nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒06‒25
fourteen papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. I (Don't) Like You! But Who Cares? Gender Differences in Same Sex and Mixed Sex Teams By Gerhards, Leonie; Kosfeld, Michael
  2. Top Earnings Inequality and the Gender Pay Gap: Canada, Sweden and the United Kingdom By Fortin, Nicole M.; Bell, Brian; Böhm, Michael Johannes
  3. The Gender Wage Gap in Developed Countries By Kunze, Astrid
  4. Sex-Differences in Language and Socio-emotional Skills in Early Childhood By Rosangela Bando; Florencia López Bóo; Xia Li
  5. Differences in positions along a hierarchy: Counterfactuals based on an assignment model By Laurent Gobillon; Dominique Meurs; Sébastien Roux
  6. Women and STEM By Shulamit Kahn; Donna Ginther
  7. Gender, Age, and Competition: a Disappearing Gap? By Jeffrey Flory; Uri Gneezy; Kenneth Leonard; John List
  8. Do Significant Labor Market Events Change Who Does the Chores? Paid Work, Housework and Power in Mixed-Gender Australian Households By Foster, Gigi; Stratton, Leslie S.
  9. An Advisor Like Me? Advisor Gender and Post-Graduate Careers in Science By Gaule, Patrick; Piacentini, Mario
  10. The spillover effects of gender quotas on dishonesty By V. Maggian; N. Montinari
  11. Social protection: towards gender equality By Raquel Tebaldi; Flora Myamba
  12. The Role of Social Capital in Competition and Gender-matching Environments-Evidence from East Asian Countries By Seo-Young Cho
  13. The effect of age and gender on labor demand – evidence from a field experiment By Carlsson, Magnus; Eriksson, Stefan
  14. Lehman Sisters: Female Bank Executives and Risk-Taking By Yan Wendy Wu, Cindy Truong, Chen Liu

  1. By: Gerhards, Leonie (University of Hamburg); Kosfeld, Michael (Goethe University Frankfurt)
    Abstract: We study the effect of likability on female and male team behavior in a lab experiment. Extending a two-player public goods game and a minimum effort game by an additional pre-play stage that informs team members about their mutual likability we find that female teams lower their contribution to the public good in case of low likability, while male teams achieve high levels of cooperation irrespective of the level of mutual likability. In mixed sex teams, both females' and males' contributions depend on mutual likability. Similar results are found in the minimum effort game. Our results offer a new perspective on gender differences in labor market outcomes: mutual dislikability impedes team behavior, except in all-male teams.
    Keywords: gender differences, likability, experiment, team behavior
    JEL: C90 J16
    Date: 2017–06
  2. By: Fortin, Nicole M. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver); Bell, Brian (King's College London); Böhm, Michael Johannes (University of Bonn)
    Abstract: This paper explores the consequences of the under-representation of women in top jobs for the overall gender pay gap. Using administrative annual earnings data from Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, it applies the approach used in the analysis of earnings inequality in top incomes, as well as reweighting techniques, to the analysis of the gender pay gap. The analysis is supplemented by classic O-B decompositions of hourly wages using data from the Canadian and U.K. Labour Force Surveys. The paper finds that recent increases in top earnings led to substantial "swimming upstream" effects, therefore accounting for differential progress in the gender pay gap across time periods and a growing share of the gap unexplained by traditional factors.
    Keywords: earnings inequality, top incomes, gender pay gap
    JEL: J15 J16 J70
    Date: 2017–06
  3. By: Kunze, Astrid (Norwegian School of Economics)
    Abstract: Despite the increased attachment of women to the labour force in nearly all developed countries, a stubborn gender pay gap remains. This chapter provides a review of the economics literature on the gender wage gap, with an emphasis on developed countries. We begin with an overview of the trends in the gender differences in wages and employment rates. We then review methods used to decompose the gender wage gap and the results from such decompositions. We discuss how trends and differences in the gender wage gap across countries can be understood in light of non-random selection and human capital differences. We then review the evidence on demand-side factors used to explain the existing gender wage gap and then discuss occupational segregation. The chapter concludes with suggestions for further research.
