nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒01‒15
fourteen papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Explaining Gender Differences in Confidence and Overconfidence in Math By Seo-Young Cho
  2. How do entrepreneurial bosses influence their employees' future entrepreneurship choices? By Rocha, Vera; van Praag, Mirjam
  3. Do women respond less to performance pay? Building evidence from multiple experiments By Bandiera, Oriana; Fischer, Greg; Prat, Andrea; Ytsma, Erina
  4. Gender Differences in the Union Wage Premium? A Comparative Case Study By Alex Bryson; Harald Dale-Olsen; Kristine Nergaard
  5. The Gender Wealth Gap Across European Countries By Schneebaum, Alyssa; Rehm, Miriam; Mader, Katharina; Hollan, Katarina
  6. Wages, Housework, and Attitudes in the Philippines By Dacuycuy, Connie B.
  7. Gender Differences in Academic Performance: The Role of Negative Marking in Multiple-Choice Exams By Funk, Patricia; Perrone, Helena
  8. The Aggregate Implications of Gender and Marriage By Borella, Margherita; De Nardi, Mariacristina; Yang, Fang
  9. Affirmative Action and Team Performance By Felix Koelle
  10. Policy Reform and Gender Inequality in French Higher Education: A Two-Generation Comparative Study By Magali Jaoul-Grammare
  11. The Life-cycle Benefits of an Influential Early Childhood Program By Jorge Luis García; James J. Heckman; Duncan Ermini Leaf; María José Prados
  12. The influence of gender and income on the household division of financial responsibility By Hitczenko, Marcin
  13. Gender Peer Effects Heterogeneity in Obesity By Rokhaya Dieye; Bernard Fortin
  14. The Effect of Opposite Sex Siblings on Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills in Early Childhood By Cyron, Laura; Schwerdt, Guido; Viarengo, Martina

  1. By: Seo-Young Cho (University of Marburg)
    Abstract: This paper investigates empirically how and why men and women are different in their confidence levels. Using the data of the PISA test in math, confidence is decomposed into two dimensions: confidence in correct math knowledge and overconfidence in over-claiming false knowledge. The findings highlight that female students are not less confident than male students, but they are rather less overconfident. Furthermore, mathematical abilities have different effects on male and female students. While ability alone increases confidence and decreases overconfidence, the interaction effect of feminine gender and ability is negative. This means that the negative effect of ability on overconfidence is larger for female students than male ones, while the positive effect of ability on confidence is smaller for females. That being said, the negative gender gap in overconfidence against girls is greater for students in the higher quartiles of math scores than those in the lower quartiles. Also, the positive gender gap in confidence for girls is smaller for well-performing students than underperforming ones. The empirical evidence further reveals that such gender-asymmetric effects of ability can be explained by gender socialization that limits women’s roles and undermines their achievements.
    Keywords: gender differences in confidence and overconfidence; gender gaps in math; genderasymmetric effects of ability; gender equality; gender socialization effects
    JEL: C31 I21 I24 J16 J24
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Rocha, Vera; van Praag, Mirjam
    Abstract: We adopt a process-based approach to investigate the influence of entrepreneurial bosses on the two main decisions of employees towards becoming entrepreneurs: exit from the current firm and entry into entrepreneurship. In other words, we study the push and pull mechanisms possibly underlying the influence of entrepreneurial bosses. We do so by employing an identification strategy based on comparisons of same-gender matches of bosses and employees, using rich register data for Denmark. We show that same-gender entrepreneurial bosses have a great impact on employees' future entrepreneurship choices, especially among women. We do not find any evidence that female bosses push female employees out of the workplace, by creating a discriminatory environment that forces them to search for alternative career paths. Instead, our analysis finds consistent support for pull mechanisms, with role modeling being the main explanation for the positive influence of female entrepreneurial bosses on female employees' transition into entrepreneurship. We show that the female boss effect is greater than other social interactions identified in prior research. We conclude that entrepreneurial bosses can be role models and female entrepreneurial bosses may thus act as a lever to reducing gender gaps in entrepreneurship rates.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; female leadership; gender gaps; role models
    JEL: J16 J24 L26 M12 M13
    Date: 2016–12
  3. By: Bandiera, Oriana; Fischer, Greg; Prat, Andrea; Ytsma, Erina
    Abstract: Performance pay increases productivity but also earnings inequality. Can it widen the gender gap because women are less responsive? We provide answers by aggregating evidence from existing experiments on performance pay that have both male and female subjects, regardless of whether they test for gender differences. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM) that allows us to estimate both the average effect and the heterogeneity across studies. We find that the gender response difference is close to zero and heterogeneity across studies is small. We also find that the average effect of performance pay is positive, increasing output by 0.28 standard deviations. The data are thus strongly supportive of agency theory for men and women alike.
