nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2016‒12‒11
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Glass Ceilings or Sticky Floors? An analysis of the gender wage gap across the wage distribution in Japan By HARA Hiromi
  2. Performance in Mixed-Sex and Single-Sex Tournaments: What We Can Learn from Speedboat Races in Japan By Booth, Alison L.; Yamamura, Eiji
  3. Is the Allocation of Time Gender Sensitive to Food Price Changes? An Investigation of Hours of Work in Uganda By Campus, Daniela; Giannelli, Gianna Claudia
  4. Tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis: religion and female employment over time By Fischer, Justina A.V.; Pastore, Francesco
  5. Do Female Executives Make a Difference? The Impact of Female Leadership on Gender Gaps and Firm Performance By Luca Flabbi; Mario Macis; Andrea Moro; Fabiano Schivardi
  6. Race and Gender Affinities in Voting: Experimental Evidence By Jeffrey Penney; Erin Tolley; Elizabeth Goodyear-Grant
  7. Biology and Gender in the Labor Market By Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.
  8. Childcare Prices and Maternal Employment: A Meta-Analysis By Yusuf Emre Akgunduz; Janneke Plantenga

  1. By: HARA Hiromi
    Abstract: This study examines the gender wage gap across the wage distribution in Japan using large sample data for 1990, 2000, and 2014. The results of the Firpo-Fortin-Lemieux decomposition show that the part of the observed gender gap that is not explained by gender differences in human capital is larger at the top and at the bottom of the wage distribution, indicating that both a glass ceiling and a sticky floor exist for women in the Japanese labor market. The sticky floor could be explained by female workers being segregated into non-career track jobs, while the glass ceiling could be due to gender differences in the quality of education. Furthermore, this study also finds that while the gender wage gap has been declining from 1990 to 2014 at all quantiles of the wage distribution, the decline in gender gap of human capital attributes contributes to it. However, the glass ceiling and the sticky floor phenomena, observed since 1990, persist.
    Date: 2016–11
  2. By: Booth, Alison L. (Australian National University); Yamamura, Eiji (Seinan Gakuin University)
    Abstract: In speedboat racing in Japan, women racers participate and compete in races under the same conditions as men, and all individuals are randomly assigned to mixed-gender or single-gender groups for each race. In this paper we use a sample of over 140,000 observations of individual-level racing records provided by the Japanese Speedboat Racing Association to examine how male-dominated circumstances affect women's racing performance. We control for individual fixed-effects plus a host of other factors affecting performance (such as starting lane, fitness and weather conditions). Our estimates reveal that women's race-time is slower in mixed-gender races than in all-women races, whereas men racer's time is faster in mixed-gender races than men-only races. In mixed-gender races, male racers are found to be more 'aggressive' – as proxied by lane-changing – in spite of the risk of being penalized if they contravene the rules, whereas women follow less aggressive strategies. We find no difference in disqualifications between genders. We suggest that gender-differences in risk-attitudes and over-confidence may result in different responses to the competitive environment and penalties for rule-breaking, and that gender-identity also plays a role.
    Keywords: peer effects, gender and competition, tournaments, women's labor participation, gender identity
    JEL: J16 L83 M5
    Date: 2016–11
  3. By: Campus, Daniela (University of Florence); Giannelli, Gianna Claudia (University of Florence)
    Abstract: Dramatic spikes in food prices, like those observed over the last years, represent a real threat to food security in developing countries with severe consequences for many aspects of human life. Price instability can also affect the intra-household allocation of time, thus changing the labour supply of women, who traditionally play the role of 'shock absorbers'. This paper explores the nature of time poverty by examining how changes in the prices of the two major staples consumed, matooke and cassava, have affected the paid and unpaid labour time allocation in Ugandan households. We exploit the panel nature of the Uganda National Household Survey by adopting a Tobit-hybrid model. Our results show that gender differentials in the intra-household allocation of labour actually occur in correspondence with changes in food prices. We find that, overall, women work significantly more, since the additional hours women work in the labour market are not counterbalanced by a relevant reduction in their other labour activities. For men, we do not find any significant effect of price changes on hours of work.
