nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒02‒12
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Differentials and Determinants of Female- Male Holders Revenue Efficiency during the implementation of the GTP plan in Ethiopia: A Panel Data Study By Contreras, Sandra
  2. On the Effectiveness of Elected Male and Female Leaders and Team Coordination By Reuben, Ernesto; Timko, Krisztina
  3. Financing and performance of female-owned firms in Middle Eastern and African Economies By Mina Baliamoune-Lutz; Stefan Lutz
  4. Hollywood’s Wage Structure and Discrimination By Maria Navarro Paniagua; Sofia Izquierdo Sanchez
  5. No Gender Difference in Willingness to Compete When Competing against Self By Coren L. Apicella; Elif E. Demiral; Johanna Mollerstrom
  6. Human Capital Accumulation over the Life-Cycle: Evidence from Germany’s Reunification By Findeisen, Sebastian; Dauth, Wolfgang; Lee, Tim
  7. Psychological gender differences in general health examinations: evidence from a 2016 Vietnamese cross-section dataset By Quan-Hoang Vuong
  8. Gendered internal migration patterns in Senegal By Isabelle Chort; Philippe De Vreyer; Thomas Zuber

  1. By: Contreras, Sandra
    Abstract: In Ethiopia, the participation of women in agriculture is high, women farmers provide around 50 percent of the total labor time required for crop production in most parts of the country (Ahmed, 2013). Even though, the presence of the women in the agriculture sector in Ethiopia is very significant in numbers, a 2014 World Bank report affirms that female farmers benefit less from economic growth because they are less productive than their male counter parts. According to the report the gender productivity gap in Ethiopia is one of the highest in sub-Sahara Africa (World Bank 2014). Therefore, the need to have a closer look to the female holder farms, to locate the sources of inefficiency in hopes to contribute to the alleviation of the poverty conditions that the country faces by improved economic performance. The hypothesis I test in the paper is that in Ethiopia, women are more efficient than men in terms of revenue efficiency in absence of price discrimination in the markets. This study used a two-stage performance assessment across 581 farm holders’ information obtained from the comparable Living Standard Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys (LSMS-ISA) from 2011-2012 and 2013-2014. In the first stage of the study, the revenue efficiency scores, and scale efficiency scores of female and male headed households were calculated by using Data Envelop Analysis (DEA). In the second stage we employed a Panel Tobit Analysis to identify possible determinants of the farms’ inefficiency by including in the model variables related to the farmers' personal characteristics, farms’ characteristics, households’ characteristics, and managerial characteristics.
    Keywords: gender, revenue efficiency analysis, international development, myth about gender issues in Ethiopia, Ethiopia GTP plan, International Development, Production Economics,
    Date: 2017–02–04
  2. By: Reuben, Ernesto (New York University, Abu Dhabi); Timko, Krisztina (University of Helsinki)
    Abstract: We study the effect on coordination in a minimum-effort game of a leader's gender depending on whether the leader is democratically elected or is randomly-selected. Leaders use non-binding messages to try to convince followers to coordinate on the Pareto-efficient equilibrium. We find that teams with elected leaders coordinate on higher effort levels. Initially, the benefits of being elected are enjoyed solely by male leaders. However, this gender difference disappears with repeated interaction as unsuccessful male leaders are reelected more often than unsuccessful female leaders.
    Keywords: gender differences, leadership, democracy effect, leader effectiveness, coordination
    JEL: M14 M54 J16 C92
    Date: 2017–01
  3. By: Mina Baliamoune-Lutz (University of North Florida, Coggin College of Business, 1 UNF Drive, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.); Stefan Lutz (European Management School (EMS), Professorship for Economics, Rheinstrasse 4N, Mainz, 55116, Germany.)
    Abstract: Empirical evidence suggests that lack of access to financing is a major constraint to performance by female-owned firms in most countries. Firm performance, financing structure, and constraints have been well explored for firms in developed economies but this is not the case for firms in developing economies, especially in Africa and the Middle-East. Largely due to lack of data availability, existing literature on African firms has presented some survey-based evidence on firm performance and financing structures while detailed financial evidence is lacking. This paper aims at filling this research gap. We identify female-owned firms and examine the impact of ownership structure on financing and firm performance. We use cross-sectional financial data covering 25,500 companies in the Middle East and Africa for the years 2006 to 2014. Our results reveal a clear, but perhaps surprising, gender-specific pattern.
