nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒04‒23
fourteen papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Investigating Gender Wage Gap in Employment: A Microeconometric Type-Analysis for Cameroon By Mbratana, Taoufiki; Kenne Fotié, Andrée
  2. Female leaders and gender gaps within the firm: Evidence from three sub-Saharan African countries By Giulia La Mattina; Gabriel Picone; Alban Ahoure; Jose Carlos Kimou
  3. Gender Differences in Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Competitive Behavior By Carpenter, Jeffrey P.; Frank, Rachel; Huet-Vaughn, Emiliano
  4. The role of gender in employment polarization By Fabio Cerina; Alessio Moro; Michelle Petersen Rendall
  5. When Harry Fired Sally: The Double Standard in Punishing Misconduct By Egan, Mark L.; Matvos, Gregor; Seru, Amit
  6. Household Composition and Gender Difference in Parental Time Investments By Andrew Bibler
  7. Gender divide in agricultural productivity in Mozambique By João Morgado; Vincenzo Salvucci
  8. Gender Differences in Competitive Positions: Experimental Evidence on Job Promotion By Emmanuel Peterle; Holger Rau
  9. GENDER AND CENTRAL BANKING By Ibrahima Diouf; Dominique Pépin
  10. Migration and Gender: Who Gains and in Which Ways? By Kate Preston; Arthur Grimes
  11. Gender Quotas in the Board Room and Firm Performance: Evidence from a Credible Threat in Sweden By Tyrefors Hinnerich, Björn; Jansson, Joakim
  12. Gender and Birth Order Effects on Intra-household Schooling Choices and Education Attainments in Kenya By Fredrick M. Wamalwa; Justine Burns
  13. Personality Traits, Intra-household Allocation and the Gender Wage Gap By Christopher Flinn; Petra Todd; Weilong Zhang
  14. Gender, Informal Employment and Trade Liberalization in Mexico By Pamela Bombarda; Sarra Ben Yahmed

  1. By: Mbratana, Taoufiki; Kenne Fotié, Andrée
    Abstract: Using the 2007 Cameroon Household Consumption Survey, we study gender wage disparity in pay-employment and self-employment. The main question considered in this paper is to know why women pay-employment and self-employment wages are relatively low. More generally, what is the underlying factors generating and explained wage gap between men and women householder in employment? To answer to our question, firstly, we use the Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) Decomposition to explain wage gap. Afterward, we perform Quantile Regression Decomposition using Machado and Mata (MM) method to see at different level of wage distribution the gap behaviour. Our main findings indicate that in the both methods, the wage gap is due to unexplained component in self-employment and to explained component in pay-employment with particularly strong effects at the extreme of wage distribution. In fine, governments should promote further development of work/life balance policies and other public employment supports to facilitate female labour force participation. Besides, future policy development should focus on remaining gender gaps in employment outcomes, including persistent occupational and sectorial concentration.
    Keywords: Gender; Pay-employment; Self-employment; Wage gap; Quantile regression; Cameroon.
    JEL: C31 J31 J71
    Date: 2017–03–30
  2. By: Giulia La Mattina; Gabriel Picone; Alban Ahoure; Jose Carlos Kimou
    Abstract: We study the association between the gender of the highest-ranking manager (the CEO) and gender differences in employees’ outcomes using detailed linked employer–employee data from the formal sector in Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, and Senegal. Our empirical strategy relies on the inclusion of firm fixed effects and workers’ characteristics. Our results point toward a negative correlation between female CEO and the relative wages and job satisfaction of female employees. However, female employees working under a female CEO who owns the firm are not paid less than their male colleagues.
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Carpenter, Jeffrey P. (Middlebury College); Frank, Rachel (Yale Law School); Huet-Vaughn, Emiliano (Middlebury College)
    Abstract: Gender differences in competitive behavior have been well documented by economists and other social scientists; however, the bulk of the research addresses competition with others and excludes other economically relevant competition that may contribute to the gender pay gap. In this paper, we ask: How does gender affect how individuals react to competition against themselves? In a laboratory experiment in which some subjects compete against others and some compete against themselves, we find women select into intrapersonal competition at significantly higher rates than interpersonal competition, the first such findings. We find perseverance or "grit" to be a poor predictor of interpersonal competition selection, but find familial effects such as parent's education and number of brothers to be correlated with competition selection.
    Keywords: gender, competition, tournament, real effort, labor
    JEL: C92 J16 M52
    Date: 2017–03
  4. By: Fabio Cerina; Alessio Moro; Michelle Petersen Rendall
    Abstract: WWe document that U.S. employment polarization in the 1980-2008 period is largely generated by women. Female employment shares increase both at the bottom and at the top of the skill distribution, generating the typical U-shape polarization graph, while male employment shares decrease in a more similar fashion along the whole skill distribution. We show that a canonical model of skill-biased technological change augmented with a gender dimension, an endogenous market/home labor choice and a multi-sector environment accounts well for gender and overall employment polarization. The model also accounts for the absence of employment polarization during the 1960- 1980 period and broadly reproduces the different evolution of employment shares across decades during the 1980-2008 period. The faster growth of skill-biased technological change since the 1980s accounts for most of the employment polarization generated by the model.
