nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒08‒06
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender: An Historical Perspective By Giuliano, Paola
  2. Hours, Occupations, and Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes By Andrés Erosa; Luisa Fuster; Gueorgui Kambourov; Richard Rogerson
  3. Gender Differences in Trading Volume: Not Just Overconfidence By Carlos Cueva; Iñigo Iturbe-Ormaetxe; Giovanni Ponti; Josefa Tomás
  4. Gendered Effects of the Personal Income Tax: Evidence from a Schedular System with Individual Filing in a Developing Country By Marisa Bucheli; Cecilia Olivieri
  5. Analysis of Gender Parity for Pakistan: Ensuring Inclusive and Equitable Quality Education By Umar, Maida; Asghar, Zahid

  1. By: Giuliano, Paola
    Abstract: Social attitudes toward women vary significantly across societies. This chapter reviews recent empirical research on various historical determinants of contemporary differences in gender roles and gender gaps across societies, and how these differences are transmitted from parents to children and therefore persist until today. We review work on the historical origin of differences in female labor-force participation, fertility, education, marriage arrangements, competitive attitudes, domestic violence, and other forms of difference in gender norms. Most of the research illustrates that differences in cultural norms regarding gender roles emerge in response to specific historical situations, but tend to persist even after the historical conditions have changed. We also discuss the conditions under which gender norms either tend to be stable or change more quickly.
    Keywords: Cultural persistence; Cultural Transmission; Gender
    JEL: J16 N0 Z1
    Date: 2017–07
  2. By: Andrés Erosa; Luisa Fuster; Gueorgui Kambourov; Richard Rogerson
    Abstract: We document a robust negative relationship between the log of mean annual hours in an occupation and the standard deviation of log annual hours within that occupation. We develop a unified model of occupational choice and labor supply that features heterogeneity across occupations in the return to working additional hours and show that it can match the key features of the data both qualitatively and quantitatively. We use the model to shed light on gender differences in labor market outcomes that arise because of gender asymmetries in home production responsibilities. Our model generates large gender gaps in hours of work, occupational choices, and wages. In particular, an exogenous difference in time devoted to home production of ten hours per week increases the observed gender wage gap by roughly eleven percentage points and decreases the share of females in high hours occupations by fourteen percentage points. The implied misallocation of talent across occupations has significant aggregate effects on productivity and welfare.
    JEL: E2 J2
    Date: 2017–07
  3. By: Carlos Cueva; Iñigo Iturbe-Ormaetxe; Giovanni Ponti; Josefa Tomás
    Abstract: Men trade more than women. This has been attributed to men being more overconfident. However, no study has systematically tested this conjecture. We run an experiment where participants trade in a simulated market and measure ex-ante better-than-average confidence in an incentivized way. We find that men are more confident and trade more than women, but we do not find that our measure of confidence helps to reduce the gender gap in the number of transactions. Finally, risk aversion does not help to explain this gap either.
    Keywords: Behavioral Finance, Transaction Costs, Gender, Overtrading, Risk aversion
    JEL: C91 D70 D81 D91
  4. By: Marisa Bucheli (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Cecilia Olivieri (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República)
    Abstract: This article analyzes the gender differences in the Personal Income Tax (PIT)-to-income ratio in Uruguay. Although the tax code does not explicitly specify gender differences, the tax burden varies among households types. When analyzing these differences, our findings suggest that the PIT serves as somewhat of an incentive towards equal gender time allocation within the family, which is consistent with gender equity. In turn, this pattern is reinforced by non-desirable aspects such as higher levels of informality among women and a higher level of non-taxable sources of income among single female households. The above conclusion relies on the assumption of individual filing. Our analysis also observes that the strengths of the PIT system from the gender perspective are eroded by the possibility to opt for a (rarely used) joint filing. The empirical strategy was assessed through the estimation of a zero-one inflated beta model (ZOIB). This model properly addresses the fact that the PIT-to-income ratio includes many zero data points.
    Keywords: economics of gender, family economics, income tax, tax incidence
    JEL: B54 J16 H22 H24 H31
    Date: 2017–02
  5. By: Umar, Maida; Asghar, Zahid
    Abstract: Considering how much progress has been made in education, and how large an effort is needed to meet gender parity in primary education. Education is at the heart of sustainable improvement and the SDGs, a cause of action and hope. Educating girls as well as boys is an achievable goal and attainable in the near term if substantial resources are matched with comprehensive national strategies for education reform that include measures of accountability and a commitment to ensure every girl and boy in school. Additionally, the study signifies that how far away we are from accomplishing these SDGs. This results ought to set off alerts and prompt a noteworthy scale-up of activities to accomplish SDG 4 and ensuring gender parity. Moreover, it underlines the gaps that where the Pakistan stands today in education and where it has to establish reaching by 2030. Projections illustrate that how much additional exertion will be needed to accomplish gender parity. Such a comprehension could go some approach to have the anticipated evaluations in graphics significantly lifted. While challenges still exist, expected distance to achieve gender parity provides us guidance on to make significant progress. Punjab and urban areas have achieved gender parity for primary enrollments while other provinces need to learn lessons. An emphasis on equity is likewise be required over the full SDG motivation, as the objectives won't be achieved unless advancement is made for all least developed districts and provinces, and for a whole. In short, there may be no better investment for the health and development of Pakistan than investments to educate girls.
    Keywords: SDGs. Gender Parity, Data Revolution, Data Literacy, Evidence Based Strategies, Disaggregated Data, Leave No One Behind
    JEL: I2 I21 I24
    Date: 2017–07–29

This nep-gen issue is ©2017 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.