    Keywords: wages, gender wage gap, labor force participation, discrimination, developed countries
    JEL: J16 J24 J31 J71
    Date: 2017–06
  4. By: Rosangela Bando; Florencia López Bóo; Xia Li
    Abstract: This study explores sex differences in language and socio-emotional skills. It focuses on children 7 months old to 6 years old in Chile in 2012 and Nicaragua in 2013. A focus on young children allowed for ruling out a set of environmental and identity effects to explain the gap. Females had an advantage in both countries and both dimensions. Males in Chile scored at -0.13 standard deviations (SD) in language in the distribution of females. In addition, males scored at -0.20 SD in socio-emotional skills. The gaps in Nicaragua were not statistically different to those in Chile. Thus geographical and cultural variation across the two countries did not affect the gap. Within countries, variation in family characteristics, parenting practices and health investments did not explain the gap either. These findings shed light on the role of biological and environmental factors to explain sex gaps. The identification of the role of these factors is necessary to inform policy.
    Keywords: Early Childhood Development, Language Development, gender gap, Child development, Early Childhood Education, Socio-Emotional Skills, language development, socio-emotional skills
    JEL: Z13 O15 J16 J13 I25
    Date: 2016–07
  5. By: Laurent Gobillon; Dominique Meurs; Sébastien Roux
    Abstract: We propose an assignment model in which positions along a hierarchy are attributed to individuals depending on their characteristics. Our theoretical framework can be used to study differences in assignment and outcomes across groups and we show how it can motivate decomposition and counterfactual exercises. It constitutes an alternative to more descriptive methods such as Oaxaca decompositions and quantile counterfactual approaches. In an application, we study gender disparities in the public and private sectors with a French exhaustive administrative dataset. Whereas females are believed to be treated more fairly in the public sector, we find that the gender gap in propensity to get job positions along the wage distribution is rather similar in the two sectors. The gender wage gap in the public sector is 13:3 points and it increases by only 0:7 percentage points when workers are assigned to job positions according to the rules of the private sector. Nevertheless, the gender gap at the last decile in the public sector increases by as much as 3:6 percentage points when using the assignment rules of the private sector.
    Keywords: assignment, distributions, counterfactuals, wages, gender, public sector.
    JEL: C51 J31 J45
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Shulamit Kahn; Donna Ginther
    Abstract: Researchers from economics, sociology, psychology, and other disciplines have studied the persistent under-representation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This chapter summarizes this research. We argue that women’s under-representation is concentrated in the math-intensive science fields of geosciences, engineering, economics, math/computer science and physical science. Our analysis concentrates on the environmental factors that influence ability, preferences, and the rewards for those choices. We examine how gendered stereotypes, culture, role models, competition, risk aversion, and interests contribute to gender STEM gap, starting at childhood, solidifying by middle school, and affecting women and men as they progress through school, higher education, and into the labor market. Our results are consistent with preferences and psychological explanations for the under-representation of women in math-intensive STEM fields.
    JEL: I24 J16 J24 J3
    Date: 2017–06
  7. By: Jeffrey Flory; Uri Gneezy; Kenneth Leonard; John List
    Abstract: Research on competitiveness at the individual level has emphasized sex as a physiological determinant, focusing on the gap in preference for competitive environments between young men and women. This study presents evidence that women's preferences over competition change with age such that the gender gap, while large for young adults, disappears in older populations due to the fact that older women are much more competitive. Our finding that tastes for competition appear just as strong among older women as they are among men suggests a simple gender-based view of competitiveness is misleading; age seems just as important as sex. These findings are consistent with one of the most commonly cited views on the deeper origins of gender differences: that they stem at least in part from human evolution.
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Foster, Gigi (University of New South Wales); Stratton, Leslie S. (Virginia Commonwealth University)
    Abstract: We examine how men and women in mixed-gender unions change the time they allocate to housework in response to labor market promotions and terminations. Operating much like raises, such events have the potential to alter intra-household power dynamics. Using Australian panel data, we estimate couple-specific fixed effects models and find that female promotion has the strongest association with housework time allocation adjustments. These adjustments are in part attributable to concurrent changes in paid work time, but gender power relations also appear to play a role. Further results indicate that households holding more liberal gender role attitudes are more likely to adjust their housework time allocations after female promotion events. Power dynamics cannot, however, explain all the results. Supporting the sociological theory that partners may 'do gender', we find that in households with more traditional gender role attitudes, his housework time falls while hers rises when he is terminated.
    Keywords: intra-household allocation, time use, gender, housework
    JEL: D13 J10
    Date: 2017–06
  9. By: Gaule, Patrick (CERGE-EI); Piacentini, Mario (OECD)
    Abstract: We investigate whether having an advisor of the same gender is correlated with the productivity of PhD science students and their propensity to stay in academic science. Our analysis is based on an original dataset covering nearly 20,000 PhD graduates and their advisors from U.S. chemistry departments. We find that students with an advisor of the same gender tend to be more productive during the PhD and more likely to become professors themselves. We suggest that the under-representation of women in science and engineering faculty positions may perpetuate itself through the lower availability of same-gender advisors for female students.
