nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒04‒30
eleven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Differences in Unemployment Dynamics and Initial Wages over the Business Cycle By NAGORE GARCIA Amparo
  2. Gender Differences in Careers By SATO Kaori; HASHIMOTO Yuki; OWAN Hideo
  3. Gender Differences in Tournament Choices: Risk Preferences, Overconfidence or Competitiveness? By van Veldhuizen, Roel
  4. Does Classroom Gender Composition Affect School Dropout? By Bulent Anil; Duygu Guner; Tuba Toru Delibasi; Gokce Uysal
  5. Why Do Women Favor Same-Gender Competition? Evidence from a Choice Experiment By Norma Burow; Miriam Beblo; Denis Beninger; Melanie Schröder
  6. Can gender differences in distributional preferences explain gender gaps in competition? By Utteeyo Dasgupta; Subha Mani; Smriti Sharma; Saurabh Singhal
  7. Fathers, Parental Leave and Gender Norms By Ulrike Unterhofer; Katharina Wrohlich
  8. Measuring Applicant Quality to Detect Discrimination In Peer-to-Peer Lending By Weizsäcker, Georg; Zankiewicz, Christian
  9. The spillover effects of gender quotas on dishonesty By Valeria Maggian; Natalia Montinari
  10. Do Women in Highly Qualified Positions Face Higher Work-To-Family Conflicts in Germany than Men? By Anne Busch-Heizmann; Elke Holst
  11. Trends in gender differences in health and mortality at working ages among West and East Germans By Mine Kühn; Christian Dudel; Tobias C. Vogt; Anna Oksuzyan

  1. By: NAGORE GARCIA Amparo
    Abstract: Using administrative data from Spanish Social Security for the period 2002-2013, we explore differences between unemployed men and women in their probabilities to find a job, their initial wages if they find a new job, and the likelihood to fall back into unemployment. We estimate bivariate proportional hazard models for unemployment duration and for the consecutive job duration for men and women separately, and decompose the gender gap using a non-linear Oaxaca decomposition. Gender differentials in labour market outcomes are procyclical, probably due to the procyclical nature of typically male occupations. While a higher level of education protects women in particular from unemployment, having children hampers women?s employment and initial wages after unemployment. There are lower gender gaps in the public sector and in high technology- firms. Decompositions show that the gender gaps are not explained by differences in sample composition. Indeed, if women had similar characteristics to men, the gender gap would be even wider.
    Keywords: unemployment duration; job duration; decomposition; labour market outcomes
    JEL: C14 E32 J62 J64
    Date: 2017–04
  2. By: SATO Kaori; HASHIMOTO Yuki; OWAN Hideo
    Abstract: Past literature has shown that job segregation by gender is one major cause of the widely observed gender pay gap and that there is also a gender difference in developmental job assignments for broader job experience. This paper examines how gender differences in job assignments are associated with the gender gap in pay and promotion using the personnel records of a Japanese manufacturing company. One of the major findings is that broader work experience through job transfers across establishments are associated with a higher promotion probability and future wages for employees of both genders, but this relationship is especially strong for women, which is consistent with the existence of statistical discrimination against them. Furthermore, according to our fixed effects model estimation of wage function, broader work experience leads to higher wages for men but not for women, implying that women accept promotions without pay raises much more often than men.
    Date: 2017–03
  3. By: van Veldhuizen, Roel (WZB Berlin Social Science Center)
    Abstract: A large number of recent experimental studies show that women are less likely to sort into competitive environments. While part of this effect may be explained by gender differences in risk attitudes and overconfidence, previous studies have attributed the majority of the gender gap to gender differences in a separate \\\'competitiveness\\\' trait. We re-examine this result using a novel experimental technique that allows us to separate competitiveness from alternative explanations by experimental design. In contrast to the literature, our results imply that the whole gender gap is driven by risk attitudes and overconfidence, which has important implications for future research.
    Keywords: gender; competitiveness; lab experiment; experimental design;
    JEL: C90 J16 D03
    Date: 2017–03–25
  4. By: Bulent Anil; Duygu Guner; Tuba Toru Delibasi; Gokce Uysal (Bahcesehir University)
    Abstract: Measuring the gender peer effects on student achievement has recently attracted a lot of attention in the literature. Yet, the results are inconclusive. A substantial amount of research shows that having relatively more girls in a division increases the academic achievement of all students. Nevertheless, the identification of pure gender effects remains a challenge due to the fact that girls outperform boys in overall academic performance. Our study overcomes this identification problem in a setting where girls are not academically better. Using 2009-2010 school year data on 8th graders in Turkey, this paper disentangles pure "academic" peer effects and "gender" peer effects. Our estimations reveal that the higher the share of females in a division, the lower the likelihood that a student drops out. One standard deviation increase in the share of females in the division decreases the likelihood of dropout by 0.3 percentage points. This result holds even though females are 9.32 percentage points more likely to drop out. These findings are robust to the inclusion of various control variables e.g. parental and academic background of the student, school and regional characteristics. We also find that the gender peer effects are prevalent in both females and males.
