nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒03‒19
eleven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Teacher Gender, Student Gender, and Primary School Achievement: Evidence from Ten Francophone African Countries By Lee, Jieun; Rhee, Dong-eun; Rudolf, Robert
  2. The Gender Pay Gap Across Countries: A Human Capital Approach By Solomon Polachek; Jun Xiang
  3. Compensation and Honesty: Gender Differences in Lying By Nieken, Petra; Dato, Simon
  4. The Economic Consequences of Family Policies: Lessons from a Century of Legislation in High-Income Countries By Claudia Olivetti; Barbara Petrongolo
  5. Technological Advancement and the Evolving Gender Identities: A Focus on the Level of Female Economic Participation in Sub-Saharan Africa By Efobi, Uchenna; Tanankem, Belmondo; Asongu, Simplice
  6. Wage Gaps, Earnings Gaps, and the Market Power of Employers By Bredemeier, Christian
  7. Gender and Labour Allocation: the Role of Institutions and Policies in the Allocation of Female and Male Labor By Hadi Esfahani; Roksana Bahramitash; Bin Lin
  8. The role of gender in the extractives industries By Catherine Macdonald
  9. Housing Decisions, Family Types and Gender. A look across LIS countries By Mariacristina Rossi; Eva Sierminska
  10. Competition Entry and Relative Performance Feedback: The Importance of Information Disaggregated by Gender By Jeworrek, Sabrina
  11. Does Microcredit Reduce Gender Gap in Employment? An Application of Decomposition Analysis to Egypt By Mohamed El Hedi Arouri; Nguyen Viet Cuong

  1. By: Lee, Jieun; Rhee, Dong-eun; Rudolf, Robert
    Abstract: Using an exceptionally rich dataset comprising over 1,800 primary schools and nearly 40,000 students from ten francophone Sub-Saharan African countries, this study analyzes the relationship between teacher gender, student gender, and student achievement in mathematics and reading. Findings indicate that being taught by a female teacher increases academic achievements and that both performance and subject appreciation rise when taught by a same-gender teacher. Traditional academic gender stereotypes are prevalent among both male and female teachers. Our findings suggest that hiring more female teachers in Western and Central Africa can reduce educational gender gaps without hurting boys.
    Keywords: Gender; Educational quality; Female education; Sub-Saharan Africa; Same-gender teacher; PASEC.
    JEL: I21 I26 J16 O55
    Date: 2017–02–14
  2. By: Solomon Polachek; Jun Xiang
    Abstract: The gender wage gap varies across countries. For example, among OECD nations women in Australia, Belgium, Italy and Sweden earn 80% as much as males, whereas in Austria, Canada and Japan women earn about 60%. Current studies examining cross-country differences focus on the impact of labor market institutions such as minimum wage laws and nationwide collective bargaining. However, these studies neglect labor market institutions that affect women’s lifetime work behavior -- a factor crucially important in gender wage gap studies that employ individual data. This paper explicitly concentrates on labor market institutions that are related to female lifetime work that affect the gender wage gap across countries. Using ISSP (International Social Survey Programme), LIS (Luxembourg Income Study) and OECD wage data for 35 countries covering 1970-2002, we show that the gender pay gap is positively associated with the fertility rate, positively associated with the husband-wife age gap at first marriage, and positively related to the top marginal tax rate, all factors which negatively affect women’s lifetime labor force participation. In addition, we show that collective bargaining, as found in previous studies, is negatively associated with the gender pay gap.
    Date: 2015–09
  3. By: Nieken, Petra; Dato, Simon
    Abstract: We compare gender differences in lying under two incentive schemes that are widely used in companies: individual performance-pay and tournament incentives. While we do not observe significantly different behavior of males and females given individual performance-pay, females lie significantly less than males if the compensation scheme is switched to tournament incentives. This result is mainly driven by a decrease in the propensity to lie of females in a competitive environment. The gender gap in lying is robust with respect to the gender composition of the pool of opponents. Dishonesty is largest for males competing in a mixed-gender environment.
    JEL: M52 J16 C91
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Claudia Olivetti (Boston College and NBER); Barbara Petrongolo (Queen Mary University of London, CEPR and CEP (LSE))
    Abstract: We draw lessons from existing work and our own analysis on the effects of parental leave and other interventions aimed at aiding families. The outcomes of interest are female employment, gender gaps in earnings and fertility. We begin with a discussion of the historical introduction of family policies ever since the end of the nineteenth century and then turn to the details regarding family policies currently in effect across high-income nations. We sketch a framework concerning the effects of family policy to motivate our country- and micro-level evidence on the impact of family policies on gender outcomes. Most estimates of the impact of parental leave entitlement on female labor market outcomes range from negligible to weakly positive. The verdict is far more positive for the beneficial impact of spending on early education and childcare.
