nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒02‒19
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Identity, household work, and subjective well-being among rural women in Bangladesh: By Seymour, Gregory; Floro, Maria S.
  2. There And Back Again: Women's Marginal Commuting Costs By Stockton, Isabel; Bergemann, Annette; Brunow, Stephan
  3. Gender differences in competitive positions: Experimental evidence on job promotion By Peterlé, Emmanuel; Rau, Holger A.
  4. Disentangling the Gender Gap in Longevity By Trimborn, Timo; Schünemann, Johannes; Strulik, Holger
  5. The dark side of competition: Gender differences: By Chang, Simone; Kan, Kamhon; Zhang, Xiaobo
  6. Gender differences in motivational crowding out of work perfomance By Benndorf, Volker; Rau, Holger A.; Sölch, Christian
  7. Gender Bias in Education During Conflict Evidence from Assam By Prakarsh Singh; Sutanuka Roy

  1. By: Seymour, Gregory; Floro, Maria S.
    Abstract: Despite increases in women’s employment, significant gender disparity exists in the time men and women spend on household and care work. Understanding how social expectations govern gender roles and contribute to this disparity is essential for designing policies that effectively promote a more equitable household division of labor. In this study, we examine how a woman’s identity may affect the trade-offs between the time she spends on household and care work and her well-being, using an analytical framework we develop based on the work of Akerlof and Kranton. Analyzing data from rural Bangladesh, we find that longer hours spent on household work are associated with lower levels of subjective well-being among women who disagree with patriarchal notions of gender roles, while the opposite is true for women who agree with patriarchal notions of gender roles. Importantly, this pattern holds only when a woman strongly identifies with patriarchal or egalitarian notions of gender role.
    Keywords: gender, women, time study, households, gender analysis,
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Stockton, Isabel; Bergemann, Annette; Brunow, Stephan
    Abstract: We use a partial-equilibrium model of job search with non-wage job attributes to estimate female workers' marginal willingness to pay to reduce commuting distance in Germany. This issue not only has implications for congestion policy, spatial planning and transport infrastructure provision, but is also relevant to our understanding of gender differences in labour market biographies in a more general sense. Gender differences in willingness to pay for job attributes could contribute significantly to observed disparities in a number of labour market behaviours and outcomes, such as participation, labour supply, wages and job mobility. Our analysis makes particular reference to heterogeneity by regional structure and local labour market conditions, and outlines ways of incorporating other types of heterogeneity into the analysis. Using a Cox model on a large administrative dataset, we find a marginal willingness to pay of e0.15 of women workers to reduce commuting distance by one kilometre.
    Keywords: Commuting, marginal willingness to pay for job attributes, on-the-job search, Cox relative risk model, partial likelihood estimation, gender and parenthood in job search models, heterogeneity in job mobility
    JEL: C41 J61 J16
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Peterlé, Emmanuel; Rau, Holger A.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes gender differences in access to competitive positions. We implement an experiment where workers can apply for a job promotion by sending a signal to their employer. We control for gender differences in anticipation of discrimination in a treatment where a computer randomly recruits. Discriminatory behavior by the employer is isolated in a treatment where workers cannot send signals. We find that gender disparity among promoted workers is highest when workers can apply for promotion and employers recruit. Strikingly, the gender composition in competitive position is balanced in the absence of a signaling institution. When signaling is possible, we observe that female workers who do not request a promotion are discriminated against.
    Keywords: experiment,discrimination,gender differences,real effort
    JEL: C9 J24 J70
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Trimborn, Timo; Schünemann, Johannes; Strulik, Holger
    Abstract: In developed countries, women are expected to live about 4-5 years longer than men. In this paper we develop a novel approach in order to gauge to what extent gender health differences in longevity can be attributed to gender-specific preferences and health behavior. For that purpose we set up a physiologically founded model of health deficit accumulation and calibrate it using recent insights from gerontology. From fitting life cycle health expenditure and life expectancy we obtain estimates of the gender-specific preference parameters. We then perform the counterfactual experiment of endowing women with the preferences of men. In our benchmark scenario this reduces the gender gap in life expectancy from 4.6 to 2.1 years, suggesting that 54 percent of women's superior longevity can be attributed to preferences and health behavior. When we add gender-specific preferences for unhealthy consumption, the model can motivate up to 91 percent of the gender gap. Our theory explains also why the gender gap narrows with rising income.
    JEL: D91 J17 J26
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Chang, Simone; Kan, Kamhon; Zhang, Xiaobo
    Abstract: The literature has placed great emphasis on the advantages of competition on market efficiency while ignoring the downside of competition on health. Using a natural experiment in Taiwan, we show that excessive competition comes at a health cost. In the late 1940s, half a million soldiers retreated to Taiwan from Mainland China after a civil war. They were initially not allowed to get married until the marriage ban was essentially lifted in 1959. As a large number of soldiers flooded the marriage market, men faced much stronger mating competition than before, which in turn increased the likelihood of male depression and mortality.
    Keywords: gender, markets, health, men, marriage, sex ratio, mortality, governance,
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Benndorf, Volker; Rau, Holger A.; Sölch, Christian
    Abstract: This paper studies motivational crowding-out effects after financial incentives are lowered. In a real-effort setting, workers receive a piece rate before financial incentives are substituted by a one-time payment. Under the fixed payment, effort is significantly lower only when preceded by piece-rate incentives. The decrease is driven by a fraction of men who reduce their effort by 12%, whereas women constantly perform well. We find that this motivational crowding-out effect disappears when men do not have prior experience of a piece rate. In a series of control treatments, we discard all alternative explanations besides from motivational crowding out.
    Keywords: gender differences,incentives,motivational crowding out,real-effort task
    JEL: C91 J16 M54
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Prakarsh Singh; Sutanuka Roy
    Abstract: Using a large-scale novel panel dataset (2005–14) on schools from the Indian state of Assam, we test for the impact of violent conflict on female students’ enrollment rates. We find that a doubling of average killings in a district-year leads to a 13 per cent drop in girls’ enrollment rate with school fixed effects. Additionally, results remain similar when using an alternative definition of conflict from a different dataset. Gender differential responses are more negative for lower grades, rural schools, poorer districts, and for schools run by local and private unaided bodies.
    Keywords: Conflict; Education; Gender Discrimination; Human Capital; India
    JEL: I2 J1 O1
    Date: 2016–05

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