nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒04‒16
nine papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Let the Girls Learn! It is not Only about Math… It's about Gender Social Norms By Nollenberger, Natalia; Rodríguez-Planas, Núria
  2. Gender and Peer Effects in Social Networks By Julie Beugnot; Bernard Fortin; Guy Lacroix; Marie Villeval
  3. Can Gender Differences in Distributional Preferences Explain Gender Gaps in Competition? By Mani, Subha; Dasgupta, Utteeyo; Sharma, Smriti; Singhal, Saurabh
  4. Smog in our brains: Gender differences in the impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance in China: By Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xin
  5. Catching Up to Girls: Understanding the Gender Imbalance in Educational Attainment Within Race By Esteban Aucejo; Jonathan James
  6. Gender bias and the intrahousehold distribution of resources: Evidence from African nuclear households in South Africa By Olivier Bargain; Prudence Kwenda; Miracle Ntuli
  7. Changing gender roles in agriculture?: Evidence from 20 years of data in Ghana: By Lambrecht, Isabel; Schuster, Monica; Asare, Sarah; Pelleriaux, Laura
  8. He says, she says: Exploring patterns of spousal agreement in Bangladesh: By Ambler, Kate; Doss, Cheryl; Kieran, Caitlin; Passarelli, Simone
  9. What are the determinants of the pay gap between conventional firms and cooperatives? Evidence from France By Franck Bailly; Karine Chapelle; Lionel Prouteau

  1. By: Nollenberger, Natalia (IE University); Rodríguez-Planas, Núria (Queens College, CUNY)
    Abstract: Using PISA test scores from 11,527 second-generation immigrants coming from 35 different countries of ancestry and living in 9 host countries, we find that the positive effects of country-of-ancestry gender social norms on girls' math test scores relative to those of boys: (1) expand to other subjects (namely reading and science); (2) are shaped by beliefs on women's political empowerment and economic opportunity; and (3) are driven by parents' influencing their children's (especially their girls') preferences. Our evidence further suggest that these findings are driven by cognitive skills, suggesting that social gender norms affect parent's expectations on girls' academic knowledge relative to that of boys, but not on other attributes for success--such as non-cognitive skills. Taken together, our results highlight the relevance of general (as opposed to math-specific) gender stereotypes on the math gender gap, and suggest that parents' gender social norms shape youth's test scores by transmitting preferences for cognitive skills.
    Keywords: gender gap in math, reading and science, immigrants, beliefs and preferences, cognitive and non-cognitive skills, culture and institutions
    JEL: I21 I24 J16 Z13
    Date: 2017–03
  2. By: Julie Beugnot (CRESE - Centre de REcherches sur les Stratégies Economiques - UFC - UFC - Université de Franche-Comté); Bernard Fortin (CIRANO - Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en analyse des organisations - UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal , CRREP - Centre de recherche sur les risques, les enjeux économiques, et les politiques publiques - Université Laval); Guy Lacroix (CIRANO - Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en analyse des organisations - UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal , CRREP - Centre de recherche sur les risques, les enjeux économiques, et les politiques publiques - Université Laval); Marie Villeval (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Etienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We investigate whether peer effects at work differ by gender and whether the gender difference in peer effects-if any-depends on work organization, precisely the structure of social networks. We develop a social network model with gender heterogeneity that we test by means of a real-effort laboratory experiment. We compare sequential networks in which information on peers flows exclusively downward (from peers to the worker) and simultaneous networks where it disseminates bi-directionally along an undirected line (from peers to the worker and from the worker to peers). We identify strong gender differences in peer effects, as males' effort increases with peers' performance in both types of network, whereas females behave conditionally. While they are influenced by peers in sequential networks, females disregard their peers' performance when information flows in both directions. We reject that the difference between networks is driven by having one's performance observed by others or by the presence of peers in the same session in simultaneous networks. We interpret the gender difference in terms of perception of a higher competitiveness of the environment in simultaneous than in sequential networks because of the bi-directional flow of information.
    Keywords: Gender,peer effects,social networks,work effort,experiment
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Mani, Subha (Fordham University); Dasgupta, Utteeyo (Fordham University); Sharma, Smriti (UNU-WIDER); Singhal, Saurabh (UNU-WIDER)
    Abstract: We design an experiment to examine whether egalitarian preferences, and in particular, behindness aversion as well as preference for favorable inequality affect competitive choices differently among males and females. We find that selection into competitive environments is: (a) negatively related to egalitarian preferences, with smaller negative impacts of being egalitarian on females' choice of the tournament wage scheme, and (b) negatively associated with behindness aversion and positively related to preference for favorable inequality, with significant gender differences in the impact of these distributional preferences. Once we allow for the impact of distributional preferences, behavioral, personality, and socioeconomic characteristics to vary by gender, the pure gender effect is explained away. We find that gender gaps in distributional preferences along with selected personality traits are the most relevant explanations for gender differences in willingness to compete. This is an important result as these characteristics are per se malleable and amenable to policy interventions.
    Keywords: competitiveness, distributional preferences, gender differences
    JEL: C91 D03 D63 J16
    Date: 2017–03
  4. By: Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xin
    Abstract: While there is a large body of literature on the negative health effects of air pollution, there is much less written about its effects on cognitive performance for the whole population. This paper studies the effects of contemporaneous and cumulative exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance based on a nationally representative survey in China. By merging a longitudinal sample at the individual level with local air-quality data according to the exact dates and counties of interviews, we find that contemporaneous and cumulative exposure to air pollution impedes both verbal and math scores of survey subjects. Interestingly, the negative effect is stronger for men than for women. Specifically, the gender difference is more salient among the old and less educated in both verbal and math tests.
