nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒01‒22
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Historic sex-ratio imbalances predict female participation in the political market By Iris Grant; Iris Kesternich; Carina Steckenleiter; Joachim Winter
  2. An econometric investigation of the productivity gender gap in Mexican research, and a simulation study of the effects on scientific performance of policy scenarios to promote gender equality By Rivera Leon, Llorena; Mairesse, Jacques; Cowan, Robin
  3. The Influence of Gender Budgeting in Indian States on Gender Inequality and Fiscal Spending By Janet Gale Stotsky; Asad Zaman
  4. Women's career choices, social norms and child care policies By F. Barigozzi; H. Cremer; K. Roeder
  5. The Role of Gender in Employment Polarization By Fabio Cerina; Alessio Moro; Michelle Petersen Rendall
  6. Austerity and gender wage inequality in EU countries By Perugini, Cristiano; Žarković Rakić, Jelena; Vladisavljević, Marko
  7. Are women or men better team managers? Evidence from professional team sports By Helmut Dietl; Carlos Gomez-Gonzalez; Cornel Nesseler
  8. Gendered careers: women economists in Italy By Marcella Corsi; Carlo D'Ippoliti; Giulia Zacchia

  1. By: Iris Grant; Iris Kesternich; Carina Steckenleiter; Joachim Winter
    Abstract: We analyze the long-term effects of gender imbalances on female labor force participation, in particular in the politician market, exploiting variation in sex ratios across Germany induced by WWII. In the 1990 elections, women were more likely to run for office in constituencies that had relatively fewer men in 1946.
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Rivera Leon, Llorena (UNU-MERIT); Mairesse, Jacques (UNU-MERIT, and CREST-ENSAE, France); Cowan, Robin (UNU-MERIT, and BETA, Université de Strasbourg, France)
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence on the existence and determinants of the publication productivity gender gap in Mexico at the individual level and on its consequences on the Mexican scientific system and productivity at disciplinary and aggregate levels. The paper specifies and performs a panel data econometric analysis based on a sample of Mexican researchers who are members of the National System of Researchers (SNI) of Mexico in the period 2002-2013. It corrects for a selectivity bias: the existence of periods with no (or low quality) publication, and endogeneity bias: the promotion to higher academic ranks. We define and implement counterfactual simulations to both effects, assess the magnitude of macro-impacts of existing gender gaps and illustrate the potential effects of a range of policy scenarios. The results show no significant gender gaps for an average SNI researcher. Moreover, when correcting for the endogeneity and selectivity biases, we find that the average female researcher in public universities is around 8% more productive than her male peers, with most of the observed productivity being explained by gender differentials in the propensity to have periods of no (or low) quality publication. We find that barriers to promotion to higher academic ranks are highest among females in public research centres. Our macro scenarios on promotion practices, selectivity, collaboration and age show that eliminating gender gaps would increase aggregate productivity by an average of 7% for university females and 9% for females in research centres.
    Keywords: scientific productivity, gender productivity puzzle, Mexico, economics of science, economics of gender
    JEL: C23 I23
    Date: 2016–12–21
  3. By: Janet Gale Stotsky; Asad Zaman
    Abstract: This study investigates the effect of gender budgeting in India on gender inequality and fiscal spending. Gender budgeting is an approach to budgeting in which governments use fiscal policies and administration to address gender inequality and women’s advancement. There is little quantitative study of its impact. Indian states offer a relatively unique framework for assessing the effect of gender budgeting. States with gender budgeting efforts have made more progress on gender equality in primary school enrollment than those without, though economic growth appears insufficient to generate equality on its own. The implications of gender budgeting for fiscal spending were more ambiguous.
    Keywords: Fiscal policy;India;Gender;Budgeting;Income inequality;Women's economic conditions;Government expenditures;Cross country analysis;fiscal policy, gender budgeting, gender inequality, Indian states
    Date: 2016–11–16
  4. By: F. Barigozzi; H. Cremer; K. Roeder
    Abstract: Our model explains the observed gender-specific patterns of career and child care choices through endogenous social norms. We study how these norms interact with the gender wage gap. We show that via the social norm a couple’s child care and career choices impose an externality on other couples, so that the laissez-faire is inefficient. We use our model to study the design and effectiveness of three commonly used policies. We find that child care subsidies and women quotas can be effective tools to mitigate or eliminate the externality. Parental leave, however, may even intensify the externality and decrease welfare.
