nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒02‒05
eleven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Wage Gap and Discrimination in Developing Countries By Zhou, Mo; Nelson, Robert
  2. Comparing Apples to Oranges: Differences in Women’s and Men’s Incarceration and Sentencing Outcomes By Kristin F. Butcher; Kyung H. Park; Anne Morrison Piehl
  3. Is the gender pay gap in the us just the result of gender segregation at work? By Francesco Pastore; Allan Webster
  4. Women's Career Choices, Social Norms and Child Care Policies By Barigozzi, Francesca; Cremer, Helmuth; Roeder, Kerstin
  5. Gender Gaps in the Effects of Childhood Family Environment: Do They Persist into Adulthood? By Anne Ardila Brenøe; Shelly Lundberg
  6. Gender Differences in Competitive Positions, Experimental Evidence on Job Promotion By Emmanuel Perterle; Holger A. Rau
  7. Segregation of women into low-paying occupations in the US By Carlos Gradín
  8. Policy Reform and Gender Inequality in French Higher Education: A Two-Generation Comparative Study By Magali Jaoul-Grammare
  9. The Economic Consequences of Family Policies: Lessons from a Century of Legislation in High-Income Countries By Olivetti, Claudia; Petrongolo, Barbara
  10. Gender and its impact on business owner satisfaction in family farms By Li, Wenxuan; Marshall, Maria I.
  11. Maternity and Family Leave Policy By Rossin-Slater, Maya

  1. By: Zhou, Mo; Nelson, Robert
    Abstract: This study constructs wage equations according to Mincer earnings function for men and women separately, and the equations are estimated by OLS and Heckman selection regression for eleven developing countries. Our results show that the wage equation estimates for five countries including Ukraine, Sri Lanka, Macedonia Lao and Yunnan, China have the selection bias. Comparing the estimates of female wage equations and male wage equations, we find that better education raise wages for women than men, and women who work as high skill white collar receive more benefits than female. In terms of gender wage gap analysis, we conduct the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition for each of countries by the estimates of OLS regression and Heckman regressions. The results reveal a relatively high level of gender wage discrimination in Yunnan province, Macedonia, Sri Lanka and Ukraine. For most of countries, the unexplained wage gap contributes more to the total wage gap, comparing with the explained wage gap. However, this is no strong evidence to show that the wage discrimination is correlated with national economic development.
    Keywords: Gender wage gap, Discrimination, Developing countries, Labor and Human Capital, J31, C36,
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Kristin F. Butcher; Kyung H. Park; Anne Morrison Piehl
    Abstract: Using detailed administrative records, we find that, on average, women receive lighter sentences in comparison with men along both extensive and intensive margins. Using parametric and semi-parametric decomposition methods, roughly 30% of the gender differences in incarceration cannot be explained by the observed criminal characteristics of offense and offender. We also find evidence of considerable heterogeneity across judges in their treatment of female and male offenders. There is little evidence, however, that tastes for gender discrimination are driving the mean gender disparity or the variance in treatment between judges.
    JEL: J16 K14 K42
    Date: 2017–01
  3. By: Francesco Pastore (Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli); Allan Webster (Bournemouth University, Executive Business Centre)
    Abstract: This study examines the gender wage gap between male and female workers in the US using Current Population Survey (CPS) It shows that the extent of gender segregation is significantly greater than previously supposed. This creates problems of sample selection bias, of non-comparability between male and female employment. To address these problems the study uses a matching approach, which we also extend to a more recent methodological version with a yet stronger statistical foundation – Inverse Probability Weighted Regression Adjustment (IPWRA). To secure even better comparability we repeat the matching analysis for a small number of industries and occupations, each of which employed similar numbers of men and women. The findings for the full sample are replicated at the level of industry and occupation, where comparability is more reliable. Even when important “control†variables such as education, part-time working or region are taken into account, a significant gender wage gap remains.
    Keywords: gender; wages; segregation; matching; US; non-comparability
    JEL: J31 J16
    Date: 2017–02
  4. By: Barigozzi, Francesca (University of Bologna); Cremer, Helmuth (Toulouse School of Economics); Roeder, Kerstin (University of Augsburg)
    Abstract: Our model explains the observed gender-specific patterns of career and child care choices through endogenous social norms. We study how these norms interact with the gender wage gap. We show that via the social norm a couple's child care and career choices impose an externality on other couples, so that the laissez-faire is inefficient. We use our model to study the design and effectiveness of three commonly used policies. We find that child care subsidies and women quotas can be effective tools to mitigate or eliminate the externality. Parental leave, however, may even intensify the externality and decrease welfare.
    Keywords: social norms, child care, women's career choices, women quotas, child care subsidies, parental leave
    JEL: D13 H23 J16 J22
    Date: 2017–01
  5. By: Anne Ardila Brenøe (University of Copenhagen); Shelly Lundberg (University of California Santa Barbara)
    Abstract: We examine the differential effects of family disadvantage on the education and adult labor market outcomes of men and women using high-quality administrative data on the entire population of Denmark born between 1966 and 1995. We link parental education and family structure during childhood to male-female and brother-sister differences in teenage outcomes, educational attainment, and adult earnings and employment. Our results are consistent with U.S. findings that boys benefit more from an advantageous family environment than do girls in terms of the behavior and grade-school outcomes. Father’s education, which has not been examined in previous studies, is particularly important for sons. However, we find a very different pattern of parental influence on adult outcomes. The gender gaps in educational attainment, employment, and earnings are increasing in maternal education, benefiting daughters. Paternal education decreases the gender gaps in educational attainment (favoring sons) and labor market outcomes (favoring daughters). We conclude that differences in the behavior of school- aged boys and girls are a poor proxy for differences in skills that drive longer-term outcomes.