    Keywords: econometrics; Gender; meta-analysis; wage differentials
    JEL: C11 J16 J31
    Date: 2016–12
  4. By: Alex Bryson (University College London, National Institute of Social and Economic Research and Institute for the Study of Labor); Harald Dale-Olsen (Institute for Social Research); Kristine Nergaard (Fafo)
    Abstract: Trade unions have transformed from male-dominated organisations rooted in manufacturing to majority-female organisations serving predominantly white-collar workers, often in the public sector. Adopting a comparative case study approach using nationally representative linked employer-employee surveys for Norway and Britain we examine whether, in keeping with a median voter model, the gender shift in union membership has resulted in differential wage returns to unionisation among men and women. In Britain, while only women receive a union wage premium, only men benefit from the increased bargaining power of their union as indicated by workplace union density. In Norway, on the other hand, although a union wage premium arises from individual union membership for men and women in male-dominated unions, in workplaces where the union is female-dominated women benefit more than men from the increased bargaining power of the union as union density rises. The findings suggest British unions continue to adopt a paternalistic attitude to representing their membership, in contrast to their more progressive counterparts in Norway.
    Keywords: Trade unions; Collective bargaining; Union density; Wage premium; Gender
    JEL: J28 J51 J81 L23
    Date: 2016–12–12
  5. By: Schneebaum, Alyssa; Rehm, Miriam; Mader, Katharina; Hollan, Katarina
    Abstract: This paper studies the gap in wealth between male and female single households using 2010 Household Finance and Consumption Survey data for eight European countries. In the raw data, a large gap emerges at the upper end of the unconditional distribution. While OLS estimates show no difference in average net wealth levels, quantile regressions at the 95th percentile yield mixed evidence for the gender wealth gap in different specifications. Labour market characteristics and participation in asset and debt categories largely explain the differences between male and female single households. We show that the gender gap in net wealth is driven by gender gaps in gross wealth and its components, but is attenuated in four countries by gender gaps in (collateralized) debt. In the full specification, the unexplained gap in gross wealth amounts to 27% in Slovakia, 33% in France, 44% in Austria, 45% in Germany, and 48% in Greece. A robustness check using person-level pension wealth confirms the presence of a gender gap for the full population. (authors' abstract)
    Keywords: Gender; Wealth; Wealth Gap; Distribution
    Date: 2016–09
  6. By: Dacuycuy, Connie B.
    Abstract: This paper is one of the few studies that systematically analyze housework in the Philippines. It seeks to understand how wage and attitudes to work and family life affect the time devoted to housework. Based on different specifications and estimators, our findings indicate that the respondent’s own wage is not a significant predictor of his or her housework hours, but it is a significant predictor of the spouse’s time devoted to nonmarket production. We find that the husband’s housework hours are positively affected by the female respondent’s wage while the wife’s housework hours are negatively affected by the male respondent’s wage. We turn to the Philippine context to explain these results and find the combination of egalitarian society and gender inequality in the labor market as plausible explanations. Results also show that both wage and attitudes have direct effects on the wife’s housework time but that some of the effects of wage are mediated by the respondent’s attitudes toward gender roles.
    Keywords: Philippines, housework, wage, specialization, instrumental variable technique
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Funk, Patricia; Perrone, Helena
    Abstract: We investigate whether penalizing wrong answers on multiple-choice tests ("negative marking") makes females relatively worse off compared to males (the comparison being no penalties for wrong answers). With a cohort of more than 500 undergraduate students at a major Spanish university, we conducted a field experiment in the Microeconomics course. We created a final exam, which was composed of two parts: one with penalties for wrong answers and one without. Students were randomly allocated to different exam permutations, which differed in the questions that carried penalties for wrong answers. We find that the penalties did not harm female students. Females performed better than males on both parts of the exam and did so to a greater extent on the part with penalties. Whereas risk aversion did not affect overall scores (despite affecting answering behavior), ability did. High-ability students performed relatively better with negative marking, and these were more likely to be women.