    Keywords: food prices, labour supply, gender, Uganda
    JEL: J16 J22 J43 Q11
    Date: 2016–11
  4. By: Fischer, Justina A.V.; Pastore, Francesco
    Abstract: This study analyzes whether the role of religion for employment of women in Europe has changed over time and along women’s life cycles. Using information on 44’000 married European women from the World Values Survey, spanning more than thirty years (1981-2013), we find that over time the impact of religion on female employment has been changing. In Western Europe, behavioral differences across denominations seem to have disappeared since roughly 1997. In contrast, for Eastern Europe, we find that differences by religion have reemerged again particularly among young women. However, for women in Eastern Europe who are older than 40 years, religion plays no role – a finding that we attribute to an upbringing under secular communist regimes that strongly promoted gender equality in the labor market. Only Muslim women show a lower employment probability that persists across time, across regions, and across life cycles.
    Keywords: religion; labor market participation; secularization; modernization; gender; Europe; transition countries; Eastern Europe; OECD; World Values Survey
    JEL: J16 J22 N34 Z12 Z13
    Date: 2016–11–22
  5. By: Luca Flabbi; Mario Macis; Andrea Moro; Fabiano Schivardi
    Abstract: We investigate the effects of female executives on gender-specific wage distributions and firm performance. We find that female leadership has a positive impact at the top of the female wage distribution and a negative impact at the bottom. Moreover, the impact of female leadership on firm performance increases with the share of female workers. Our empirical strategy accounts for the endogeneity induced by the non-random assignment of executives to firms by including in the regressions firm fixed effects, by generating controls from a two-way fixed effects regression, and by building instruments based on regional trends. The empirical findings are consistent with a model of statistical discrimination where female executives are better equipped at interpreting signals of productivity from female workers. The evidence suggests substantial costs of under-representation of women at the top of the corporate hierarchy
    JEL: J7 M12 M5
    Date: 2016–12
  6. By: Jeffrey Penney (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana); Erin Tolley (University of Toronto); Elizabeth Goodyear-Grant (Queen's University)
    Abstract: We analyze the results of a large-scale experiment wherein subjects participate in a hypothetical primary election and must choose between two fictional candidates who vary by sex and race. We find evidence of affinities along these dimensions in voting behaviour. A number of phenomena regarding these affinities and their interactions are detailed and explored. We find that they compete with each other on the basis of race and gender. Neuroeconomic metrics suggest that people who vote for own race candidates tend to rely more on heuristics than those who do not.
    Keywords: Gender, Prejudice, Race, Voting
    JEL: D72 C90 J15 J16
    Date: 2016–10
  7. By: Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. (University of Sydney)
    Abstract: Can biology help us to better understand gender differences in labor market behavior and outcomes? This chapter reviews the emerging literature which sheds light on this question, considering research in four broad areas: i) behavioral endocrinology; ii) human genetics; iii) neuroeconomics; and iv) sensory functioning and time-space perceptions.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, labor market outcomes, human biology, neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics
    JEL: J31 A12 Z0
    Date: 2016–11
  8. By: Yusuf Emre Akgunduz; Janneke Plantenga
    Abstract: The literature estimates for labor force participation elasticity with regards to child care prices are extensive and varying. While some estimates imply substantial gains from child care subsidies, others find insignificant effects. To determine the causes of the variance, this paper reviews and analyzes the elasticity sizes using estimates from 36 peer-reviewed articles and working papers in the literature. We start by reviewing the theoretical and empirical aspects related to participation elasticity with regards to child care costs, paying special attention to sample characteristics, methodological aspects and macro level factors. We conclude by providing a meta-regression using control variables based on our review of the literature to explain some of the differences between the estimates. As research builds on and improves the methods and assumptions in prior works, elasticity estimates have become smaller over time. This decline might also be partially explained by changes in labor market characteristics. In countries with high rates of part-time work and very high or very low rates of female labor force participation, we find elasticity rates to be smaller.
    Keywords: Childcare prices, Female employment, Meta-analysis
    JEL: J22 J13 D19
    Date: 2016

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