nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒10‒15
ten papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Will a Shrink Make you Richer? Gender Differences in the Effects of Psychotherapy on Labour Efficiency By Cozzi, Guido; Galli, Silvia; Mantovan, Noemi
  2. How Entry into Parenthood Shapes Gender Role Attitudes:​ ​New Evidence from Longitudinal UK Data By Elena Grinza; Francesco Devicienti; Mariacristina Rossi; Davide Vannoni
  3. Can Knowledge Empower Women to Save More for Retirement? By Drew M. Anderson; J. Michael Collins
  4. Male-biased Demand Shocks and Women’s Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Large Oil Field Discoveries By Maurer, Stephan; Potlogea, Andrei
  5. Endogenously Emerging Gender Diversity in an Experimental Team Work Setting By Gürerk, Özgür; Irlenbusch, Bernd; Rockenbach, Bettina
  6. The Effects of Student-Teacher Gender Matching on Students f Performance in Junior High Schools in Japan By Hisanobu Kakizawa
  7. Skilled but unaware of it: Occurrence and potential long-term effects of females' financial underconfidence By Bannier, Christina E.; Schwarz, Milena
  8. Gender and Birth Order Effects on Intra-household Schooling Choices and Education Attainments in Kenya By Fredrick M. Wamalwa; Justine Burns
  9. The Rocky Road to Gender Equality – Justification as a Key Determinant of the Effect of Quotas By Lea Petters; Marina Schroeder
  10. High Performing Peers and Female STEM Choices in School By Mouganie, Pierre; Wang, Yaojing

  1. By: Cozzi, Guido; Galli, Silvia; Mantovan, Noemi
    Abstract: This paper provides a first theoretical and empirical analysis of the effects of psychotherapy on individual productivity. We build a simple model in which a deterioration of mental health endogenously causes a decrease in productivity, which is counterbalanced by psychotherapy. We test our hypotheses on the British Household Panel Survey data. We find that individuals suffering from mental health problems benefit economically from consulting a psychotherapist. Moreover, we find that the returns are higher for men than for women, even though women are more likely to seek help.
    Keywords: Gender Differences; Mental Health; Wage Gap.
    JEL: I12 J16 J31
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Elena Grinza (Department of Economics and Statistics (Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Sociali e Matematico-Statistiche), University of Torino, Italy); Francesco Devicienti (Department of Economics and Statistics (Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Sociali e Matematico-Statistiche), University of Torino, Italy); Mariacristina Rossi (Department of Economics and Statistics (Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Sociali e Matematico-Statistiche), University of Torino, Italy); Davide Vannoni (Department of Economics and Statistics (Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Sociali e Matematico-Statistiche), University of Torino, Italy)
    Abstract: Attitudes of women and men about how paid and unpaid work should be divided in the couple largely determine women's earnings and career prospects. Hence, it is important to understand how people's gender role attitudes are formed and evolve over the lifetime. In this paper, we concentrate on one of the most path-breaking events in life: becoming a parent. Using longitudinal panel data for the UK, we first show that, in general, entry into parenthood significantly shifts women's attitudes toward more conservative views, while leaving men unaffected. We also show that the impact on women emerges only after some time from the childbirth, suggesting that attitudes change relatively slowly over time and do not react immediately after becoming a parent. Finally, we show that the impact gets large and strongly significant for women and men whose prenatal attitudes were progressive. In particular, we find that the change in attitudes for such individuals increases as the postnatal arrangements are more likely to be traditional. Overall, these findings suggest that the change in attitudes is mainly driven by the emergence of a cognitive dissonance. Broad policy implications are drawn.
    Keywords: Gender equality, Gender role attitudes, Entry into parenthood, Cognitive dissonance, Changes in the hormonal production, Understanding Society (US) dataset
    JEL: J16 J13
  3. By: Drew M. Anderson; J. Michael Collins
    Abstract: Retirement-account balances are lower among women than men. This study assesses the role of financial knowledge and empowerment in contributing to the gender gap in savings. We evaluate the effects of financial education delivered to women in the workplace, using administrative data on 31,000 public-sector workers in Wisconsin. All of these workers participated in a mandatory defined-benefit pension plan, but 47 percent also participated in a deferred compensation savings instrument provided by their employer, with the median participant contributing 1.6 percent of earnings each month. In a triple-difference strategy, we compare the progression of gender gaps in savings over time at state agencies that implemented financial education with the group that did not. We estimate that a multi-media education effort increased participation in retirement savings by 2.6 percentage points, closing the gender gap by more than half. This result is partially explained by pre-existing trends. The education program operated at low marginal cost and is likely to be portable to other contexts.