    Keywords: Gender, Ownership, Firm profitability, Financing structure, MENA, Africa, FDI, Globalization.
    JEL: F20 J16 L22 M10
    Date: 2017–02
  4. By: Maria Navarro Paniagua; Sofia Izquierdo Sanchez
    Abstract: The labour market for actors remains mostly unexplored. In this paper, we start by analysing how Hollywood wages have changed over time. We then proceed to examine the determinants of wages. One of our key findings is that there are substantial wage differences among male and female actors in Hollywood. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition suggests that 45% of the differences in the gender-wage gap can be attributed to discrimination.
    Keywords: Gender wage gap, discrimination, Superstars, Actors/Hollywood, Inequality
    JEL: J16 J31 J71 L82
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Coren L. Apicella; Elif E. Demiral; Johanna Mollerstrom
    Abstract: We report on two experiments investigating whether there is a gender difference in thewillingness to compete against oneself (self-competition), similar to what is found whencompeting against others (other-competition). In one laboratory and one online marketexperiment, involving a total of 1,200 participants, we replicate the gender-gap inwillingness to other-compete but find no evidence of a gender difference in the willingnessto self-compete. We explore the roles of risk and confidence and suggest that these factorscan account for the different findings. Finally, we document that self-competition does noworse than other-competition in terms of performance boosting.
    Keywords: gender, competition, discrimination, experiment
    JEL: C90 C91 J16 J71
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Findeisen, Sebastian; Dauth, Wolfgang; Lee, Tim
    Abstract: We study and compare the importance of human capital acquired at different stages of the life-cycle. We exploit Germany’s unique reunification episode and the sudden restructuring of East Germany’s labor market institutions and education system. We show graphical evidence that earnings, employment and wages for each East German birth cohort—scaled by the same outcomes for West German cohorts—change linearly with age at reunification. These linear exposure effects display structural breaks, i.e., changes in slope, around the ages 18 and 30 at reunification for both genders, and age 35 for females: there are significant gender differences. Exposure effects are by far the strongest for males between ages 20 and 30, where relative earnings decline at a rate of 2% per year for older cohorts. Around 40% of this effect is explained by higher college graduation rates for younger cohorts, while the remaining 60% underscores the impor- tance and long lasting impact of early career effects. For females, earnings differences are almost completely explained by employment. We document reverse exposure effects for East German women between age 5 and 30 at reunification: employment and labor force participation rates increase linearly with each additional year spent in the socialist East. This trend is reversed after age 30, with older cohort’s earnings and employment declining with each additional year spent in the East.
    JEL: J30 J40 J24
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Quan-Hoang Vuong
    Abstract: Whether or not periodic general health examinations (GHEs) should be maintained is a controversial issue. This study mainly focuses on the influence of gender and psychological factors on periodic GHEs. To clarify the relationship between the factors mentioned above, a survey has been carried out in Hanoi and surrounding areas, collecting 2,068 valid observations; the dataset was then analyzed using the baseline category logit model. Results show that most people are afraid of discovering diseases through general health examinations (76.64%), and among them the psychological fear of illness detection appears to be stronger for females than for males (β1(male)=-0.409, P
    Keywords: Periodic general health examination; psychological fear; gender; Vietnam
    JEL: I12 I18
    Date: 2017–02–06
  8. By: Isabelle Chort (LEDa, UMR DIAL-Paris-Dauphine); Philippe De Vreyer (Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University,IRD, LEDa, DIAL); Thomas Zuber (Columbia University. Department of Middle Eastern, South Asian and African Studies/History, New York)
    Abstract: Using individual panel data from Senegal collected in 2006-07 and 2010-12, this study explores internal migration patterns of men and women. The data used contain the GPS coordinates of individuals' location, allowing us to calculate precise migration distances and map individual mobilities.Women are found to be more likely to migrate than men. However, they move less far and are more likely to migrate to rural areas, especially when originating from rural areas. Education is found to increase the likelihood of migration to urban destinations, especially for women. An analysis of the motives for migrating con rms the existence of gendered migration patterns, as female mobility is mostly linked to marriage while labor mobility is frequently observed for men.
    Keywords: Internal migration ; gender; rural-urban migration; Senegal.
    JEL: R23 O15 O18 J16
    Date: 2017–01

This nep-gen issue is ©2017 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.