    Keywords: Job polarization, gender, skill-biased technological change, home production
    JEL: E20 E21 J16
    Date: 2017–03
  5. By: Egan, Mark L. (University of MN); Matvos, Gregor (University of Chicago); Seru, Amit (Stanford University)
    Abstract: We examine gender discrimination in the financial advisory industry. We study a less salient mechanism for discrimination, firm discipline following missteps. There are substantial differences in the punishment of misconduct across genders. Although both female and male advisers are disciplined for misconduct, female advisers are punished more severely. Following an incidence of misconduct, female advisers are 20% more likely to lose their jobs and 30% less likely to find new jobs relative to male advisers. Females face harsher punishment despite engaging in less costly misconduct and despite a lower propensity towards repeat offenses. Relative to women, men are three times as likely to engage in misconduct, are twice as likely to be repeat offenders, and engage in misconduct that is 20% costlier. Evidence suggests that the observed behavior is not driven by productivity differences across advisers. Rather, we find supporting evidence for taste-based discrimination. For females, a disproportionate share of misconduct complaints is initiated by the firm, instead of customers or regulators. Moreover, there is significant heterogeneity among firms. Firms with a greater percentage of male executives/owners at a given branch tend to punish female advisers more severely following misconduct and also tend to hire fewer female advisers with past record of misconduct.
    JEL: D18 G24 G28 J71
    Date: 2017–03
  6. By: Andrew Bibler (Institute of Social and Economic Reesarch, Department of Economics, University of Alaska Anchorage)
    Abstract: Recent research documents considerable gender gaps in non-cognitive skills among children and adolescents raised in single-parent households. However, determining the source of these gaps is complicated due to the presence of many interrelated and often unobservable inputs. One potential explanation for such gaps is that boys and girls receive different levels of parental time investments. If correlated with household structure differentially by gender, time investments could help explain gender differences in non-cognitive skills, as well as the sensitivity of outcomes and behavior of boys to household composition. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and accompanying Child Development Supplement (CDS), I estimate gender differences in parental time investments, defined as the amount of time parents spend participating in activities with the child, around changes in household composition. I find that, although both boys and girls experience reductions in parental time investments following a change from a two-parent to single-mother household, boys experience a larger reduction than girls. The largest difference is found in fathers’ time investments on weekdays, for which boys lose an additional 24 minutes per day (35% of average paternal weekday investments). Moreover, there is little to no evidence that single mothers compensate for the loss by increasing time investments to boys relative to girls.
    Keywords: education
    JEL: J12 J13 J16 J24 I20
    Date: 2017–03
  7. By: João Morgado; Vincenzo Salvucci
    Abstract: In this study we analyze the gender gap in agricultural productivity in Mozambique applying the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition approach on data from four agricultural surveys between 2002 and 2012. We find that female-headed households are on average substantially less productive (about 20 per cent) than male-headed households, and that differences are more pronounced in the centre-north compared to the south. The gap persists even though female-headed households are disproportionally found in relatively smaller plots, and a pronounced inverse-size productivity relation exists. We could identify some of the most important drivers of this divide linked to differences in endowments. However, a larger proportion is accounted for by the structural part, potentially linked to technical efficiency, pure discrimination, or other unobservable characteristics.
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Emmanuel Peterle (CRESE - Centre de REcherches sur les Stratégies Economiques - UFC - UFC - Université de Franche-Comté, UBFC - Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté); Holger Rau (Universität Göttingen)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes gender differences in access to competitive positions. We implement an experiment where workers can apply for a job promotion by sending a signal to their employer. We control for gender differences in anticipation of discrimination in a treatment where a computer randomly recruits. Discriminatory behavior by the employer is isolated in a treatment where workers cannot send signals. We find that gender disparity among promoted workers is highest when workers can apply for promotion and employers recruit. Strikingly, the gender composition in competitive position is balanced in the absence of a signaling institution. When signaling is possible, we observe that female workers who do not request a promotion are discriminated against.
    Keywords: Real Effort, Discrimination, Gender Differences,Experiment
    Date: 2017–01–01
  9. By: Ibrahima Diouf (CRIEF - Centre de Recherche sur l'Intégration Economique et Financière - Université de Poitiers); Dominique Pépin (CRIEF - Centre de Recherche sur l'Intégration Economique et Financière - Université de Poitiers)
    Abstract: Female Central Bank chairs represent but a tiny minority. To understand why, this article analyzes socioeconomic and socio-political characteristics of the countries where females have chaired Central Banks. Then, it suggests that gender differences in preferences as regards monetary policy goals may have some influence. This hypothesis is based on an empirical analysis showing that female Central Bank chairs focus more than their male colleagues on achieving the price stability goal. This means, then, that females are more resistant than males to political pressures. Finally, it concludes that gender differences in degree of conservatism, may be an explanatory factor in female underrepresentation in the Central Bank chairs.
