nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒06‒18
two papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender inequality in job quality. What has happened in Spain during the recession? By Ficapal-Cusí, Pilar; Díaz-Chao, Ángel; Torrent Sellens, Joan
  2. Father Absence and the Educational Gender Gap By Shelly Lundberg

  1. By: Ficapal-Cusí, Pilar; Díaz-Chao, Ángel; Torrent Sellens, Joan
    Abstract: Through a representative sample of 5,381 (3,079 men and 2,302 women) and 4,925 (2,719 men and 2,206 women) employees in 2008 and 2010, and a using two-stage structural equation model, this article empirically analyses the multi-dimensional determinants (direct effects) of gender-related job quality in Spain. The research revealed four main results. First, despite the economic crisis, job quality in Spain had improved over the analysis period. Second, the improvement in job quality during the crisis was more favourable to men than it was to women. Third, the gender differences in the explanation of job quality during the crisis increased considerably in favour of men. Fourth, this increase in gender difference in job quality in favour of men is explained by a worsening of 4 of the 5 explanatory dimensions thereof: intrinsic job quality; work organisation and workplace relationships; working conditions, work intensity and health and safety at work; and extrinsic rewards. Only inequality in the work-life balance dimension remained stable from 2008 to 2010. In terms of employment and gender equality public policy our research results suggest two important conclusions. In the first place, the importance of paying much greater attention to working environment and social relation dimensions in gender-related employment public policies. Second, gender equality public policy should also address new problems associated with the accelerated changes at work. In particular, the different job quality problems between highly skilled and less skilled working men and women, the link between gender gap and occupations, and the need to consider the different institutional regimes and organised labour to overcome gender-related job inequalities.
    Keywords: Gender inequality,job quality,Economic crisis,Structural equation modelling
    JEL: J16 J28 J53
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Shelly Lundberg (University of California Santa Barbara)
    Abstract: The educational attainment of young women now exceeds that of young men in most of the developed world, and women account for about 60% of new four-year college graduates in the United States. Several studies have suggested that the increase in single-parent households may be contributing to the growing gender gap in education, as boys are more vulnerable to the negative effects of father absence and economic disadvantage than girls. Using data on recent cohorts of young men and women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), I find evidence consistent with other studies that boys are relatively more likely to experience problems in school, including school suspensions, when their father is absent, but also that girls are relatively more likely to experience depression in adolescence, particularly in step-father families. By the time Add Health subjects are young adults, there is no evidence that father absence early in life is more strongly associated with lower rates of college graduation for men, compared to women, in either cross-sectional or family fixed-effect models.
    Keywords: education, college graduation, gender, family structure, father absence, school quality
    JEL: I20 J12 J16
    Date: 2017–06

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