nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2017‒01‒01
five papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Beliefs about Gender By Pedro Bordalo; Katie Coffman; Nicola Gennaioli; Andrei Shleifer
  2. Macroeconomic costs of gender gaps in a model with household production and entrepreneurship By David Cuberes; Marc Teignier
  3. Child Age and Gender Differences in Food Security in a Low-Income Inner-City Population By Robert A. Moffitt; David C. Ribar
  4. It Pays to Be a Man: Rewards for Leaders in a Coordination Game By Philip J. Grossman; Catherine Eckel; Mana Komai; Wei Zhan
  5. The New Lifecycle of Women’s Employment: Disappearing Humps, Sagging Middles, Expanding Tops By Claudia Goldin; Joshua Mitchell

  1. By: Pedro Bordalo; Katie Coffman; Nicola Gennaioli; Andrei Shleifer
    Abstract: We conduct a laboratory experiment on the determinants of beliefs about own and others? ability across different domains. A preliminary look at the data points to two distinct forces: miscalibration in estimating performance depending on the difficulty of tasks and gender stereotypes. We develop a theoretical model that separates these forces and apply it to analyze a large laboratory dataset in which participants estimate their own and a partner?s performance on questions across six subjects: arts and literature, emotion recognition, business, verbal reasoning, mathematics, and sports. We find that participants greatly overestimate not only their own ability but also that of others, suggesting that miscalibration is a substantial, first order factor in stated beliefs. Women are better calibrated than men, providing more accurate estimates of ability both for themselves and for others. Gender stereotypes also have strong predictive power for beliefs, particularly for men?s beliefs about themselves and others? beliefs about the ability of men. Our findings help interpret evidence on gender gaps in self-confidence.
    Date: 2016–12
  2. By: David Cuberes (Clark University); Marc Teignier (Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: This paper examines the quantitative effects of gender gaps in entrepreneurship and workforce participation in an occupational choice model with a household sector. Gender gaps in entrepreneurship affect negatively both income and aggregate productivity, since they reduce the entrepreneurs’ average talent and female labor force participation. We estimate the gender gaps for 37 European countries and we find that gender gaps cause an average market output loss of 11.5% when they are considered constant across talent levels. The loss in total output, which also includes household production, varies between 6.4% and 8.7%, depending on the household productivity parameter.
    Keywords: Gender-specific occupational choice frictions, Entrepreneurhsip talent misallocation, Total output.
    JEL: E2 J21 O40
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Robert A. Moffitt; David C. Ribar
    Abstract: A long literature in economics concerns itself with differential allocations of resources to different children within the family unit. In a study of approximately 1,500 very disadvantaged families with children in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio from 1999 to 2005, significant differences in levels of food allocation, as measured by an indicator of food “insecurity,” are found across children of different ages and genders. Using answers to unique survey questions for a specific child in the family, food insecurity levels are found to be much higher among older boys and girls than among younger ones, and to be sometimes higher among older boys than among older girls. Differential allocations are strongly correlated with the dietary and nutritional needs of the child. However, the differences in allocation appear only in the poorest families with the lowest levels of money income and family resources in general, and most differences disappear in significance or are greatly reduced in magnitude when resources rise to only modest levels. Differences in food insecurity across different types of children therefore appear to be a problem primarily only among the worst-off families.
    JEL: I1 I3 J1
    Date: 2016–12
  4. By: Philip J. Grossman; Catherine Eckel; Mana Komai; Wei Zhan
    Abstract: This paper addresses followers’ assessment of leaders’ effectiveness in a controlled laboratory environment with salient incentives. We employ a simple game setting to examine how leaders are evaluated for the successes and failures of their groups. Followers participate in a five-person, coordination game repeated for two sets of 10 periods. Followers play each set with a different fixed group. After period 10, a leader provides (scripted) guidance on how to play the game to maximize group earnings. The gender of the leader is the only variable factor. At the end of the twentieth period, followers vote to reward (at a cost to themselves) their leader. We find that, even though leaders are all providing the same guidance, followers are more likely to heed the advice of the male leaders, followers are less likely to ascribe group success to female leaders, and followers reward male leaders more generously than female leaders. There is a premium to being male.
    Keywords: Leadership, Gender, Coordination Game
    JEL: C92 J71 J16
    Date: 2016–11
  5. By: Claudia Goldin; Joshua Mitchell
    Abstract: A new lifecycle of women’s employment emerged with cohorts born in the 1950s. For prior cohorts, lifecycle employment had a hump shape; it increased from the twenties to the forties, hit a peak and then declined starting in the fifties. The new lifecycle of employment is initially high and flat, there is a dip in the middle and a phasing out that is more prolonged than for previous cohorts. The hump is gone, the middle is a bit sagging and the top has greatly expanded. We explore the increase in cumulative work experience for women from the 1930s to the 1970s birth cohorts using the SIPP and the HRS. We investigate the changing labor force impact of a birth event across cohorts and by education and also the impact of taking leave or quitting. We find greatly increased labor force experience across cohorts, far less time out after a birth and greater labor force recovery for those who take paid or unpaid leave. Increased employment of women in their older ages is related to more continuous work experience across the lifecycle.
    JEL: J16 J21
    Date: 2016–12

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