    Keywords: monetary policy,Central Bank,gender gap,preference parameters,female,conservatism
    Date: 2017–02
  10. By: Kate Preston (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Arthur Grimes (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: Empirical studies have consistently documented that while married men tend to lead more prosperous careers after moving than before, migration tends to be disruptive for the careers of married women. However, there has been little exploration of the interaction of non-economic outcomes of migration by gender and relationship-status. We explore whether migration is followed by a change in subjective wellbeing (SWB), and how this experience differs by individuals of different gender and relationship-status. These results are compared to wage differences following migration. We further analyse how outcomes differ according to the motivation for moving, including motivations for moving of both partners in a couple relationship. Our empirical estimates use longitudinal data on internal migrants in the Australian HILDA dataset. We show that females have a stronger tendency than males to reach higher levels of SWB after moving, while males have a stronger tendency than females to increase their earnings. These gender differences are mostly not significant for single individuals, but become quite pronounced for couples. Differences tend to narrow, but do not disappear, once we account for motivations for moving of individuals and, where relevant, of their partner. In particular, those who move for work-related reasons experience higher wage incomes after moving, regardless of gender or relationship-status.
    Keywords: Migration, gender, relationship-status, subjective wellbeing, wages.
    JEL: D13 I31 J16 J22 R23
    Date: 2017–04
  11. By: Tyrefors Hinnerich, Björn (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Jansson, Joakim (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: Board room quotas have recently received an increasing amount of attention. This paper provides novel evidence on firm performance from an exogenous change in female board participation in Sweden. We use the credible threat, aimed at listed firms, of a quota law enacted by the Swedish deputy prime minister as an exogenous variation. The threat caused a substantial and rapid increase in the share of female board members in firms listed on the Stockholm stock exchange. This increase was accompanied by an increase in different measures of firm performance in the same years, which were related to higher sales and lower labor costs.
    Keywords: Gender quotas; Corporate boards; Firm performance
    JEL: G34 G38 J16 J48 J78 M12 M51
    Date: 2017–04–18
  12. By: Fredrick M. Wamalwa (School of Economics, University of Cape Town); Justine Burns (School of Economics, University of Cape Town)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the effect of two important family characteristics - gender and birth order- on intra-household investments in, and educational outcomes of, children in Kenya. We measure intra-household education investments in children by household's decision to enrol children in private schools and educational outcomes by two variables, completed years of education and relative grade attainment. We use a large household survey data that allows us to apply the family fixed effects models that address the potential endogeneity of children's gender and family size as well as factors that are unobservable at the household level. Although we do not find an intra-household gender preference in terms of investments in children's education, there is a female advantage in terms of the two measured education outcomes. Such female advantage is in contrast with literature generally reported from developing countries. It is, however, in line with global trends which show that more girls are getting educated and the gender gap in education has narrowed considerably. Regarding birth order effects, we find significant negative birth order effects on private enrolment, completed years of education and relative grade attainment. The negative birth order effects are not in line with the evidence from many other developing countries but are in line with results from developed countries. Our results are robust to different sample restrictions. We find that household wealth plays a significant role in propagating the birth order but not the gender effects we observe.
    Keywords: Birth order, gender, household fixed effects, fully interacted models, Kenya
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Christopher Flinn (New York University); Petra Todd (University of Pennsylvania); Weilong Zhang (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: A model of how personality traits affect household time and resource allocation decisions and wages is developed and estimated. In the model, households choose between two modes of behavior: cooperative or noncooperative. Spouses receive wage offers and allocate time to supplying labor market hours and to producing a public good. Personality traits, measured by the so-called Big Five traits, can affect household bargaining weights and wage offers. Model parameters are estimated by Simulated Method of Moments using the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) data. Personality traits are found to be important determinants of household bargaining weights and of wage offers and to have substantial implications for understanding the sources of gender wage disparities.
    Keywords: gender wage differentials, personality and economics outcomes, household bargaining, Time Allocation
    JEL: D10 J12 J16 J22 J31 J71
    Date: 2017–04
  14. By: Pamela Bombarda; Sarra Ben Yahmed (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: We study how trade liberalization a ects labour reallocation in formal and informal jobs across gender. We link the Mexican labour force survey with data on tariffs at the 4-digit level from 1993 to 2001, and find that a tariff reduction increases the probability of holding a formal job for both men and women within industries. Constructing a regional tarif measure, we show that local effects of changes in trade policy differ between gender and industries. At the regional level, trade liberalization decreases the probability of working formally for women, but increases the probability of working formally for high- skilled men. Then, controlling for sectoral differences, we find that in the manufacturing sector, men benefit more from the formalization of jobs induced by trade liberalization. While in the service sector, workers, especially low- skilled women, have higher chances to work informally.
    Keywords: Informality, trade liberalization, gender, Mexico.
    JEL: F13 F16 J16 J21
    Date: 2017

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