nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒05‒07
thirteen papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Is the Gender Pay Gap in the US Just the Result of Gender Segregation at Work? By Meara, Katie; Pastore, Francesco; Webster, Allan
  2. Occupation and Gender By Cortes, Patricia; Pan, Jessica
  3. Segregation of women into low-paying occupations in the United States By Carlos Gradín
  4. Differences in positions along a hierarchy: Counterfactuals based on an assignment model By Gobillon, Laurent; Meurs, Dominique; Roux, Sébastien
  5. Glass Ceiling in Research: Evidence from a National Program in Uruguay By Daniel Bukstein; Néstor Gandelman
  6. Gender wage gap and the role of skills: evidence from PIAAC dataset By Christl, Michael; Köppl-Turyna, Monika
  7. Gender Gaps and Scientific Productivity in Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from Mexico By Lorena Rivera León; Jacques Mairesse; Robin Cowan
  8. Professional identity and the gender gap in risk-taking: Evidence from a field experiment with scientists By Drupp, Moritz A.; Khadjavi, Menusch; Riekhof, Marie-Catherine; Voss, Rüdiger
  9. NAFTA and the Gender Wage Gap By Shushanik Hakobyan; John McLaren
  10. Be a man or become a nurse: Comparing gender discrimination by employers across a wide variety of professions By Kübler, Dorothea; Schmid, Julia; Stüber, Robert
  11. The effect of gender-targeted conditional cash transfers on household expenditures: Evidence from a randomized experiment By Alex Armand; Orazio Attanasio; Pedro Carneiro; Valérie Lechene
  12. Queens By Oeindrila Dube; S.P. Harish
  13. Loyalty, trust, and glass ceiling: The gender effect on microcredit renewal By Mathilde Bauwin; Walid Jbili

  1. By: Meara, Katie (Bournemouth University); Pastore, Francesco (University of Naples II); Webster, Allan (Bournemouth University)
    Abstract: This study examines the gender wage gap between male and female workers in the US using a cross-section from the Current Population Survey (CPS) It shows that the extent of gender segregation by both industry and occupation is significantly greater than previously supposed. For the wage gap this creates problems of sample selection bias, of non-comparability between male and female employment. To address these problems the study uses a matching approach, which we also extend to a more recent methodological version with a yet stronger statistical foundation – Inverse Probability Weighted Regression Adjustment (IPWRA) – not previously used in related studies. Despite this, doubts remain about even these well founded and appropriate techniques in the presence of such strong gender segregation. To secure even greater precision we repeat the matching analysis for a small number of industries and occupations, each carefully selected for employing similar numbers of men and women. This is an approach that has not previously been explored in the relevant literature. The findings for the full sample are replicated at the level of industry and occupation, where comparability is more reliable. The study supports the view of the existing literature that the gender wage gap varies by factors such as age and parenthood. But it also finds that, even when these and other important "control" variables such as part-time working, industry and occupation are taken into account, a statistically significant gender wage gap remains.
    Keywords: gender pay gap, segregation, sample selection bias, propensity score matching IPWRA, USA
    JEL: C31 J16 J31
    Date: 2017–03
  2. By: Cortes, Patricia (Boston University); Pan, Jessica (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: Occupational differences by gender remain a common feature of labor markets. We begin by documenting recent trends in occupational segregation and its implications. We then review recent empirical research, focusing on new classes of explanations that emphasize the role of gender differences in psychological traits, preferences for non-pecuniary (family-friendly) job characteristics, personality traits, and skills. Using detailed data on occupational work content from O*NET linked to the American Community Survey (ACS), we examine how the various job attributes identified in the literature affect men and women's occupational choices and the gender wage gap. Finally, we consider the role of gender identity and social norms in shaping occupational choice and preferences for various job attributes. We conclude with policy implications and suggestions for future research.
    Keywords: gender, occupation, segregation, gender preferences, family-friendly, psychological traits, personality traits, identity
    JEL: J16 J24
    Date: 2017–03
  3. By: Carlos Gradín
    Abstract: We extend the conventional framework for measuring segregation to consider stratification of occupations by gender, i.e. when women or men are predominantly segregated into low-paying jobs. For this, we propose to use concentration curves and indices. Our empirical analysis using this approach shows that the decline over time in occupational gender segregation in the US has been accompanied by a deeper, longer reduction in gender stratification. We further investigate the role of workers’ characteristics, showing that gender differences cannot explain the levels of segregation/stratification in any year. However, changes over time for each gender do help to explain their trends.
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Gobillon, Laurent; Meurs, Dominique; Roux, Sébastien
    Abstract: We propose an assignment model in which positions along a hierarchy are attributed to individuals depending on their characteristics. Our theoretical framework can be used to study differences in assignment and outcomes across groups and we show how it can motivate decomposition and counterfactual exercises. It constitutes an alternative to more descriptive methods such as Oaxaca decompositions and quantile counterfactual approaches. In an application, we study gender disparities in the public and private sectors with a French exhaustive administrative dataset. Whereas females are believed to be treated more fairly in the public sector, we find that the gender gap in propensity to get job positions along the wage distribution is rather similar in the two sectors. The gender wage gap in the public sector is 13.3% and it increases by only 0.7 percentage points when workers are assigned to job positions according to the rules of the private sector. Nevertheless, the gender gap at the last decile in the public sector increases by as much as 3.6 percentage points when using the assignment rules of the private sector.
