nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒07‒16
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Credit market competition and the gender gap: evidence from local labor markets By Popov, Alexander; Zaharia, Sonia
  2. Gender differences in willingness to compete: The role of public observability By Buser, Thomas; Ranehill, Eva; van Veldhuizen, Roel
  3. Gender score gaps of Colombia students in pisa test By Luz Karime Abadía Alvarado
  4. The Aggregate Implications of Gender and Marriage By Mariacristina De Nardi; Fang Yang; Margherita Borella
  5. The Effects of Paternity Leave on Fertility and Labor Market Outcomes By Farré, Lídia; Gonzalez, Libertad
  6. The performance effects of gender diversity on bank boards By Owen, Ann L.; Temesvary, Judit

  1. By: Popov, Alexander; Zaharia, Sonia
    Abstract: We exploit the exogenous variation in regional credit market contestability brought on by banking deregulation in the United States to study the narrowing of the gender gap in local labor markets. We find that deregulation reduced the gender gap in labor force participation, as the subsequent increase in the demand for labor induced non-working women to enter the labor force. Deregulation also reduced wage inequality as women became more likely to work in the private sector, to enter high-paid "male" jobs, and to acquire higher education. Tests of contiguous MSAs sharing a state border corroborate a genuine deregulation effect. JEL Classification: G28, J16, J22
    Keywords: bank deregulation, gender gap, labor force participation, wage inequality
    Date: 2017–07
  2. By: Buser, Thomas; Ranehill, Eva; van Veldhuizen, Roel
    Abstract: A recent literature emphasizes the importance of the gender gap in willingness to compete as a partial explanation for gender differences in labor market outcomes. However, whereas experiments investigating willingness to compete typically do so in anonymous environments, real world competitions often have a more public nature, which introduces potential social image concerns. If such image concerns are important, we should expect public observability to further exacerbate the gender gap. We test this prediction using a laboratory experiment that varies whether the decision to compete, and its outcome, is publicly observable. Across four different treatments, however, all treatment effects are close to zero. We conclude that the public observability of decisions and outcomes does not exert a significant impact on male or female willingness to compete, indicating that the role of social image concerns related to competitive decisions may be limited.
    Keywords: gender differences,competitiveness,social image,experiment
    JEL: C91 D03 J16
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Luz Karime Abadía Alvarado
    Abstract: Abstract This paper measures the math and reading gender score gap of Colombian students in the Pisa test. Estimations confirm that on average, when comparing boys and girls with similar individual, family and school characteristics boys outperform girls in math and the opposite happens in reading. Moreover, using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition I find that observables favor girls and they account for the 22% and 34% of the gap in math and reading respectively. This effect is due mainly to individual factors, that is, if girls were not in a greater proportion in the last scholar grades of secondary education and she had not a lower repetition grade the math gap would be grater and lower in reading. Resumen Este trabajo mide la brecha de género académica en matemáticas y lectura de los estudiantes colombianos en las pruebas PISA. Los resultados de las estimaciones confirman que en promedio, cuando se compararan niños y niñas con similares características individuales, familiares y escolares los niños obtienen mejores puntajes que las niñas en matemáticas y lo contrario sucede en lectura. Adicionalmente, usando la descomposición de Blinder-Oaxaca se encuentra que las características observables favorecen a las niñas y éstas explican el 22% y el 34% de la brecha en matemáticas y lectura respectivamente. Este efecto se debe principalmente a las características individuales, es decir, si las niñas no estuvieran en mayor proporción en los últimos grados del bachillerato y adicionalmente una menor tasa de repitencia escolar en comparación con los niños la brecha en matemáticas sería mayo y la de lenguaje menor.
    Keywords: Keywords: PISA, gender score gap, performance, math, reading, inequality. Palabras clave: PISA, brecha de género escolar, desempeño, matemáticas, lectura, desigualdad.
    JEL: I21 I24 J16 O15
    Date: 2017–04–27
  4. By: Mariacristina De Nardi (UCL, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, CE); Fang Yang (Louisiana State University); Margherita Borella (Unversity of Torino)
    Abstract: Wages, labor market participation, hours worked, and savings differ by gender and marital status. In addition, women and married people make up for a large fraction of the population and of labor market participants, total hours worked, and total earnings. For the most part, macroeconomists have been ignoring women and marriage in setting up structural models and by calibrating them using data on males only. In this paper we ask whether ignoring gender and marriage in both models and data implies that the resulting calibration matches well the key economic aggregates. We find that it does not and we ask whether there are other calibration strategies or relatively simple models of marriage that can improve the fit of the model to aggregate data.
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Farré, Lídia (University of Barcelona); Gonzalez, Libertad (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of a father quota in the parental leave period on households' labor market and fertility decisions. Identification is based on the 2007 reform of the Spanish family benefit system, which extended the sixteen weeks of paid parental leave by two additional weeks exclusively reserved for fathers and non-transferable to mothers. Using a regression discontinuity design, we show that the reform substantially increased the take-up rate of fathers (by as much as 400%), as well as the re-employment probability of mothers shortly after childbirth (by about 11%). However, it did not affect parents' longer-term leave-taking or employment behavior. We also find that the introduction of the two weeks of paternity leave delayed higher-order births and reduced subsequent fertility among older women (by about 15%). These results suggest a limited scope for the father quota to alter household behaviors beyond the parental leave period and reduce gender inequality at the workplace.
    Keywords: natural experiment, paternity leave, fertility, labor market and gender
    JEL: J48 J13 J16
    Date: 2017–06
  6. By: Owen, Ann L.; Temesvary, Judit
    Abstract: Previous literature has shown mixed results on the role of female participation on bank boards and bank performance: some find that more women on boards enhance financial performance, while others find negative or no effects. Applying Instrumental Variables methods to data on approximately 90 US bank holding companies over the 1999-2015 period, we argue that these inconclusive results are due to the fact that there is a non-linear, U-shaped relationship between gender diversity on boards and various measures of bank performance: female participation has a positive effect once a threshold level of gender diversity is achieved. Furthermore, this positive effect is only observed in better capitalized banks. Our results suggest that continuing the voluntary expansion of gender diversity on bank boards will be value-enhancing, provided that they are well capitalized.
    Keywords: Bank performance; Gender Diversity; Instrumental Variables Estimation
    JEL: G21 G34 J16
    Date: 2017–07–07

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