nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2016‒12‒18
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials in China and India By Dainn Wie; Jong-Wha Lee
  2. Gender differences in tournament choices: Risk preferences, overconfidence or competitiveness? By van Veldhuizen, Roel
  4. A Gendered Analysis of Age Discrimination among Older Jobseekers in Australia By Michael McGann; Rachel Ong; Dina Bowman; Alan Duncan; Helen Kimberley; Simon Biggs
  5. The Anatomy of the Wage Distribution: How do Gender and Immigration Matter? By Suphanit Piyapromdee; Jean Marc Robin; Rasmus Lentz
  6. The Life-cycle Benefits of an Influential Early Childhood Program By Jorge Luis Garcia; James J. Heckman; Duncan Ermini Leaf; Maria Jose Prados

  1. By: Dainn Wie (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Jong-Wha Lee (Korea University)
    Abstract: This study analyzes how changes in overall wage inequality and gender-specific factors affected the gender wage gap in Chinese and Indian urban labor markets in the 1990s and 2000s. Analysis of micro data present that contrasting evolutionary patterns in gender wage gap emerged over the period, showing a widened wage gap in China but a dramatically reduced gap in India. In both countries, female workers f increased skill levels contributed to reducing the gender wage gap. However, increases in observed prices of education and experience worked unfavorably for high-skilled women, counterbalancing their improvement in labor market qualifications. Decomposition analyses show that China fs widened gap was attributable to gender-specific factors such as deteriorated observable and unobservable labor market qualifications and increased discrimination, especially against low- and middle-skilled female workers. For India, gender-specific factors and relatively high wage gains of low- and middle-skilled workers reduced the male-female wage gap.
    Date: 2016–12
  2. By: van Veldhuizen, Roel
    Abstract: A large number of recent experimental studies show that women are less likely to sort into competitive environments. While part of this effect may be explained by gender differences in risk attitudes and overconfidence, previous studies have attributed the majority of the gender gap to gender differences in a separate 'competitiveness' trait. We re-examine this result using a powerful novel experimental technique that allows us to separate competitiveness from alternative explanations by experimental design. In contrast to the literature, the results from our experiment imply that the whole gender gap is driven by risk attitudes and overconfidence. We show that our results are due to our experimental approach, which circumvents concerns raised against the regression-based method used by previous studies. Our results have important implications for policy and future research.
    Keywords: Tournament,Experimental Design,Gender,Competitiveness,Lab Experiment
    JEL: C90 J16 J24 J31
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Dagmara Nikulin (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: It is widely argued that ICTs enable the inclusion of low-skilled and traditionally marginalized groups, such as women, people with disabilities, and workers at the base of the pyramid (BoP), in the labor market. In this paper, we investigate the determinants of female participation in the labor market in developing countries with a focus on the impact of the use of ICTs on female labor force participation. We conduct a panel study analysis for 60 developing countries in the time period 2000–2014. Our results confirm that there is rather a positive impact from the use of ICTs on female labor force participation in developing countries. Moreover, we show that gross national income (GNI) per capita, fertility rates and income inequalities influence to some extent the level of women’s engagement in the labor market. Our results are robust against different control variables, as well as different ICT proxies.
    Keywords: ICTs, female labor force participation, panel data, development level, income inequalities
    JEL: O11 O33 J21
    Date: 2016–12
  4. By: Michael McGann (School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Melbourne); Rachel Ong (Bankwest Curtin Economic Centre, Curtin University); Dina Bowman (Research and Policy Centre, Brotherhood of St Laurence); Alan Duncan (Bankwest Curtin Economic Centre, Curtin University); Helen Kimberley (Research and Policy Centre, Brotherhood of St Laurence); Simon Biggs (School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how age and gender interact to shape older jobseekers’ experiences of age discrimination within a mixed methods framework. The analysis reveals that there has been a considerable decline in levels of perceived ageism among older men nationally relative to older women. These findings suggest that the nature of ageism experienced by older women is qualitatively different from men. Hence, policy responses to ageism need to be far more tailored in their approach because present, one-size-fits all, business case approaches rely on an overly narrow concept that obscures the gender and occupational dimensions of ageism.
    Keywords: Age discrimination, ageism, gender, older workers
    JEL: J01 J16 J71
    Date: 2016–05
  5. By: Suphanit Piyapromdee (University College London); Jean Marc Robin (Sciences Po); Rasmus Lentz (University of Wisconsin Madison)
    Abstract: ​Workers with similar observed characteristics may have different wage paths because their unobserved characteristics are rewarded differently or because they have different mobility patterns. For example, controlling for observed characteristics, a native worker may have a steeper wage profile than his counterpart immigrant because he has different unobserved characteristics or because he is more likely to be employed at a more productive firm (likewise for male versus female workers). Understanding the contributions of worker and firm heterogeneity to wage and mobility differentials can shed light on many key economic issues such as wage inequality, statistical discrimination and wage assimilation of immigrants. In this paper, we propose an estimation method that allows for unrestricted interactions between worker and firm unobserved characteristics in both wages and the moving probability. Related to Bonhomme, Lamadon and Manresa (2014) (BLM), our method identifies double sided unobserved heterogeneity through an application of the EM-algorithm. The analysis estimates both wage and mobility patterns using Danish matched employer-employee data and decomposes wage dispersion into mobility and wage variation across firms and workers.
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Jorge Luis Garcia (The University of Chicago); James J. Heckman (The University of Chicago); Duncan Ermini Leaf (Leonard D. Schaeffer Center for Health Policy and Economics); Maria Jose Prados (Dornsife Center for Economic and Social Research)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the large array of long-run benefits of an influential early childhood program targeted to disadvantaged children and their families. It is evaluated by random assignment and follows participants through their mid-30s. The program is a prototype for numerous interventions currently in place around the world. It has substantial beneficial impacts on (a) health and the quality of life, (b) the labor incomes of participants, (c) crime, (d) education, and (e) the labor income of the mothers of the participants through subsidizing their childcare. There are substantially greater monetized benefits for males. The overall rate of return is a statistically significant 13.0% per annum with an associated benefit/cost ratio of 6.3. These estimates account for the welfare costs of taxation to finance the program. They are robust to a wide variety of sensitivity analyses. Accounting for substitutes to treatment available to families randomized out of treatment shows that boys benefit much less than girls from low quality alternative childcare arrangements.
    Keywords: childcare, early childhood education, gender differences, Health, long-term prediction, quality of life, randomized trials, substitution bias
    JEL: J13 I28 C93
    Date: 2016–12

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