nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒07‒30
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender quotas or girls' networks? Towards an understanding of recruitment in the research profession in Italy By Daniele Checchi; Simona Cicognani; Nevena Kulic
  2. The Timing of Puberty and Gender Differences in Educational Achievement By Koerselman, Kristian; Pekkarinen, Tuomas
  3. The convergence of the gender pay gap: An alternative estimation approach By Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa; Töpfer, Marina
  4. Can Gender Quotas in Candidate Lists Empower Women? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design By Bagues, Manuel F.; Campa, Pamela

  1. By: Daniele Checchi (University of Milan, Italy); Simona Cicognani (Department of Economics, University of Verona, Italy; The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis); Nevena Kulic (Department of Political and Social Sciences, European University Institute, Italy)
    Abstract: This article investigates the role of the gender composition of selection committees and networks in promoting women in research activities. We exploit a novel data set on recruitment processes at entry-level research positions in a leading Italian research centre that mainly operates in hard science. We find some evidence of discrimination against women at non-tenured entry levels, which is attenuated (or even reversed) by the presence of a woman on the selection committee. However, the most important predictor for recruitment seems to be previous connections with the research centre, which also serves as an important mechanism for women to enter the research profession. We conclude that quotas could be a solution for gender-biased preferences towards same-sex candidates in selection committees for non-tenure-track positions. Moreover, more gender-neutral networks would be another mechanism to bring more equality between men and women in research.
    Keywords: Gender quotas, Discrimination, Research recruitment, Connections
    JEL: J16 J71 J45
    Date: 2017–07
  2. By: Koerselman, Kristian (Abo Akademi University); Pekkarinen, Tuomas (VATT, Helsinki)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the effect of the timing of puberty on educational achievement and examine to what extent the gender differences in the timing of puberty can explain gender differences in achievement. We use British cohort data that combine information on pubertal development with test scores, behavioral outcomes as well as final educational attainment and earnings. Controlling for age 7 cognitive skills and family background, we show that late pubertal development is associated with a slower rate of cognitive skill growth during adolescence. This disadvantage in cognitive development is also reflected in lower levels of educational attainment and earnings for late developed individuals. The number of late developing boys is however too small to explain more than a fraction of the gender gap in educational outcomes. Furthermore, we find no effects on self-discipline or other behavioral outcomes in adolescence, suggesting a mechanism wholly separate from other causes of the gender gap.
    Keywords: education, gender, adolescence, puberty, cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, attainment, earnings
    JEL: I20 J16
    Date: 2017–07
  3. By: Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa; Töpfer, Marina
    Abstract: So far, little work has been done on directly estimating differences of wage gaps. Stud- ies estimating pay differentials, generally compare them across different subsamples. This comparison does not allow to conduct any inference or, in the case of decompositions, to confront the respective decomposition components across subsamples. We propose an exten- sion of an Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition based on the omitted variable bias formula to directly estimate the change in pay gaps across subsamples. The method proposed can be made robust to the index-number problem of the standard Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition and to the indeterminacy problem of the intercept-shift approach. Using Italian micro data, we estimate the difference in the gender pay gap across time (2005 and 2014). By applying our proposed decomposition, we find that the convergence of the gender pay gap over time is only driven by the catching-up of women in terms of observable characteristics, while the impact of anti-discrimination legislation is found to be negligible.
    Keywords: Pay Gap,Omitted Varibale Bias Formula,Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition
    JEL: J7 J13 J31
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Bagues, Manuel F. (Aalto University); Campa, Pamela (University of Calgary)
    Abstract: We provide a comprehensive analysis of the short- and medium-term effects of gender quotas in candidate lists using evidence from Spain, where quotas were introduced in 2007 in municipalities with more than 5,000 inhabitants, and were extended in 2011 to municipalities with more than 3,000 inhabitants. Using a Regression Discontinuity Design, we find that quotas raise the share of women among council members but they do not affect the quality of politicians, as measured by their education attainment and by the number of votes obtained. Moreover, within three rounds of elections, women fail to reach powerful positions such as party leader or mayor, and we do not observe any statistically or economically significant changes in the size and composition of public finances.
    Keywords: gender quotas in candidate lists, regression discontinuity design
    JEL: D72 H72 J16
    Date: 2017–07

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