    Date: 2016–12
  8. By: Borella, Margherita; De Nardi, Mariacristina; Yang, Fang
    Abstract: Wages, labor market participation, hours worked, and savings differ by gender and marital status. In addition, women and married people make up for a large fraction of the population and of labor market participants, total hours worked, and total earnings. For the most part, macroeconomists have been ignoring women and marriage in setting up structural models and by calibrating them using data on males only. In this paper we ask whether ignoring gender and marriage in both models and data implies that the resulting calibration matches well the key economic aggregates. We find that it does not and we ask whether there are other calibration strategies or relatively simple models of marriage that can improve the fit of the model to aggregate data.
    Keywords: Aggregates; Gender; Macroeconomy; Marriage
    JEL: D1 E21
    Date: 2016–12
  9. By: Felix Koelle (Faculty of Management, Economics and Social Sciences, University of Cologne)
    Abstract: We experimentally investigate spillover effects of affirmative action policies in tournaments on subsequent team performance and the willingness to work in teams. In three different team environments, we find that such policies in form of gender quotas do not harm performance and cooperation within teams, and do not weaken people’s willingness to work in teams. Our results, thus, provide further evidence that gender quotas can have the desired effect of promoting women without harming efficiency.
    Keywords: Affirmative action; teams; gender; performance; cooperation; selection; experiment
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Magali Jaoul-Grammare (BETA, University of Strasbourg Strasbourg, France)
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Jorge Luis García; James J. Heckman; Duncan Ermini Leaf; María José Prados
    Abstract: This paper estimates the long-term benefits from an influential early childhood program targeting disadvantaged families. The program was evaluated by random assignment and followed participants through their mid-30s. It has substantial beneficial impacts on health, children's future labor incomes, crime, education, and mothers' labor incomes, with greater monetized benefits for males. Lifetime returns are estimated by pooling multiple data sets using testable economic models. The overall rate of return is 13.7% per annum, and the benefit/cost ratio is 7.3. These estimates are robust to numerous sensitivity analyses.
    JEL: C93 I28 J13
    Date: 2016–12
  12. By: Hitczenko, Marcin (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston)
    Abstract: This paper studies how gender and income dynamics influence the division of responsibility in two-adult households for various activities, including those tasks directly related to financial decisionmaking. The data, from the 2012 Survey of Consumer Payment Choice, consist of the respondents’ categorical self-assessments of their individual levels of responsibility for various tasks. A data construct, in which some households have both adults participate in the survey, is exploited to develop a penalized latent variable model that accounts for systemic response errors. The data reveal that that women, even when they are the primary earner, are much more likely than men to have the major responsibility for household shopping and bill paying. With regard to financial decisionmaking, however, there is a greater propensity to share responsibility equally, and income ranking is more important than gender in defining household roles, with higher earners more likely to have a larger share of responsibility.
    Keywords: gender roles; household finance; probit models; penalized maximum likelihood
    JEL: A14 C51 D13 J16
    Date: 2016–10–17
  13. By: Rokhaya Dieye; Bernard Fortin
    Abstract: This paper explores gender peer effects heterogeneity in adolescent Body Mass Index (BMI). We propose a utility-based non-cooperative social network model with effort technology. We allow the gender composition to influence peer effects. We analyze the possibility of recovering the fundamentals of our structural model from the best-response functions. We provide identification conditions of these functions generalizing those of the homogeneous version of the model. Extending Liu and Lee [2010], we consider 2SLS and GMM strategies to estimate our model using Add Health data. We provide tests of homophily in the formation of network and reject them after controlling for network (school) fixed effects. The joint (endogenous plus contextual) gender homogeneous model is rejected. However, we do not reject that the endogenous effects are the same. This suggests that the source of gender peer effects heterogeneity is the contextual effects. We find that peers’ age, parents’ education, health status, and race are relevant for the latter effects and are gender-dependent.
    Keywords: Obesity, Social Networks, Gender, Heterogeneity, Peer Effects, Identification, Add Health,
    JEL: L12 C31 Z13 D85
    Date: 2017–01–11
  14. By: Cyron, Laura (Asian Development Bank Institute); Schwerdt, Guido (Asian Development Bank Institute); Viarengo, Martina (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: We investigate the effect of having opposite sex siblings on cognitive and noncognitive skills of children in the United States at the onset of formal education. Our identification strategy rests on the assumption that, conditional on covariates, the sibling sex composition of the two firstborn children in a family is arguably exogenous. With regard to cognitive skills, learning skills, and self-control measured in kindergarten, we find that boys benefit from having a sister, while there is no effect for girls. We also find evidence for the effect fading out as early as first grade.
    Keywords: sibling gender effects; gender peer effects; education; cognitive skills; noncognitive skills; early childhood
    JEL: I20 J13 J16
    Date: 2016–12–31

This nep-gen issue is ©2017 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.