    Date: 2017–04–20
  5. By: Norma Burow; Miriam Beblo; Denis Beninger; Melanie Schröder
    Abstract: This paper addresses the behavioral puzzle of women’s preference for competition when competitors are also women. Using a framed field experiment with 883 non-standard subjects, we show that none of the determinants of competitive behavior in general, including ability, self-confidence and risk aversion, provide a satisfying explanation for women’s substantive gender-related selection into competition. Nonetheless, women who are overconfident, i.e. over-estimate own abilities in performing a task, enter competition regardless of the gender-mix. Hence, the gender-pairing phenomenon is driven by women who correctly estimate or under-estimate own ability. We concluded that this is due to stereotypes about women’s underperformance compared to men.
    Keywords: Preferences for competition, gender, group composition, self-confidence
    JEL: C99 D83 J16
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Utteeyo Dasgupta; Subha Mani; Smriti Sharma; Saurabh Singhal
    Abstract: We design an experiment to examine whether egalitarian preferences, and in particular, behindness aversion as well as preference for favourable inequality affect competitive choices differently among males and females. We find that selection into competitive environments is: (a) negatively related to egalitarian preferences, with smaller negative impacts of being egalitarian on females’ choice of the tournament wage scheme, and (b) negatively associated with behindness aversion and positively related to preference for favourable inequality, with significant gender differences in the impact of these distributional preferences. Once we allow for the impact of distributional preferences, behavioural, personality, and socioeconomic characteristics to vary by gender, the pure gender effect is explained away. We find that gender gaps in distributional preferences along with selected personality traits are the most relevant explanations for gender differences in willingness to compete. This is an important result as these characteristics are per se malleable and amenable to policy interventions.
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Ulrike Unterhofer; Katharina Wrohlich
    Abstract: Social norms and attitudes towards gender roles have been shown to have a large effect on economic outcomes of men and women. Many countries have introduced policies that aim at changing gender stereotypes, for example fathers’ quota in parental leave schemes. In this paper, we analyze whether the introduction of the fathers’ quota in Germany in 2007, that caused a sharp increase in the take-up of parental leave by fathers, has changed the attitudes towards gender roles in the grandparents’ generation. To this end, we exploit the quasi-experimental setting of the 2007 reform and compare grandparents whose son had a child born before the 2007 reform to grandparents whose son had a child born after it. Our results suggest that such policy programs not only induce direct behavioral responses by the target group but also have indirect effects on non-treated individuals through social interaction and can thus change attitudes towards gender roles in a society as a whole.
    Keywords: Parental leave, gender equality, social norms, social interaction, policy evaluation
    JEL: J16 J18 J22 H31 D13
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Weizsäcker, Georg (Humboldt University Berlin and DIW Berlin); Zankiewicz, Christian (DIW Berlin)
    Abstract: We measure the quality of applications for online peer-to-peer lending in Germany and relate it to gender discrimination. The data context allows summarizing application quality as a single numeric measure, the expected internal rate of return. The measure serves as a control variable and is interacted with the applicants\' gender. We find that women enjoy higher funding rates than men, mainly because they are less punished when they offer a low application quality. The evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that the predominantly male lenders have a less precise understanding of women\'s applications than of men\'s applications.
    Keywords: Gender discrimination; household finance; irrational beliefs;
    JEL: D14 D84
    Date: 2017–03–25
  9. By: Valeria Maggian (Univ Lyon, CNRS, GATE L-SE UMR 5824, F-69130 Ecully, France); Natalia Montinari (University of Bologna, Piazza Scaravilli 2, 40126, Bologna, Italy)
    Abstract: We experimentally test for spillover effects of gender quotas on subsequent unrelated, unethical behavior. We find that introducing quotas has no systematic effect on unethical behavior for both genders. High performing, competitive females are more likely to display unethical behavior than their male counterparts.
    Keywords: Affirmative action, spillover effects, unethical behavior, competition, laboratory experiments
    JEL: D03 C91 J24
    Date: 2017
  10. By: Anne Busch-Heizmann; Elke Holst
    Abstract: Changing employment conditions lead to new chances, but also new risks for employees. In the literature, increasing permeability between occupational and private life is discussed as one special outcome of this development that employees must face, especially those in highly qualified positions. Drawing on existing research, we investigate in how far women and men in those positions differ in their perceived work-to-family conflicts (WFC), considering the mediating role of gender specific job opportunities. Referring conflicting theoretical arguments, we hypothesize that in Germany - as a conservative welfare state - women, especially those with family responsibilities, will perceive higher WFC than men in those positions. Our analysis is based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP). Using the Siegrist instrument on effort-reward imbalance we find that women in highly qualified positions perceive higher WFC than men. This association is explained by women’s lower willingness to take risks, and also party explained by lower job rewards women receive. It gets visible even more strongly if women’s lower time-based burdens in the job are controlled for. Mixed results are observed concerning associations between family responsibilities and WFC, which is in line with ambivalent results in the literature.
    Keywords: Work-to-family conflict, highly qualified positions, managers, gender, SOEP
    JEL: I3 B54 M1
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Mine Kühn (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Christian Dudel (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Tobias C. Vogt (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Anna Oksuzyan (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: -
    Keywords: Germany, gender, health, satisfaction, sex differentials
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2017–04

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