    Keywords: gender, PhD, postgraduate careers, science
    JEL: J24 J16 I23 O31
    Date: 2017–06
  10. By: V. Maggian; N. Montinari
    Abstract: We experimentally test for spillover effects of gender quotas on subsequent unrelated, unethical behavior. We find that introducing quotas has no systematic effect on unethical behavior for both genders. High performing, competitive females are more likely to display unethical behavior than their male counterparts.
    JEL: D03 C91 J24
    Date: 2017–06
  11. By: Raquel Tebaldi (IPC-IG); Flora Myamba (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Social protection has become prominent in the global development agenda over recent decades, with social protection systems now being included as a target under Sustainable Development Goal 1: 'End poverty in all its forms everywhere'. In developing countries, these policies have played an important role in alleviating extreme poverty, among other impacts that are increasingly being investigated. Beyond the improvement of the material conditions of beneficiaries, measures that take into account the power dynamics and inequalities within households and communities are needed for social protection programmes to properly address gender inequality in a transformative way. This special edition of Policy in Focus, which is auspiciously being released for International Women's Day 2017, covers key topics related to gender equality and social protection, featuring a wide range of contributions from women policy practitioners and scholars, presenting case studies and reflections from Brazil and various African countries". (...)
    Keywords: Social protection, gender, equality
    Date: 2017–03
  12. By: Seo-Young Cho (Philipps-University Marburg)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of social capital in determining one’s competitiveness. The analysis exploits the data of the PISA test in math because competitive occupational choices often require high quantitative skills. The empirical results highlight that a higher level of trust in school promotes one’s competition, participation, and motivation in math. However, this positive effect of trust maintains mainly in mixed-sex environments but not in single-sex competitions. The trust effect is exhausted in gender-matching environments, probably because single-sex matches reduce unfairness caused by gender discrimination. In addition to that, the effects of social capital are heterogeneous across countries. This country-asymmetric effect implies that the role of social capital is culturally defined and mediated.
    Keywords: gender; competitiveness; math studies; social capital; trust; trustworthiness; gender matching environments; institutions; survey; and East Asia.
    JEL: I24 J16 O17 O53
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Carlsson, Magnus (Linnaeus University); Eriksson, Stefan (Department of Economics, Uppsala University)
    Abstract: In most countries, there are systematic age and gender differences in labor market outcomes. Older workers and women often have lower employment rates, and the duration of unemployment increases with age. These patterns may reflect age and gender differences in either labor demand (i.e. discrimination) or labor supply. In this study, we investigate the importance of demand effects by analyzing whether employers use information about a job applicant’s age and gender in their hiring decisions. To do this, we conducted a field experiment, where over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (in the interval 35-70) and gender were sent to employers with a vacancy and the employers’ responses (callbacks) were recorded. We find that the callback rate starts to fall substantially early in the age interval we consider. This decline is steeper for women than for men. These results indicate that age discrimination is a widespread phenomenon affecting workers already in their early 40s in many occupations. Ageism and occupational skill loss due to aging are unlikely explanations of these effects. Instead, our employer survey suggests that employer stereotypes about three worker characteristics – ability to learn new tasks, flexibility/adaptability, and ambition – are important. We find no evidence of gender discrimination against women on average, but the gender effect is heterogeneous across occupations and firms. Women have a higher callback rate in female-dominated occupations and firms, and when the recruiter is a woman. These results suggest that an in-group bias affects hiring patterns, which may reinforce the existing gender segregation in the labor market.
    Keywords: age; gender; discrimination; field experiment; labor market
    JEL: J23 J71
    Date: 2017–06–15
  14. By: Yan Wendy Wu, Cindy Truong, Chen Liu (Wilfrid Laurier University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of female executives on risk-taking within US banks. An examination of US bank panel data from 2002 to 2010 provides evidence that female executives reduce levels of risk-taking in banks. We also find that a more balanced gender ratio has a greater impact on bank risk-taking than merely with the presence of female executive. The results are robust to alternative specifications of riskiness and instrument variable approach. However, when we only use part of the sample period surrounding the financial crises of 2007-2008, the results do not hold. We interpret the results as suggesting that having female executives and more balanced gender ratios in the executive team reduces bank risk-taking overall. But the risk-reduction becomes less effective during crisis years.
    Keywords: Gender, Female, Bank Executive, Diversity, Risk-taking, Lehman sister
    JEL: G21 G28 J16 J48
    Date: 2017–03–01

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