nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒10‒08
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Has the Gender Wage Gap been Reduced during the 'Peruvian Growth Miracle?' A Distributional Approach By Juan Manuel del Pozo Segura
  2. Migration and gender in South Africa: following bright lights and the fortunes of others? By Dieter von Fintel; Eldridge Moses
  3. Taxes and Market Hours -- the Role of Gender and Skill By Duval-Hernandez, Robert; Fang, Lei; Ngai, Liwa Rachel
  4. Detailed RIF Decomposition with Selection - The Gender Pay Gap in Italy By Töpfer, Marina

  1. By: Juan Manuel del Pozo Segura (Departamento de Economía de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú)
    Abstract: Between 2004 and 2014 the Peruvian economy experienced a noticeable growth which surpassed most of Latin American countries during that period, leading some to quote this episode as the Peruvian Growth Miracle. Yet, growth of wages would not have been accompanied by an equally marked reduction in wage differentials between men and women despite government efforts to address this issue. Consequently, this study analyzes and decomposes the gender wage gap in Peru for 2004 and 2014 using the Machado and Mata (2005) decomposition method correcting for sample selection bias in the context of quantile regression (Albrecht et al. 2009). This allows to decompose the differential in terms of the endowment and treatment effect at each point of the income distribution instead of, as has been customary in previous studies for Peru, only at the average of the distribution. Using data from the National Household Survey, we find that unconditional and conditional gaps, which favour men, have deepened between 2004 and 2014 at every point of the distribution, while there is evidence of sticky floors and glass ceilings in both years. Decompositions consistently reveal that, for both years, discrimination against women is the most important factor behind gender gaps at each percentile even though the effect of endowments plays in favor of those. All in all, this raise doubts about the aggregate effectiveness of pro-equity policies applied in recent years. JEL Classification-JEL: C01, J08, J16, O12
    Keywords: Gender Wage Gap, Distributional Decomposition, Inequality, Peru, Quantile regressions
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Dieter von Fintel (Department of Economics, Stellenbosch University and Institute for Labor Economics (IZA), Bonn); Eldridge Moses (Department of Economics, Stellenbosch University)
    Abstract: Internal migration in South Africa has a strong gender dimension. Historically, the apartheid-era migrant labour system meant that predominantly black African men moved to urban areas without their families. After the abolition of influx controls in 1986, many women relocated, presumably to join their male partners. The period of migration feminization was also coupled with labour market feminization. However, existing research shows that increased female labour supply was poorly matched by labour market absorption, leading to rising unemployment among black African women. This paper studies incentives for female migration in this context, by building a gravity model of male and female inter-municipal migration. We find that neither men nor women move primarily for family reasons. Instead, they follow the traditional male migrant route to well-lit economic centres. Women also do not migrate primarily for increases in their own labour market opportunities, but tend to flock to regions where other fortunate groups have higher earnings potential. While this might signal that migrants base relocation decisions on incorrect information (and could in turn explain why many migrants have unfulfilled expectations), our results also show that women not only move for work, but for public services. The implications are twofold if migration is to alleviate poverty in the long run: firstly, in the short run, management of public resources must improve, as poor (women) place large emphasis on their effect; and secondly, labour market barriers – especially into the informal sector – should be better understood.
    Keywords: Regional migration, gravity model, feminization of migration, income mobility, economics of gender, South Africa
    JEL: C31 J16 J61 O15 O18 R23
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Duval-Hernandez, Robert; Fang, Lei; Ngai, Liwa Rachel
    Abstract: Cross-country differences of market hours in 17 OECD countries are mainly due to the hours of women, especially low-skilled women. This paper develops a model to account for the gender-skill differences in market hours across countries. The model explains a substantial fraction of the differences in hours by taxes, which reduce market hours in favor of leisure and home production, and by subsidized care, which frees (mostly) women from home care in favor of their market hours. Low-skilled women are more responsive to policy because of their low market returns and their comparative advantage in home activities.
    Keywords: Cross-country Differences in Market Hours; Home Production; Subsidies on Family Care
    JEL: E24 E62 J22
    Date: 2017–09
  4. By: Töpfer, Marina
    Abstract: In this paper, we estimate the gender pay gap along the wage distribution using a detailed decomposition approach based on unconditional quantile regressions. Non-randomness of the sample leads to biased and inconsistent estimates of the wage equation as well as of the components of the wage gap. Therefore, the method is extended to account for sample selection problems. The decomposition is conducted by using Italian microdata. Accounting for labor market selection may be particularly relevant for Italy given a comparably low female labor market participation rate. The results suggest not only differences in the income gap along the wage distribution (in particular glass ceiling), but also differences in the contribution of selection effects to the pay gap at different quantiles.
    Keywords: Gender Pay Gap,Detailed Decomposition,Unconditional Quantile Regression,Sample Selection
    JEL: J7 J13 J31
    Date: 2017

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