    Keywords: Assignment; Counterfactuals; Distributions; Gender; Public sector; wages
    JEL: C51 J31 J45
    Date: 2017–04
  5. By: Daniel Bukstein; Néstor Gandelman
    Abstract: This paper presents evidence that female researchers have 7.1 percentage points lower probability of being accepted into the largest national research support program in Uruguay than male researchers. They also have lower research productivity than their male counterparts. Differences in observable characteristics explain 4.9 of the 7.1 percentage point gap. The gender gap is wider at the higher ranks of the program consistent with the existence of a glass ceiling. The results are robust to issues of bidirectionality (impact of research productivity on the probability of accessing the program and impact of the program on research productivity), joint determination and correlation of variables (e.g. having a Ph.D., publishing, and tutoring), and initial productivity effects (positive results at early stages may have long-term effects on career development). The paper presents three hypotheses for the gender gap (an original sin in the organization of the system, biases in the composition of evaluation committees, and differences in field of concentration) and finds some evidence for each. Glass ceilings are stronger in the fields where women are overrepresented among the applicants to the system: medical sciences, natural sciences, and humanities. Finally, it presents a counterfactual distribution of the program in the absence of discriminatory treatment of women and discusses the economic costs of the gender gap.
    Keywords: Female Researchers, gender discrimination, gender gap, Science and Technology Policy, Human Capital, Wage Gap, Wage Distribution, gender gap, female researchers, research
    JEL: J71 J4 J16
    Date: 2017–04
  6. By: Christl, Michael; Köppl-Turyna, Monika
    Abstract: Our paper makes a first attempt to address the impact of skills and skill use in the analysis of the gender wage gap using the PIAAC dataset. Using the case of Austria, we show that skill use as well as the skill match play an important role with regard to wage regressions of men as well as women. When we take skills into account in the gender wage gap analysis, the unexplained part of the gender wage gap is reduced by almost 4 percentage points along the whole wage distribution. Our results suggest that skill use and match play a crucial role in explaining the gender wage gap. Additionally, we show, that the self-selection problem biases the results, in particular in the lower and middle parts of the wage distribution and that we should control for it, although the effect is small. When we additionally consider discretionary bonus payments, we find that the unexplained part in the gender wage gap increases, especially in the upper part of the wage distribution.
    Keywords: gender wage gap,skills,Austria
    JEL: J31 J71
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Lorena Rivera León; Jacques Mairesse; Robin Cowan
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence of the existence and determinants of the publication productivity gender gap in Mexico at the individual level, and its consequences for the Mexican scientific system and productivity at both the individual discipline and the aggregate levels. The paper specifies and performs a panel data econometric analysis based on a sample of Mexican researchers who are members of the National System of Researchers (SNI) of Mexico in the period 2002-13. It corrects for a selectivity bias: the existence of periods with no (or low-quality) publications, and endogeneity bias: promotion to higher academic ranks. It defines and implements counterfactual simulations to assess the magnitude of macro-impacts of existing gender gaps and illustrate the potential effects of a range of policy scenarios. The results show no significant gender gaps for an average SNI researcher. Moreover, after correcting for endogeneity and selectivity biases, the study finds that the average female researcher in public universities is around 8 percent more productive than her male peers, with most of the observed productivity being explained by gender differentials in the propensity to have periods of no (or low) quality publication. Barriers to promotion to higher academic ranks are highest among females in public research centers (PRCs). The study's macro scenarios on promotion practices, selectivity, collaboration, and age show that eliminating gender gaps would increase aggregate productivity by an average of 7 percent for university women and 9 percent for women in research centers.
    Keywords: Female Researchers, Scientific Productivity, Productivity Gap, Wage Level, gender gap, Gender Equality, Inequality, Work Environment, gender productivity gap, women in science, female researchers, gender gaps
    JEL: I23 C23
    Date: 2017–04
  8. By: Drupp, Moritz A.; Khadjavi, Menusch; Riekhof, Marie-Catherine; Voss, Rüdiger
    Abstract: The gender gap in risk-taking is often used to explain differences in labor market outcomes. Some studies, however, suggest that this gender gap does not extend to professional contexts. This paper examines potential drivers of the gender gap in risk-taking, comparing the professional context of academia to a private setting. We draw on identity economics, which posits that individuals form multiple identities that moderate behavior across contexts. In an online field experiment with 474 scientists we vary the salience of the professional or private identity. We find that the gender gap in risk-taking is mediated when the professional identity is salient. We identify the switching of identities by females as an explanation. Our results suggest that if the gender gap in risk-taking is driven by selection, the selection is not (only) along risk-aversion, but (also) along the ability to switch between identities and to adapt to prevailing norms. This provides new insights for the discussion on gender, risk-taking and labor market policies, and suggests an important role for mentoring programs.
