nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒09‒24
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. The Gendered Effects of Career Concerns on Fertility By Nayoung Rim; Kyung Park
  2. The Effect of Title IX on Gender Disparity in Graduate Education By Nayoung Rim
  3. Breaking the metal ceiling: Female entrepreneurs who succeed in male-dominated sectors By Francisco Campos; Markus Goldstein; Laura McGorman; Ana Maria Munoz Boudet; Obert Pimhidzai
  4. Generalized Glass Ceilings in the United States – A Stochastic Metafrontier Approach By Khalid Maman Waziri
  5. How uncertainty and ambiguity in tournaments affect gender differences in competitive behavior By Loukas Balafoutas; Brent J. Davis; Matthias Sutter
  6. The negotiation of collective agreements in France: Challenges and characteristics of negotiating gender equality By Clotilde Coron

  1. By: Nayoung Rim (United States Naval Academy); Kyung Park (Wellesley College)
    Abstract: A growing literature reveals that the adverse effect of children on career advancement falls disproportionately on women. This raises the possibility that women respond to career concerns by delaying family formation more than men. Using a panel dataset on lawyers, we find females are less likely to have their first child before the promotion decision. This fertility gap is not explained away by gender-based sorting or gender differences in marriage-timing and spousal occupation. Two channels drive our results: women bear child-rearing costs and gender-specific promotion thresholds. This implies the focus on the gender wage gap understates gender inequality in the labor market.
    Date: 2017–09
  2. By: Nayoung Rim (United States Naval Academy)
    Abstract: During the 1960s, there were essentially three career choices for women: nurse, secretary, or teacher. Graduate school admissions quotas largely prevented women from pursuing different career paths. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 removed this barrier by making gender discrimination in admissions illegal. This paper examines whether this policy was successful in reducing gender disparity in graduate education. I find a sharp and dramatic convergence of female versus male graduate degree fields coincident with the passage of Title IX. This distributional change occurred as females predominantly moved into male-dominated fields and does not seem to be driven by gender-specific preferences. Further, alternative explanations, including birth control pill access and abortion legalization, were gradual changes and cannot explain the large, national shift in graduate-field distribution that occurred immediately following Title IX. In addition to providing evidence of successful anti-discrimination legislation, this paper sheds new light on the factors responsible for the college gender gap reversal.
    Date: 2017–09
  3. By: Francisco Campos; Markus Goldstein; Laura McGorman; Ana Maria Munoz Boudet; Obert Pimhidzai
    Abstract: Occupational segregation significantly contributes to the earnings gender gap worldwide. We look at differences in outcomes for male and female enterprises and their sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region of high female participation in entrepreneurship. Data on Uganda show that women breaking into male-dominated sectors make as much as men, and three times more than women staying in female-dominated sectors. Factors including entrepreneurial skill/abilities and credit/human capital constraints do not explain women’s sectoral choices. However, information about profitability, male role models’ influence, and exposure to the sector from family and friends are critical in helping women circumvent or overcome norms undergirding occupational segregation.
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Khalid Maman Waziri (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille)
    Abstract: This paper highlights the limitations inherent to the stochastic earnings frontier methodology to analyzing wage discrimination and introduces the use of the metafrontier approach as an important improvement. Using US data from the Current Population Survey, we find that white women’s and black men’s maximum attainable hourly earnings represent respectively 80% and 76% of those of white men on average. Furthermore, the metafrontier approach shows that male-female and white-black differences in maximum attainable earnings are observed at all levels of human capital. This innovative methodology permits the identification of a “generalized” glass ceilings against females and blacks in the US.
    Keywords: wage differentials, discrimination, glass ceiling, stochastic frontier, stochastic metafrontier approach, sample selection correction
    JEL: J31 J71 C13
    Date: 2017–08
  5. By: Loukas Balafoutas (University of Innsbruck); Brent J. Davis (University of Innsbruck); Matthias Sutter (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn)
    Abstract: Tournament incentives prevail in labor markets, in particular with respect to promotions. Yet, it is often unclear to competitors how many winners there will be or how many applicants compete in the tournament. While it is hard to measure how this uncertainty affects work performance and willingness to compete in the field, it can be studied in a controlled lab experiment. We present a novel experiment where subjects can compete against each other, but where the number of winners is either uncertain (i.e., unknown numbers of winners, but known probabilities) or ambiguous (unknown probabilities for different numbers of winners). We compare these two conditions with a control treatment with a known number of winners. We find that ambiguity induces a significant increase in performance of men, while we observe no change for women. Both men and women increase their willingness to enter competition with uncertainty and ambiguity, but men react slightly more than women. Overall, both effects contribute to men winning the tournament significantly more often than women under uncertainty and ambiguity. Hence, previous experiments on gender differences in competition may have measured a lower bound of differences between men and women.
    Keywords: gender, competition, uncertainty, ambiguity, experiment
    JEL: C91 D03
    Date: 2017–09
  6. By: Clotilde Coron (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12)
    Abstract: The negotiation of corporate agreements in France, the cornerstone of labor relations, has been the subject of much research. However, few address the issue of the process of the negotiation of a company agreement on gender equality, a theme that has been mandatory since the Génisson 2001 Act. This issue presents certain particularities (the transversal nature of gender equality across various Human Resource areas, legal framework obligations, etc.) that may affect the negotiation process. To clarify this issue and to enrich both the literature on labor relations and the literature on gender equality our contribution seeks to identify the characteristics relative to negotiations on gender equality. As part of a CIFRE thesis (Industrial Convention of Formation by Research) and using participant observation in the negotiation of a corporate agreement on gender equality as well as interviews conducted with both union and management negotiators, we have been able to identify certain characteristics particular to negotiations on gender equality compared to the negotiation of agreements on other subjects. In particular, the definition of the theme of negotiation (gender equality) plays a central role in the negotiation; the transversal nature of this theme to various HR processes (recruitment, remuneration, promotion…) has strong implications on negotiators' bargaining leeway as well as on the role of unions vis-à-vis management; finally, the documented legal framework that attaches great importance to statistical indicators, can result in unattainable quantified commitments being included in the agreement.
    Keywords: case study 2,labor relations,gender equality,corporate agreements,negotiation
    Date: 2016–06–01

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