nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒07‒09
thirteen papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender beliefs and planned occupation: high school pupils and their parents By Magdalena Smyk
  2. Gender occupational segregation: the role of parents By Magdalena Smyk
  3. Explaining gender differences in preference for self-employment among tertiary graduates in Ghana By Kehinde Ajayi; Nana Akua Anyidoho
  4. Feminization of entrepreneurship in developing countries? Evidence from GEM data By Jorge, Velilla
  5. Occupational Licensing Reduces Racial and Gender Wage Gaps: Evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation By Peter Blair; Bobby Chung
  6. Belief-based and taste-based gender discrimination. Evidence from a game show By Michał Krawczyk; Natalia Starzykowska
  7. The Effects of Paternity Leave on Fertility and Labor Market Outcomes By Lídia Farré; Rosa Ferrer
  8. All on board? New evidence on board gender diversity from a large panel of firms By Joanna Tyrowicz; Jakub Mazurek
  9. Board Quotas and Director-Firm Matching By Ferreira, Daniel; Ginglinger, Edith; Laguna, Marie-Aude; Skalli, Yasmine
  10. Pushed into necessity? Labor market inequality and entrepreneurship of disadvantaged group By Joanna Tyrowicz; Magdalena Smyk
  11. Gender, Punishment, and Cooperation: Men hurt others to advance their interests By Terence C. Burnham
  12. The donor footprint and gender gaps By Maria Perrotta Berlin; Evelina Bonnier; Anders Olofsgård
  13. When the opportunity knocks: large structural shocks and gender wage gaps By Joanna Tyrowicz; Lucas van der Velde

  1. By: Magdalena Smyk (Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE))
    Abstract: Psychology and sociology literature suggests that the fact that women are less likely to work in STEM occupations may be caused by gender stereotypes related to differences in math and science abilities. In this study we test whether, particularly parents' beliefs are associated with their children's gender beliefs and with their choices of occupation. We show that the correlation between parents' and children's beliefs is strong. We use High School Longitudinal Study data - survey conducted among US 9th graders, their parents and teachers. Finally, we also test to what extend gender beliefs (parents' and own) correlate with planning to work in STEM fields by high-shool pupils. We find that girls are discouraged (and boys encouraged) by parents believing that boys are better in math and science, and that the effect of parent's beliefs are stronger than the effect of pupils' school achievements in math and science.
    Keywords: gender beliefs, choice of occupation, family, STEM, gender occupational segregation
    JEL: J16 I24 J13 J24
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Magdalena Smyk (Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE))
    Abstract: Gender occupational segregation is one of the most stable phenomena of the labor market. In this study we employ PSID dataset to test whether the fact that women have different professions than men can be, at least partially, explained by their parents occupational history. We find that fathers profession, both first one and the one observed by the son correlate positively with gender intensity of son's occupation. Mother's first occupation is associated with daughter's, but the one that it is performed by mother during daughter's growing up is insignificant. While father's profession is negatively correlated with gender intensity of daughter's profession, mother's occupation does not matter for son's career.
    Keywords: choice of occupation, family, gender occupational segregation
    JEL: J16 J13 J24
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Kehinde Ajayi; Nana Akua Anyidoho
    Abstract: We examine gender differences in ambitions and expectations of jobseekers concerning self-employment, an increasingly proposed option for youth in economies with limited wage employment. Analysing survey data on 2,036 tertiary graduates in Ghana, we find that males have a stronger preference for self-employment. This is mostly explained by differences in educational background and work experience, and less by financial assets and family background. Personal traits (such as self-esteem or ‘grit’) do not explain gender differences. Our findings suggest early interventions may reduce gender differences in labour market outcomes, specifically by strengthening women’s academic training and encouraging more pre-graduate work experience.
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Jorge, Velilla
    Abstract: Certain analyses have studied gender differences in entrepreneurial activity, but, in general, the lack of specific controls may have led to biased results. In this paper, we analyze whether male or female individuals have a higher probability of becoming entrepreneurs in developing regions (Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, South-East Asia, and Africa). Using GEM data from 2009 to 2014, we avoid the potential confounding problems arising from the definition of entrepreneurship. We find that the descriptive statistics show constant gender gaps in entrepreneurial activity in favor of males, for all the regions. However, when individual and environmental entrepreneurial characteristics are taken into account, these gaps diminish significantly in Eastern Europe, disappear in Asia and Africa, and are reversed in Latin America.
    Keywords: Gender; Feminist; Entrepreneurship; Developing countries; GEM Data
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2017–07–03
  5. By: Peter Blair (Clemson University); Bobby Chung (Clemson University)
    Abstract: In order to work legally, 29% of U.S. workers require an occupational license. We show that occupational licensing reduces the racial wage gap between white and black men by 43%, and the gender wage gap between women and white men by 36%-40%. For black men, a license is a positive indicator of non-felony status that aids in firm screening of workers, whereas women experience differentially higher returns to the human capital that is bundled with occupational licenses. The information and human capital content of licenses enable firms to rely less on race and gender as predictors of worker productivity.
    Keywords: wage inequality, statistical discrimination, occupational licensing, screening, signaling, optimal regulation
    JEL: D21 D84 J24 J31 J41 J70 K23 K31 L51
    Date: 2017–06
  6. By: Michał Krawczyk (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Natalia Starzykowska (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: Gender discrimination, based on taste or on perception of competence, remains to be a likely contributor to females’ lower wages and slower professional advancement. In this project we use a novel data set of decisions made by participants of the Ten to One TV show. During the game, contestants repeatedly nominate the next person to answer a question. Being nominated reduces one’s probability of eventually winning the game. General tendency to nominate one gender more often than the other signifies taste-based discrimination against this gender. The construction of the game makes it relatively more profitable to nominate the most competent rather than the least competent opponents in some strategic circumstances, which allows to identify biased perception of the two genders’ competence. Having analyzed over 6000 decisions from 117 episodes aired in the last 21 years we find clear evidence of belief-based discrimination against females, yet taste-based in favor of them.