    Keywords: CHINA; EAST ASIA; ASIA, gender; pollution; air pollution, cognitive performance; gender difference; human capital, I24 Education and Inequality; Q53 Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Noise, Hazardous Waste, Solid Waste, Recycling; Q51 Valuation of Environmental Effects; J16 Economics of Gender, Non-labor Discrimination,
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Esteban Aucejo (Department of Economics, Arizona State University); Jonathan James (Department of Economics, California Polytechnic State University)
    Abstract: Black females are 17 percentage points more likely to attend college than black males, making the gender gap among black youth larger than the black-white racial gap in college enrollment (14.7 pp). We estimate a sequential model of schooling and arrests to assess the major contributing factors to the gender imbalance in educational attainment within racial groups. First, we find that di erences between males and females in measures of early behavior account for the majority of the gender gap for each racial group. Second, despite the fact that 50% of black males were arrested at least once before age 25, we find little evidence that arrest outcomes in uence educational attainment, and that the negative correlation of educational attainment and arrests is entirely attributable to the same behavioral factors that explain the gender gap in education. Finally, we find that black males have the largest response to improvements in family background characteristics, such that equalizing the distribution of family background characteristics for black and white youths reduces the gender gap in college enrollment among black youth by 50% and completely eliminates the black-white racial gap in college enrollment.
    Keywords: Gender Gap, Educational Attainment, Behavior, Factors, Race
    JEL: I2 J15 J16
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Olivier Bargain; Prudence Kwenda; Miracle Ntuli
    Abstract: This paper applies recent developments in collective model estimation to elicit the household resource sharing rule, i.e. the amount of household resources accruing to fathers, mothers, and their children among African families in South Africa. We use the 2010/11 South African Income and Expenditure Survey as it contains exclusive goods, i.e. goods consumed by specific household members, to be used for identification. We rely on a collective model of household consumption that accounts for (potentially unequal) resource sharing and jointness in consumption (generating economies of scale). Results indicate that men tend to receive more than women (even if imprecise estimates make the difference statistically insignificant) and there is a sharp gender differential in terms of poverty. Ignoring economies of scale leads to an overestimation of poverty among adult men and women living with others. Children’s resource shares are in line with international standards but household resources are relatively low among African families so that ignoring intrahousehold allocation leads to an underestimation of child poverty.
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Lambrecht, Isabel; Schuster, Monica; Asare, Sarah; Pelleriaux, Laura
    Abstract: At a time when donors and governments are increasing efforts to mainstream gender in agriculture, it is critical to revisit long-standing wisdom about gender inequalities in agriculture to be able to more efficiently design and evaluate policy interventions. Many stylized facts about women in agriculture have been repeated for decades. Did nothing really change? Is some of this conventional wisdom simply maintained over time, or has it always been inaccurate? We use longitudinal data from Ghana to assess some of the facts and to evaluate whether gender patterns have changed over time. We focus on five main themes: land, cropping patterns, market participation, agricultural inputs, and employment. We add to the literature by showing new facts and evidence from more than 20 years. Results are varied and highlight the difficulty of making general statements about gender in agriculture.
    Keywords: GHANA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA, gender; land; cropping patterns; markets; resources; inputs; farm inputs; employment; labor; labour; working population; women, common wisdoms; longitudinal data; feminization of agriculture,
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Ambler, Kate; Doss, Cheryl; Kieran, Caitlin; Passarelli, Simone
    Abstract: Participation in household decisions and control over assets are often used as indicators of bargaining power. Yet spouses do not necessarily provide the same answers to questions about these topics. We examine differences in spouses’ answers to questions regarding who participates in decisions about household activities, who owns assets, and who decides to purchase assets. Disagreement is substantial and systematic, with women more likely to report joint ownership or decision making and men more likely to report sole male ownership or decision making. Analysis of correlations between agreement and women’s well-being finds that agreement on joint decision making/ownership is generally positively associated with beneficial outcomes for women compared with agreement on sole male decision making/ownership. Cases of disagreement where women recognize their involvement but men do not are also positively associated with good outcomes for women, but often to a lesser extent than when men agree that women are involved.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA, gender; gender relations; households; assets; ownership; decision making; families; social structure; women; communities; bargaining power; measurement, intrahousehold,
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Franck Bailly (CREAM - CREAM - Université de Rouen); Karine Chapelle (CREAM - CREAM - Université de Rouen); Lionel Prouteau (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - UN - Université de Nantes)
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to study the wage differentials between conventional firms and non-worker cooperatives, which has seldom been done in the literature to date. Using French administrative data, we analyse the determinants of these wage differentials. This investigation is carried out across all industries and it is repeated for the banking industry. Taking all industries into account, conventional firms offer lower wages than cooperatives. Most of this pay gap is explained by differences in the characteristics of the employees, jobs and companies. If we focus just on firms in the banking industry, it becomes clear that conventional firms pay higher wages than cooperatives but this gap is explained solely by differences in characteristics. However, their impact is weakened somewhat by differences in the wage return to these characteristics, which work in favour of employees in cooperatives.
    Keywords: cooperatives, banking cooperatives, wage, wage comparison between sectors
    Date: 2017–02–03

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