    JEL: D13 H23 J16 J22
    Date: 2017–01
  5. By: Fabio Cerina (University of Cagliari; CRENoS); Alessio Moro (University of Cagliari; Centre for Macroeconomics (CFM)); Michelle Petersen Rendall (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: We document that employment polarization in the 1980-2008 period in the U.S. is largely generated by women. For the latter, employment shares increase both at the bottom and at the top of the skill distribution, generating the typical U-shape polarization graph, while for men employment shares decrease in a similar fashion along the whole skill distribution. We show that a canonical model of skill-biased technological change augmented with a gender dimension, an endogenous market/home labor choice and a multi-sector environment accounts well for gender and overall employment polarization. The model also accounts for the absence of employment polarization during the 1960-1980 period, which is due to the at behavior of changes in women's employment shares along the skill distribution, and can reproduce the different evolution of employment shares across decades during the 1980-2008 period. The faster growth of skill-biased technological change since the 1980s accounts for a substantial part of the employment polarization generated by the model.
    Keywords: Job Polarization, Gender, Skill-biased Technological Change, Home Production
    JEL: E20 E21 J16
    Date: 2016–02
  6. By: Perugini, Cristiano; Žarković Rakić, Jelena; Vladisavljević, Marko
    Abstract: The great recession, and the countercyclical responses by European governments that followed, triggered an extensive wave of fiscal adjustments. The implementation of these austerity measures, although underpinned by a widespread consensus, underwent severe criticism. While their effects on output and employment have been extensively investigated, their impacts on wage inequality have received relatively less attention. In this paper we focus on the consequences of austerity measures on gender wage inequalities. After having described the literature-based conceptual framework of our analysis, we provide empirical evidence on the effects of austerity measures on: (i) the adjusted gender wage gap; and (ii) the patterns of gender horizontal segregation. The analysis covers the group of EU-28 countries in the years from 2010 to 2013. Results show that austerity measures (both tax-based and expenditure-based) impacted significantly on various sides of gender wage inequality, putting at risk the relatively little progress achieved in Europe so far.
    Keywords: austerity, gender wage inequality, gender segregation, EU-28
    JEL: E62 J16 J31 O52
    Date: 2016–12–23
  7. By: Helmut Dietl (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich); Carlos Gomez-Gonzalez (Facultad Derecho y CC. Soziales, University of Castilla-La Mancha); Cornel Nesseler (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich)
    Abstract: We empirically compare the performance of female and male team managers. We find that female team managers never perform worse than male team managers and that females work under significantly worse conditions than males. Additionally, we find that specialized experience has no influence. Special- 1 ized experience means having worked previously as an employee in the same industry. Our dataset consists of female and male managers in women soccer leagues acroos countries, viz., France, Germany, and Norway. Managers in team sports usually have exactly the same tasks (selection, coordination, and motivation of team members) as team managers in other industries. The limited number of women in top management positions in some of these industries and the lack of available data do not often allow comparisons. Our study, which includes a fair number of female team managers and a clear measurement of performance, can help understanding stereotypical behaviors. Therefore, our results have important implications for industries, companies, and clubs who oppose employing female team managers.
    Keywords: Performance, Female managers, discrimination, Working conditions
    JEL: J16 J7 L83
    Date: 2017–01
  8. By: Marcella Corsi; Carlo D'Ippoliti; Giulia Zacchia
    Abstract: Recent reforms of the Italian university system introduced a centralized national qualification competition (called ASN), necessary for accessing all academic positions in the country. Following a well-known international trend, the new mechanism is founded on rigid standardized indexes of “scientific productivity” based on bibliometric indicators. In economics, women’s lower success rate (35%) compared to men’s (44%) is often connected to lower productivity. We provide evidence matching all candidates’ CVs with their record of publications on EconLit, showing that women’s typical career profiles, e.g. in terms of type of publications, topics and methods of inquiry, were penalized regardless of scientific productivity. Our work aims not only at documenting, through a large scale natural experiment, the causes of the underrepresentation of women in academia (especially in top positions) and within economics, but also at raising the issue of new incentives and constrains that increasingly push women to uniform their careers and their research interests to those of their men colleagues.
    Keywords: women economists; research paradigms; Italy
    JEL: J16 B54 A14
    Date: 2016–01–16

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