nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒03‒26
twelve papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Is the gender pay gap in the US just the result of gender segregation at work? By Meara, Katie; Pastore, Francesco; Webster, Allan
  2. Gender Perceptions and Organisational Climate: A Study of Two Structurally Different Large Organisations in India By Manish Kumar; Hemang Jauhari; Rani S Ladha; Niti Shekhar
  3. The economic consequences of family policies: lessons from a century of legislation in high-income countries By Claudia Olivetti; Barbara Petrongolo
  4. Gender Differentials in Health: A Differences-in-Decompositions Estimate By Kehinde O. Omotoso; Steven F. Koch
  5. The Changing Nature of Gender Selection into Employment: Europe over the Great Recession By Juan J. Dolado; Garcia-Peñalosa, Cecilia; Tarasonis, Linas
  6. Access to Finance: Mind the Gender Gap By Hanan Morsy; Hoda Youssef
  7. Does Quebec's Subsidized Child Care Policy Give Boys and Girls an Equal Start? By Michael J. Kottelenberg; Steven F. Lehrer
  8. The Unfolding of Gender Gap in Education By Nadir Altinok; Abdurrahman Aydemir
  9. Smog in Our Brains: Gender Differences in the Impact of Exposure to Air Pollution on Cognitive Performance By Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xin
  10. Language and Gender Roles among Immigrants to the US: A Historical Perspective By Gay, Victor; Hicks, Daniel L.; Santacreu-Vasut, Estefania
  11. Microfinance and Gender: Issues, Challenges and the Road Ahead By Supriya Garikipati; Isabelle Guérin; Susan S.J. Johnson; Ariane Szafarz
  12. Role of gender gap in economic growth: Analysis on developing countries versus OECD countries By Sanika Sulochani Ramanayake; Taniya Ghosh

  1. By: Meara, Katie; Pastore, Francesco; Webster, Allan
    Abstract: This study examines the gender wage gap between male and female workers in the US using a cross-section from the Current Population Survey (CPS) It shows that the extent of gender segregation by both industry and occupation is significantly greater than previously supposed. For the wage gap this creates problems of sample selection bias, of non-comparability between male and female employment. To address these problems the study uses a matching approach, which we also extend to a more recent methodological version with a yet stronger statistical foundation – Inverse Probability Weighted Regression Adjustment (IPWRA) – not previously used in related studies. Despite this, doubts remain about even these well founded and appropriate techniques in the presence of such strong gender segregation . To secure even greater precision we repeat the matching analysis for a small number of industries and occupations, each carefully selected for employing similar numbers of men and women. This is an approach that has not previously been explored in the relevant literature. The findings for the full sample are replicated at the level of industry and occupation, where comparability is more reliable. The study supports the view of the existing literature that the gender wage gap varies by factors such as age and parenthood. But it also finds that, even when these and other important “control” variables such as part-time working, industry and occupation are taken into account, a statistically significant gender wage gap remains.
    Keywords: Gender Pay Gap,Segregation,Sample Selection Bias,Propensity Score Matching IPWRA,USA
    JEL: C31 J16 J31
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Manish Kumar (Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode); Hemang Jauhari (IIM Lucknow); Rani S Ladha (Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode); Niti Shekhar (Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode)
    Abstract: In this study we observe the gender differences pertaining to perception of organizational climate. We have demonstrated that the perception of female employees in organized sector in India may no longer be restricted to feelings of despair and loss of hope as against what has been mostly the discourse at the national and international levels. We have demonstrated that these perceptions may not only be homogenous across organizations (i.e., socially determined) but in fact may also depend on the organizational structural contexts. Gender perceptions on identification and goal clarity were determined by larger social context as irrespective of the organization the mean scores of women respondents were significantly lower than those of male respondents. Women participants were perceived by their supervisors to indulge less in deviant behavior as compared to male participants. However, gender perceptions regarding perceived climate of welfare measures, outward focus of the organization, and fairness were contingent on the structural context of the two organizations in which our study was conducted. The two organizations differed significantly in their human resources practices. Although limited in generalizability, the study incorporated a robust study design in the two large organizations; one a government utility and the other a private sector organization. Both the organizations had more than 10000 employees on their roles. We analyzed 545 responses from the government utility and 8853 responses from the private organization. Our findings may help managers understand the differences in the socially constructed perception of intervention mechanisms by men and women. This perception is further influenced by the organizational structure and norms. Managers could thus institute processes and procedures in ways which balance the needs of both genders.
