nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒03‒05
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. "Gendered Patterns of Time Use over the Life Cycle: Evidence from Turkey" By Ebru Kongar; Emel Memis
  2. Marriage Age Affects Educational Gender Inequality: International Evidence By Stimpfle, Alexander; Stadelmann, David
  3. Individual determinants of job-related learning and training activities of employees - An exploratory analysis of gender differences By Bublitz, Elisabeth; Boll, Christina
  4. Gender imbalances in the teaching profession By OECD
  5. Gender disparities in criminal justice By Philippe, Arnaud
  6. Man-cessions, Fiscal Policy, and the Gender Composition of Employment By Jüßen, Falko; Bredemeier, Christian; Winkler, Roland
  7. How long do you think it will take? Field Evidence on Gender Differences in Time Optimism By Kataria, Mitesh
  8. More female manager hires through more female managers? Evidence from Germany By Schank, Thorsten; Bossler, Mario; Mosthaf, Alexander

  1. By: Ebru Kongar; Emel Memis
    Abstract: Using data from the 2006 Turkish Time-Use Survey, we examine gender differences in time allocation among married heterosexual couples over the life cycle. While we find large discrepancies in the gender division of both paid and unpaid work at each life stage, the gender gap in paid and unpaid work is largest among parents of infants compared to parents of older children and couples without children. The gender gap narrows as children grow up and parents age. Married women's housework time remains relatively unchanged across their life cycle, while older men spend more time doing housework than their younger counterparts. Over the course of the life cycle, women's total work burden increases relative to men's. Placing our findings within the gendered institutional context in Turkey, we argue that gender-inequitable work-family reconciliation policies that are based on gendered assumptions of women's role as caregivers exacerbate gender disparities in time use.
    Keywords: Economics of Gender; Time Use; Life Cycle; Turkey
    JEL: D13 J16 J22
    Date: 2017–02
  2. By: Stimpfle, Alexander; Stadelmann, David
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of female age at marriage on female education and educational gender inequality. We provide empirical evidence that early female marriage age significantly decreases female education with panel data from 1980 to 2010. Socio-cultural customs serve as an exogenous identification for female age at marriage. We also show that effects of spousal age gaps between men and women significantly affect female education relative to male education. Each additional year between husband and wife reduces the female secondary schooling completion rate by 14 percentage points, the time women spend at university by 6 weeks, and overall affects female education significantly more negatively than male education. We also document that marriage age and conventional measures of gender discrimination do not act as substitutes.
    JEL: J12 J16 I24
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Bublitz, Elisabeth; Boll, Christina
    Abstract: Regarding gender differences, theory suggests that in a partnership the individual with the lower working hours and earnings position should exhibit lower training participation rates. Since women are more likely to match this description, we investigate whether systematic group differences explain gender variation. Across all countries, male workers are not affected by their earnings position. Disadvantages for female secondary earners arise only in Germany in the group of part-time workers when compared to single earners but not in the group of full-time workers. The findings hold at the extensive and the intensive margin, suggesting that, compared to the Netherlands and Italy, Germany faces particular obstacles regarding gender differences in job-related training.
    JEL: J16 J24 M53
    Date: 2016
  4. By: OECD
    Abstract: Historically across the OECD, the teaching profession has been largely dominated by women. The share of female teachers has been increasing over the past decade – reaching 68% in 2014 for all levels of education combined. The gender disparity decreases gradually with the level of education, from 97% of women in pre-primary education to 43% in tertiary education. Between 2005 and 2014, the gender gap increased at the primary and secondary levels, but decreased at the tertiary level.
    Date: 2017–03–01
  5. By: Philippe, Arnaud
    Abstract: This paper uses the universe of convictions occurred in France between 2000 and 2003 to document the gender gap in criminal justice. First, during this period, and after controlling for very precise description of the offenses as well as other observable characteristics, women get prison sentences 15 days shorter than men on average. This represents a 33% decrease in comparison to the average prison length in the sample (44 days). Second, this gender gap is also observed within pairs of criminals, each consisting of one man and one woman, who are convicted together, on the same day, by the same person and for the same crime. Lastly, this paper present robust evidences that the gender gap is affected by the judges' gender but not the prosecutors' gender. Using the evolution of courts' composition between 2000 and 2003, results show that a one-standard-deviation increase in the number of women in the court decreases the gender gap by 10%.
    Keywords: criminal justice; sentencing; gender gap
    Date: 2017–02
  6. By: Jüßen, Falko; Bredemeier, Christian; Winkler, Roland
    Abstract: In recessions, predominantly men lose their jobs, which has been described by the term "mancessions". Against this background, we analyze whether fiscal expansions foster job creation predominantly for men. Yet, we find empirically that fiscal shocks lead to employment growth that is larger for women than for men. We show that the gender-specific employment effects of fiscal policy are driven by disproportionate employment changes in female-dominated occupations, specifically so-called "pink-collar" occupations. We develop a business-cycle model that explains these occupational employment dynamics as a consequence of differences in the substitutability between capital and labor across occupations.
    JEL: J21 E62 J16
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Kataria, Mitesh (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: Evidence from ten natural field studies comparing long-distance runners' incentivized predictions of race finishing time with their actual finishing time is reported. A modest but regular bias is found. Male runners are consistently found to be more time optimistic than female runners and finish slower than they predict to finish. Males are found to over-appreciate their physical fitness. To the extent this behaviour carries over to other contexts, such as the labor market, the tendency of men to overestimate their capacity could lead to distorted self-appraisals and give them advantages in terms of higher salaries and better positions.
    Keywords: Overconfidence; Time optimism; Gender differences
    JEL: C93 D01 D03
    Date: 2017–02
  8. By: Schank, Thorsten; Bossler, Mario; Mosthaf, Alexander
    Abstract: Women are heavily underrepresented in management positions. This paper investigates if there is state dependence in the share of female manager hires in German plants to assess if increased female representation in management positions is sustainable. Using administrative data from the Integrated Employment Biographies of the IAB, we apply dynamic tobit models and dynamic linear models taking unobserved heterogeneity and the endogeneity of lagged dependent variables into account. We find that there is state dependence in the female share of manager hires. Dynamic linear models for the number of female manager hires also point to the sustainability of female manager hires showing that there is state dependence in the number of female manager hires. However, there is no state dependence in the number of male manager hires.
    JEL: C23 M12 J16
    Date: 2016

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