    Keywords: gender,risk-taking,identity,priming,labor market,field experiment
    JEL: J16 D81 C93
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Shushanik Hakobyan (Fordham University); John McLaren (University of Virginia)
    Abstract: Using U.S. Census data for 1990–2000, we estimate effects of NAFTA on U.S. wages, focusing on differences by gender. We find that NAFTA tariff reductions are associated with substantially reduced wage growth for married blue-collar women, much larger than the effect for other demographic groups. We investigate several possible explanations for this finding. It is not explained by differential sensitivity of female-dominated occupations to trade shocks, or by household bargaining that makes married female workers less able to change their industry of employment than other workers. We find some support for an explanation based on an equilibrium theory of selective non-participation in the labor market, whereby some of the higher-wage married female workers in their industry drop out of the labor market in response to their industry’s loss of tariff. However, this does not fully explain the findings, so we are left with a puzzle.
    Keywords: NAFTA, gender wage gap, local labor markets
    JEL: F16 F13 J31
  10. By: Kübler, Dorothea; Schmid, Julia; Stüber, Robert
    Abstract: We investigate gender discrimination and its variation between firms, occupations, and industries with a factorial survey design (vignette study) for a large sample of German firms. Short CVs of fictitious applicants are presented to human resource managers who indicate the likelihood of the applicants being invited to the next step of the hiring process. We observe that women are evaluated worse than men on average, controlling for all other attributes of the CV, i.e., school grades, age, information about activities since leaving school, parents' occupations etc. Discrimination against women varies across industries and occupations, and is strongest for occupations with lower educational requirements and of lower occupational status. Women receive worse evaluations when applying for male-dominated occupations. Overall, the share of women in an occupation explains more of the difference in evaluations than any other occupation- or firm-related variable.
    Keywords: gender discrimination,hiring decisions,vignette study
    JEL: C99 J71
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Alex Armand (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Navarra (Spain)); Orazio Attanasio (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London); Pedro Carneiro (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London); Valérie Lechene (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London)
    Abstract: This paper studies the differential effect of targeting cash transfers to men or women on the structure of household expenditures on non-durables. We study a policy intervention in the Republic of Macedonia, offering cash transfers to poor households, conditional on having their children attending secondary school. The recipient of the transfer is randomized across municipalities to be either the household head or the mother. Using data collected to evaluate the conditional cash transfer program, we show that the gender of the recipient has an effect on the structure of expenditure shares. Targeting transfers to women increases the expenditure share on food by about 4 to 5%. To study the allocation of expenditures within the food basket, we estimate a demand system for food and we find that targeting payments to mothers induces, for different food categories, not only a significant intercept shift, but also a change in the slope of the Engel curve.
    Keywords: CCT, intra-household, gender, expenditure
    Date: 2016–08–19
  12. By: Oeindrila Dube; S.P. Harish
    Abstract: Are states led by women less prone to conflict than states led by men? We answer this question by examining the effect of female rule on war among European polities over the 15th-20th centuries. We utilize gender of the first born and presence of a female sibling among previous monarchs as instruments for queenly rule. We find that polities led by queens were more likely to engage in war than polities led by kings. Moreover, the tendency of queens to engage as aggressors varied by marital status. Among unmarried monarchs, queens were more likely to be attacked than kings. Among married monarchs, queens were more likely to participate as attackers than kings, and, more likely to fight alongside allies. These results are consistent with an account in which marriages strengthened queenly reigns because married queens were more likely to secure alliances and enlist their spouses to help them rule. Married kings, in contrast, were less inclined to utilize a similar division of labor. These asymmetries, which reflected prevailing gender norms, ultimately enabled queens to pursue more aggressive war policies.
    JEL: D74 F51 H56 J16 N43
    Date: 2017–04
  13. By: Mathilde Bauwin; Walid Jbili
    Abstract: Whereas most research into microfinance tends to focus on the impact of access to such services, very little pays attention to what happens over time once a person becomes a client. The paper aims at analysing the conditions of loan renewals as most microfinance institutions foster client retention and apply a progressive lending policy. Moreover, as previous studies have shown that women are not always favoured regarding loan amounts granted, the progressive lending policy is analysed from a gender perspective. The work is based on a case study about the main Tunisian microfinance institution using longitudinal client data. The analysis focuses on the growth rate of amounts granted over credit cycles. As some clients leave the microfinance institution after one or several loans, we follow a procedure enabling us to correct the selection bias with panel data. The results show that, all things being equal, the growth rates tend to increase over cycles, probably reflecting an increasingly trusting relationship between the microfinance institution and its clients. However, this increase is slower for women, revealing a less favourable progressive lending policy towards women. Consequently, as women already start from a lower position, initial inequalities cannot be counterbalanced.
    Date: 2017

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