    Keywords: Organizational Climate, Gender, Union Identification, Organizational Identification, Welfare, Outward Focus, Goal Clarity, Deviant Performance, Organizational Justice.
    Date: 2015–11
  3. By: Claudia Olivetti; Barbara Petrongolo
    Abstract: By the early 21st century, most high-income countries have put into effect a host of generous and virtually gender-neutral parental leave policies and family benefits, with the multiple goals of gender equity, higher fertility, and child development. What have been the effects? Proponents typically emphasize the contribution of family policies to the goals of gender equity and child development, enabling women to combine careers and motherhood, and altering social norms regarding gender roles. Opponents often warn that family policies may become a long-term hindrance to women's careers because of the loss of work experience and the higher costs to employers that hire women of childbearing age. We draw lessons from existing work and our own analysis on the effects of parental leave and other interventions aimed at aiding families. We present country- and micro-level evidence on the effects of family policy on gender outcomes, focusing on female employment, gender gaps in earnings, and fertility. Most estimates range from negligible to a small positive impact. But the verdict is far more positive for the beneficial impact of spending on early education and childcare.
    JEL: J12 J13 J16 J18 N30 N40
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Kehinde O. Omotoso (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa); Steven F. Koch (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa)
    Abstract: We analyse changes in gendered health differentials between 2005 and 2014, using data from population-weighted General Household Surveys (GHS) in South Africa. We also assess the contribution of observed characteristics in explaining those differentials. We find that the gender gap in health narrowed by approximately 2% between 2005 and 2014, and the narrowing of that gap can be mainly attributed to changes in educational attainment and social grant receipt. Specifically, there has been a relative increase in receipt of formal education by women, which explains about 1.11% of the gap reduction, while the relative increase in social grant receipt by women explains approximately 28% of the reduction. Thus, improvements in gender equality, as it relates to health, are furthered by policies addressing inequality in educational attainment and social protection. However, about 76% of the reduction is explained by changes in returns to various male/female attributes.
    Date: 2017–03
  5. By: Juan J. Dolado; Garcia-Peñalosa, Cecilia; Tarasonis, Linas
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the role played by selectivity issues induced by nonemployment in explaining gender wage gap patterns in the EU since the onset of the Great Recession. We show that male selection into the labour market, traditionally disregarded, has increased. This is particularly the case in peripheral EU countries, where dramatic drops in male unskilled jobs have taken place during the crisis. As regards female selection, traditionally positive, we document mixed findings. While it has declined in some countries, as a result of increasing female LFP due to an added-worker effect, it has become even more positive in other countries. This is due to adverse labour demand shifts in industries which are intensive in temporary work where women are over-represented. These adverse shifts may have more than offset the rise in unskilled female labour supply.
    Keywords: Sample selection,gender wage gaps,gender employment gaps
    JEL: J31
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Hanan Morsy; Hoda Youssef (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development)
    Abstract: Studies on financial inclusion have so far focused on assessing determinants to overall access to finance, but limited attention has been given to financial inclusion from a gender point of view, and on the gaps that separate females and males with regards to their access to the opportunities and services provided by the financial sector. We construct a database combining information from bank-level data with other variables reflecting the macro and regulatory framework across countries, as well as variables reflecting labour market female participation and gender disparities in access to property. A weighted least squares analysis is used to identify the impact of banking sector ownership structure and concentration, and of the regulatory and institutional framework on the gender gaps in selected indicators of financial access. We also assess whether these characteristics have the same effect on the overall level of access to finance.
    Date: 2015–07
  7. By: Michael J. Kottelenberg; Steven F. Lehrer
    Abstract: Although an increasing body of research promotes the development of universal early education and care programs, little is known about the extent to which these programs affect gender gaps in academic achievement and other developmental outcomes. Analyzing the introduction of universal highly-subsidized child care in Quebec, we first demonstrate that there are no statistically significant gender differences in the average effect of access to universal child care on child outcomes. However, we find substantial heterogeneity in policy impacts on the variance of developmental and behavioral scores across genders. Additionally, our analysis reveals significant evidence of differential parenting practices by gender in response to the introduction of the policy. The analysis is suggestive that the availability of subsidized child care changed home environments disproportionately, and may be responsible for the growing gender gaps in behavioral outcomes observed after child care is subsidized.
