated workers. We show that overeducation is an important driver of the GPG. This result holds when controlling for sample selection and endogeneity problems, too. Neglecting selectivity issues may lead to the conclusion that discrimination is the most important driver of the GPG. Yet, when accounting for self-selection and endogeneity bias overeducation is found to merely reflect unobserved differences in personal characteristics such as innate ability. The selection coefficients for both the participation and the overeducation decision allow explaining almost the entire GPG.
    Keywords: gender pay gap, double selection, Italy, discrimination, wages.
    JEL: J16 J31 J71
    Date: 2017–10
  2. By: Nelli S. Gazanchyan; Nigar Hashimzade; Yulia Rodionova; Natalia Vershinina
    Abstract: We present a theoretical and empirical analysis of the links between the gender of an entrepreneur, access to finance, occupational choice, and business performance. Our theoretical model predicts that, when lenders discriminate against women entrepreneurs, the average entrepreneurial skill of women who become entrepreneurs or enter paid employment as managers is higher than that of their men counterparts. This suggests that the firms owned or managed by women should perform better than the firms owned or managed by men, ceteris paribus. We find empirical support for the assumptions and the predictions of our model using firm-level data for 28 emerging economies in Europe and Asia; the effect is especially strong in the small and medium enterprises, possibly, because in large firms borrowing is a less essential source of finance. An important policy implication of our findings is that discrimination in the capital market spills over to the labour market, leading to the distortion of occupational choice and inefficiency in allocation of physical and human resources.
    Keywords: occupational choice, discrimination, finance, gender, small and medium enterprises
    JEL: J24 J71
    Date: 2017
  3. By: John, Katrin (Leibniz University of Hannover); Thomsen, Stephan L. (Leibniz University of Hannover)
    Abstract: We use data from a gender-neutral dictator and public goods game setting to analyze differences in other-regarding preferences between boys and girls aged 10 to 17. The results indicate a higher mean of dictator giving, degree of egalitarian decisions and lower frequency of selfish decisions, free-riding and efficiency concerns for girls. Gender differences are already established at approximately age 10. They cannot be explained by gender-specific increases in other-regarding preferences, differences in dispositions or the impact of personality traits. We conclude that genes and early social learning are the sources of gender differences in other-regarding preferences.
    Keywords: gender, other-regarding preferences, personality traits, dictator game, public goods game
    JEL: C91 D03 J16
    Date: 2017–09

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