    Keywords: Parental leave, Childcare, Family policies, Gender gaps
    JEL: J13 J16 J18
    Date: 2017–01
  5. By: Efobi, Uchenna; Tanankem, Belmondo; Asongu, Simplice
    Abstract: This study investigates how technological advancement improves gender identity by means of female economic participation in a panel 48 African countries for the period 1990-2014. Two indicators are used to measure female economic participation, namely, the: female labour force participation and employment rates. Technological advancement is measured with three main indicators, notably: internet penetration, mobile phone penetration and fixed broad band subscriptions. The empirical evidence is based on Ordinary Least Squares, Fixed Effects and System Generalized Method of Moments regressions. The findings show that improvement in technology increases female economic participation with the following consistent order of increasing magnitude: mobile phone penetration; internet penetration and fixed broad band subscriptions. The findings are robust to the control for: countries’ levels in economic development; the use of contemporary technology advancement indicators; internal conflicts and political stability; the level of social globalization and the use of alternative instruments. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Technology; Inclusive development; Africa
    JEL: G20 I10 I32 O40 O55
    Date: 2016–12
  6. By: Bredemeier, Christian
    Abstract: Women are less mobile between firms than men which gives employers more market power over women and explains parts of the gender wage gap. I rationalize this observation as a consequence of different gender roles in the household. The higher a spouse's earnings, the more likely relative wage differences outweigh utility differences between jobs. About 87\% of estimated differences in inter-firm mobility are attributed to this effect and are, thus, endogenous. This implies mutually enforcing cycles between wage gaps, earnings gaps, and employers' market power and has implications for the effects of labor-market policies.
    JEL: J16 J42 J31
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Hadi Esfahani (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Roksana Bahramitash; Bin Lin
    Abstract: There is enormous variation in the patterns of labor allocation, especially among women, across countries and over time, with significant consequences for the performance of the economy. The existing studies of this phenomenon often focus on binary choices and specific factors behind them, without taking account of the multiplicity of alternatives and the interactions among their determinants. Also, most studies rely on aggregate outcomes without taking into account the micro structures behind them. This paper takes a step to fill these gaps by employing a large, micro-level, cross-country dataset that allows us to identify the impact of country characteristics and policies on labor allocation probabilities, while allowing for nine different alternatives and controlling for individual gender, age, and education characteristics. Among many other results, the analysis suggests that effective government is one of the most important factors associated with female labor force participation (LFP) and employment. Also, in contrast to studies that suggest that natural resource rents reduce female LFP, we find that the opposite is true. Prevalence of Islamic culture proves to be a predictor of low female LFP, but we trace most of this effect to the traditions that are not necessarily Islamic. We also examine the role of business environment and labor protection policies. We find that some labor protection policies tend to be more beneficial for women’s labor market activity than for men’s. Such policies may be helping better employment matches to form.
    Date: 2016–05
  8. By: Catherine Macdonald
    Abstract: In recognizing that women’s participation and gender equity is a precondition for the achievement of acceptable development outcomes, extractives industry companies are increasingly making public commitments to integrating gender equality, inclusion, and women’s economic empowerment into aspects of their operations. This paper reviews recent literature on gender and the extractives industries and then considers the following questions that emerged from the scholarship. How is gender understood in the extractives sector and has this changed over time? What are the gendered impacts of the extractives industries? Are women passive victims of the sector rather than active participants or even resisters to industrial expansion? What is the nature of extractives-associated sex-work and gender-based violence in various settings? In addition, the paper presents available information on women’s participation in the extractives industry, both formal and informal, and how these differ, and evaluates industry efforts towards achieving improved gender balance and equity in the sector.
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Mariacristina Rossi; Eva Sierminska
    Abstract: In this paper we shall examine homeownership trends over the past 3 to 4 decades and discuss differences related to the homeownership gap for women and men, with a focus on most recent trends. We shall compare differences in the US to those in countries with different institutional structures and shall pay particular attention to differences across family types. Our estimation techniques will allow us to discuss the role of determinants from a gender perspective. We find that single women are better off than single men without children and a reverse trend exists in families with children. The general negative effect for women remains for younger cohorts in the face of risking homeownership. The latest crisis did not change the general long-running trend of the homeownership gap except for the US and France. The findings of this paper could provide an international perspective on differential homeownership rates among women and men, across countries and over time. Given that the value of one’s own home (home equity) is the largest financial reserve in a household’s wealth portfolio, it is important to have a better understanding of the differences resulting from gender and family types.
    Keywords: Housing, Wealth, Gender, homeownership, time trends
    JEL: D1 D3 R2 J1
    Date: 2015–12
  10. By: Jeworrek, Sabrina
    Abstract: By providing different forms of performance feedback before choosing between a piece-rate and a tournament compensation scheme, I test whether the gender tournament gap diminishes in size since individuals’ entry decision might be driven by incorrect self-assessments. Only the provision of information on average performance by gender indeed shrinks the gender tournament gap, which is especially due to men with below average ability opting for the piece-rate more often. These results highlight that beliefs on one’s own and others’ abilities are still biased by gender stereotypes.
    JEL: C91 D82 J16
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Mohamed El Hedi Arouri (Université d'Auvergne & EDHEC Business School, France); Nguyen Viet Cuong
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the impact of microcredit on labor supply of men and women and subsequently investigate whether microcredit can reduce employment gap between men and women in Egypt. Overall, we show no significant effects of microcredit on labor supply of men. Yet, we find a strong effect on employment of women aged 22 to 65. Borrowing from a microcredit source increases the probability of working for women by 0.071. Since the proportion of working of women was around 2.1%, it implies microcredit can increase the proportion of working of women by around 30 percent. Using decomposition analysis, we find that micro-credit can reduce the employment gap between men and women by 0.43 percentage points. If 20 percent of women obtain microcredit, the employment gap between men and women would be decreased by 4.3 percentage points.
    Date: 2016–06

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