    JEL: I28 J13 J16
    Date: 2017–03
  8. By: Nadir Altinok (University of Lorraine); Abdurrahman Aydemir
    Abstract: The gender gap in education against females becomes smaller as the level of development increases and turns in their favor in developed countries. Through analysis of regional variation in the gender gap within Turkey, which displays a similar pattern to the cross-country pattern, this paper studies the factors that lead to the emergence of a gender gap against females. The data for student achievement and aspirations for further education during compulsory school show that females are just as well prepared and motivated for further education as their male counterparts across regions with very different levels of development. Despite this fact, large gaps arise in high school registration and completion in less developed regions, but not in developed ones. We find that larger sibship size is the main driver of gender gaps in less developed regions. While social norms have a negative influence on female education beyond compulsory school, they play a relatively small role in the emergence of gender gaps. These results are consistent with the fact that resource-constrained families give priority to males for further education, leading to the emergence of education gender gaps.
    Date: 2015–08
  9. By: Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xin
    Abstract: While there is a large body of literature on the negative health effects of air pollution, there is much less written about its effects on cognitive performance for the whole population. This paper studies the effects of contemporaneous and cumulative exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance based on a nationally representative survey in China. Bymerging a longitudinal sample at the individual level with local air-quality data according to the exact dates and counties of interviews, we find that contemporaneous and cumulative exposure to air pollution impedes both verbal and math scores of survey subjects. Interestingly, the negative effect is stronger for men than for women. Specifically, the gender difference is more salient among the old and less educated in both verbal and math tests.
    Keywords: cognitive performance,air pollution,gender difference
    JEL: I24 Q53 Q51 J16
    Date: 2017
  10. By: Gay, Victor; Hicks, Daniel L.; Santacreu-Vasut, Estefania
    Abstract: Our paper investigates whether historical trends in the labor market participation of immigrant women in the U.S. can be explained in part by variation in the grammatical structure of their language spoken. Using individual-level census data on the labor market behavior of first generation immigrants to the U.S. from 1910 to the present, we show that the presence or absence of grammatical gender in the linguistic structure of a language spoken by an immigrant influences sex-specific behaviors. The originality of our approach is to consider language as a repository for accumulated ancestral culture in an epidemiological framework. Because female labor force participation has greatly increased, institutions have transformed, and motivations and compositions of immigrant flows have changed, studying a long time horizon allows us to more clearly isolate the role of linguistic structure as a cultural institution.
    Keywords: Culture, Immigrants, Female labor participation, Language structure, Grammar
    JEL: J16 J22 J61 N32 Z13
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Supriya Garikipati; Isabelle Guérin; Susan S.J. Johnson; Ariane Szafarz
    Abstract: This special collection examines the claim that microfinance promotes gender equality. The focus is on three areas of the debate: first, the question of how successful microfinance has been in empowering women; second, whether and how negative gender discrimination operates within the sector; third, how power relations within and beyond the household shape the context and outcomes of microfinance initiatives. The papers in this collection demonstrate the divergence of circumstances and emphasise the need to go beyond the past searches for a simple narrative regarding the impact of microfinance. Rather, as the sector evolves and is incorporated into the mainstream financial system, the challenge ahead for researchers is to marshal the evidence on gendered dynamics to ensure that the gains made are built on through deeper understanding of why impact outcomes and processes differ and use this to inform new initiatives to further gender equality.
    Keywords: microfinance; gender; women's empowerment; discrimination; household economics; power relations
    JEL: O16 J16 G21 B54 D63 I32
    Date: 2017–03–16
  12. By: Sanika Sulochani Ramanayake (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Taniya Ghosh (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)
    Abstract: This study investigates the effects of the gender gap on economic growth by using a composite gender gap index from the World Economic Forum. The index captures the multidimensional aspect of the gender gap, which includes gaps in opportunities and outcomes. Previous studies on the effect of gender inequality on economic growth have focused on the unidirectional aspect of inequality, such as gender-wage inequality. The differential effect of the gender gap is established by comparing three different samples, namely, member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, developing countries, and a combination of South and Southeast Asian countries. According to panel data estimations, policies that promote equity boost the economic growth of developing countries, including those in South and Southeast Asia. The role of export growth in economic growth is also analyzed. Consistent with those in literature, current results indicate that export growth exerts a significant positive effect on the economic growth of all samples.
    Keywords: Gender gap, Export growth, Economic growth, OECD countries, Developing countries, South Asia and South East Asia
    JEL: D63 I24 F43
    Date: 2017–01

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