    Date: 2017–09
  4. By: Maurer, Stephan; Potlogea, Andrei
    Abstract: We study whether male-biased demand shocks affect women's labor force participation (LFP), using major oil field discoveries in the US South between 1900 and 1940. We find that oil wealth has a zero net effect on female LFP due to two opposing channels. Increased male wages lead to a higher marriage rate of young women, which could have depressed female LFP. But at the same time, oil wealth also increases demand for female labor in services, which counterbalances the marriage effect.
    JEL: R11 N50 J12 J16
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Gürerk, Özgür; Irlenbusch, Bernd; Rockenbach, Bettina
    Abstract: We study gender diversity and performance in endogenously formed teams. Participants choose to either perform a cooperation task with members of the own gender only or in a mixed-gender team. We find that independent of the team choice, initially men cooperate significantly more than women. In subsequent periods, men prefer the successful men-only teams, resulting in significantly higher profits for men compared to women. Only over time, this endogenously emerged “gender profit gap” closes.
    JEL: C92 J71 M54
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Hisanobu Kakizawa (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the student-teacher gender matching effect on students f academic performance and questioning behavior. The results indicate as follows: 1. Positive effects of same gender teachers on students f performance are observed, especially for girls. 2. The gender-matching effect appears to be most significant in the study of English, followed by math and science. 3. Gender matching has an effect on students f questioning behavior. 4. Changes in questioning behavior may partly explain the improvement in performance. 5. Even when the effects of questioning behavior are controlled for, female teachers still have a positive effect on girls f performance.
    Keywords: Academic performance; Gender-matching effect; Questioning behavior
    JEL: I20 I21
    Date: 2017–09
  7. By: Bannier, Christina E.; Schwarz, Milena
    Abstract: We find strong gender- and education-related differences in the distribution of actual and perceived financial sophistication: Whereas financial literacy rises in formal education, confidence increases in education for men but decreases for women. We show that the financial decisions of highly-educated men benefit strongly from this excess confidence, while the underconfidence of highly-educated women, in contrast, impairs their long-term financial planning.
    JEL: D91 G11 D83 J26
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Fredrick M. Wamalwa; Justine Burns
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the effect of two important family characteristics-gender and birth order-on intra-household investments in, and educational outcomes of, children in Kenya. We measure intra-household education investments in children by household's decision to enrol children in private schools and educational outcomes by two variables, completed years of education and relative grade attainment. We use a large household survey data set that allows us to apply family fixed effects models that address the potential endogeneity of children's gender, birth order and family size as well as factors that are unobservable at the household level. Although we do not find an intra-household gender preference in terms of investments in children's education, there is a female advantage in terms of the two measured education outcomes. Our results show significantnegative birth order effects on private enrolment, completed years of education and relative grade attainment. Family wealth plays a significant role in propagating the gender and birth order effects we observe.
    Keywords: household fixed effects, gender, Kenya
    JEL: C21 J16 I21
    Date: 2017–09
  9. By: Lea Petters (University of Cologne); Marina Schroeder (University of Cologne)
    Abstract: We study the immediate effect of a quota on performance, sabotage, and representation of the different groups affected. In an experimental study, we vary whether a quota is implemented and whether it is justified with ex-ante discrimination or not. We find that unjustified quotas result in a decrease in the performance of affirmed types, an increase in sabotage activity targeted at affirmed types, and a reduction in help received by affirmed types. We do not find such negative effects when the implemented quota is justified. Our findings suggest that information about the justification of a quota crucially determines the success of this intervention.
    Keywords: affirmative action, quota, sabotage, real effort, peer evaluation, fairness, discrimination
    JEL: C92 J33 J71 M51
    Date: 2017–10–10
  10. By: Mouganie, Pierre; Wang, Yaojing
    Abstract: Women have historically been underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) jobs. There are concerns that the persistence of this gap over time is in part due to path dependence and the historical lack of high-performing women in these fields. This paper uses administrative data from China to examine the extent to which the presence of high-performing peers in mathematics affects the likelihood that women choose a science track during high school. Results indicate that exposure to a higher proportion of high-performing females increases girls' likelihood of majoring in STEM, while exposure to more high-performing males reduces it. There is little evidence that boys' major decisions are affected by their peers. Our results indicate that high-achieving girls in quantitative fields may have a role model or affirmation effect that encourages their female classmates to pursue a path in science.
    Keywords: STEM, Peer Quality, Gender Effects, China
    JEL: I20 J01 J70
    Date: 2017–10–09

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