    Keywords: taste-based discrimination, belief-based discrimination, gender, games
    JEL: J16 D03 C99
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Lídia Farré; Rosa Ferrer
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of a father quota in the parental leave period on households' labor market and fertility decisions. Identification is based on the 2007 reform of the Spanish family benefit system, which extended the sixteen weeks of paid parental leave by two additional weeks exclusively reserved for fathers and non- transferable to mothers. Using a regression discontinuity design, we show that the reform substantially increased the take-up rate of fathers (by as much as 400%), as well as the re-employment probability of mothers shortly after childbirth (by about 11%). However, it did not affect parents' longer-term leave-taking or employment behavior. We also find that the introduction of the two weeks of paternity leave delayed higher- order births and reduced subsequent fertility among older women (by about 15%). These results suggest a limited scope for the father quota to alter household behaviors beyond the parental leave period and reduce gender inequality at the workplace.
    Keywords: natural experiment, paternity leave, fertility, labor market and gender
    JEL: J48 J13 J16
    Date: 2017–07
  8. By: Joanna Tyrowicz (Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE); University of Warsaw); Jakub Mazurek (Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE))
    Abstract: We provide an overview of gender board diversity in Europe, using an exceptional database of over 100 million firms over the period of two decades and a novel gender assignment. We show that women on supervisory boards reduce the likelihood that a woman is on a management board. In fact, as much as 90% of European corporations have no women on supervisory boards, whereas roughly 80% of them has no women on management boards. We also show that more gender equality at a country level is not conducive to greater gender board diversity.
    Keywords: glass ceiling, gender board diversity
    JEL: J7 P5
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Ferreira, Daniel; Ginglinger, Edith; Laguna, Marie-Aude; Skalli, Yasmine
    Abstract: We study the impact of board gender quotas on the labor market for corporate directors. We find that the annual rate of turnover of female directors falls by about a third following the introduction of a quota in France in 2011. This decline in turnover is more pronounced for new appointments induced by the quota, and for appointments made by firms that regularly hire directors who are members of the French business elite. By contrast, the quota has no effect on male director turnover. The evidence suggests that, by changing the director search technology used by firms, the French quota has improved the stability of director-firm matches.
    Keywords: Corporate Boards; corporate governance; Gender Quotas; labor markets; Matching; Turnover
    JEL: G34 G38 J63 J70
    Date: 2017–06
  10. By: Joanna Tyrowicz (Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE); University of Warsaw); Magdalena Smyk (Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE))
    Abstract: Theoretical literature on entrepreneurship hints that labor market inequality may constitute a relevant push factor for necessity self-employment, as opposed to aspirational self-employment. Drawing on empirical confirmation, this insight is used in many policy recommendations. We provide a new approach to test and quantify the link between labor market inequality and self-employment. We exploit rich and diverse international data on patterns of self-employment from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. We focus on measures of labor market inequality for women, utilizing estimates of adjusted gender wage and gender employment gap, comparable for a large selection of countries and years. Our results show that greater gender disparities in access to and in compensation for wage employment are associated with necessity self-employment, but the effect is small. We find no link for the aspirational self-employment.
    Keywords: female entrepreneurship, gender wage gap, gender employment gap, GEM
    JEL: J16 L26 D12
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Terence C. Burnham (Chapman University Argyros School of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: A laboratory experiment that reports on gender, cooperation, and punishment in two repeated public goods game using high-powered punishment. In a repeated public goods game with punishment, no statistically significant differences between men and women are reported. In a modified game that adds an explicit payoff for relative performance, men punish more than women, men obtain higher rank, and punishment by males decreases payoffs for both men and for women. These results contribute to the debate about the origins and maintenance of cooperation.
    Keywords: Cooperation, Reciprocity, Punishment, Public-Goods, Altruism, Gender
    JEL: A13 C72 C91
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Maria Perrotta Berlin; Evelina Bonnier; Anders Olofsgård
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse the impact of foreign aid on gender outcomes and attitudes. We do this by matching geocoded household surveys with aid projects. This offers a middle way between project evaluations and aggregated cross-country comparisons, measuring an average community effect around projects. We find increased opportunities for women to work outside the household, which could strengthen their bargaining power. However, we find mixed results in terms of the impact on women’s control over other key areas of their lives. We argue this is related to differences in what is required for change to happen at the community level.
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Joanna Tyrowicz (Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE); University of Warsaw); Lucas van der Velde (Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE))
    Abstract: Undergoing a large structural shock, labor markets may become less inclusive. We test for this thesis analyzing the behavior of adjusted gender wage gaps in a wide selection of transition countries. We estimate comparable measures of adjusted gender wage gaps for a comprehensive selection of transition countries over a period spanning nearly three decades. We combine these estimates with measures of labor market reallocation in transition economies to uncover the relation between worker flows and the gender wage gap. Results indicate that in periods of reallocation, the adjusted wage gaps increase. Distinguishing between flows according to their contribution to structural transformation reveals the distinctive role paid by separations from the state-owned manufacturing sector, usually leading to greater adjusted gaps. The emerging new sectors in the economy tend to be more inclusive in the short run, associated with a lower adjusted gender gap. In the medium run, the adverse effect of greater separations from the old sector is even more pronounced, while the emergence of the new sector is less relevant.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, transition, non-parametric estimates, worker flows
    JEL: C24 J22 J31 J71
    Date: 2017

This nep-gen issue is ©2017 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.