    Keywords: gender gap, parental education, family structure, education, labor market outcomes
    JEL: I20 J10 J20 J30
    Date: 2017–01
  6. By: Emmanuel Perterle (Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, CRESE); Holger A. Rau (University of Goettingen)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes gender differences in access to competitive positions. We implement an experiment where workers can apply for a job promotion by sending a signal to their employer. We control for gender differences in anticipation of discrimination in a treatment where a computer randomly recruits. Discriminatory behavior by the employer is isolated in a treatment where workers cannot send signals. We find that gender disparity among promoted workers is highest when workers can apply for promotion and employers recruit. Strikingly, the gender composition in competitive position is balanced in the absence of a signaling institution. When signaling is possible, we observe that female workers who do not request a promotion are discriminated against.
    Keywords: Experiment, Discrimination, Gender Differences, Real Effort.
    JEL: C9 J24 J70
    Date: 2017–01
  7. By: Carlos Gradín (Universidade de Vigo and EQUALITAS, Spain)
    Abstract: We present an approach to measure the stratification of occupations by sex. For that, we extend the conventional framework for measuring gender segregation to take into account the quality of jobs (e.g. average earnings) predominantly held by each sex. We complement segregation curves and measures derived from them, with their associated concentration curves and indices, to determine whether women are segregated into low-paying jobs. We investigate with this approach the long-term trends of gender segregation and stratification of occupations by sex in the US using census data. Our results show that de-stratification of occupations by sex was more intense than their desegregation, and lasted longer, even after segregation had stagnated. Neither segregation nor stratification levels can be explained by the different characteristics of male and female workforces, although the profound changes in the composition of workers over time (e.g. education, marital status) did help to substantially explain their trends. Changes in the earnings structure favoring occupations held by women since 1980 additionally contributed to reduce stratification over time. Finally, changes in the conditional occupational distribution by sex only reduced segregation and stratification before 1990.
    Keywords: occupational segregation, stratification, low-paying occupations, gender.
    JEL: J16 J42 J71 J82
    Date: 2017–01
  8. By: Magali Jaoul-Grammare
    Abstract: After a long historical process, the principle of coeducation became accepted within the French education system, and since the 1980s the fight against gender inequality has been at the heart of educational reforms. The rationale for equality is not simply moral: gender inequalities slow down human capital accumulation and thereby slow economic growth. The aim of this paper is to determine whether various recent reforms have led to a decrease in gender inequality, measured according to three dimensions: access to prestigious post-baccalaureate courses; access to “male” academic courses; and access to higher diplomas. We use a multinomial logistic regression to compare the Cereq databases Generation 1998 and 2010. Our results show that in spite of a reduction in inequality, access to prestigious courses and access to higher diplomas remain affected by gender inequality. We also show that some “male” academic courses remain highly gender-biased. In this sense, then, we can conclude that human capital accumulation in France is not yet optimal.
    Keywords: Access, France, Gender Inequalities, Higher Education, Human Capital Accumulation.
    JEL: C25 I23 I24 I28
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Olivetti, Claudia; Petrongolo, Barbara
    Abstract: We draw lessons from existing work and our own analysis on the effects of parental leave and other interventions aimed at aiding families. The outcomes of interest are female employment, gender gaps in earnings and fertility. We begin with a discussion of the historical introduction of family policies ever since the end of the nineteenth century and then turn to the details regarding family policies currently in effect across high-income nations. We sketch a framework concerning the effects of family policy to motivate our country- and micro-level evidence on the impact of family policies on gender outcomes. Most estimates of the impact of parental leave entitlement on female labor market outcomes range from negligible to weakly positive. The verdict is far more positive for the beneficial impact of spending on early education and childcare.
    Keywords: childcare; family policies; gender gaps; parental leave
    Date: 2017–01
  10. By: Li, Wenxuan; Marshall, Maria I.
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between role satisfaction of farm family business owners and gender. Specifically, this paper investigates how role satisfaction is different for male and female farm family business owners. Previous literature has suggested that male and female owners might have a different level of satisfaction when faced with similar profits. The hypothesis is that female owners will have higher levels of role satisfaction than male owners. The sustainable family business model is adapted to form the theoretical framework. It helps identify family and business resources and constraints, processes, and transactions that are most likely to lead to business and family achievement. Gender and profit are two important factors in the model. The data used for the empirical analysis come from the 2012 Intergenerational Farm and Non-Farm Family Business Survey, which was a 30-minutes telephone survey of rural family businesses in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio. The sample consists of 736 small and medium size farms from the four states. Preliminary results indicate that gender has significant impact on the perceived role satisfaction of owners when they face the same profits.
    Keywords: Satisfaction, gender, family business, profit, Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics,
    Date: 2017–01
  11. By: Rossin-Slater, Maya (University of California, Santa Barbara)
    Abstract: Maternity and family leave policies enable mothers to take time off work to prepare for and recover from childbirth and to care for their new children. While there is substantial variation in the details of these policies around the world, the existing research yields the following general conclusions. First, despite important barriers to the take-up of leave, both the implementation of new programs and extensions of existing ones increase leavetaking rates among new parents. Second, leave entitlements less than one year in length can improve job continuity for women and increase their employment rates several years after childbirth; longer leaves can negatively influence women's earnings, employment, and career advancement. Third, extensions in existing paid leave policies have no impact on measures of child well-being, but the introduction of short paid and unpaid leave programs can improve children's short- and long-term outcomes. Fourth, while more research is needed, the current evidence shows minimal impacts of existing U.S. state-level programs on employer-level outcomes such as employee productivity, morale, profitability, turnoverrates, or the total wage bill.
    Keywords: female labor supply, working mothers, family leave, maternity leave, motherhood wage penalty
    JEL: H4 J13 J18 J38
    Date: 2017–01

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