nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2016‒11‒20
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Cultural Determinants of Gender Roles: Pragmatism Is an Important Factor behind Gender Equality Attitudes among Children of Immigrants By Ljunge, Martin
  2. Do Women give up Competing more easily? Evidence from the Lab and the Dutch Math Olympiad By Thomas Buser; Huaiping Yuan
  3. What Drives Gender Differences in Commuting? Evidence from the American Time Use Survey By Gray Kimbrough
  4. Boys Lag Behind: How Teachers' Gender Biases Affect Student Achievement By Terrier, Camille
  5. Gender and cooperative preferences on five continents By Furtner, Nadja C.; Kocher, Martin G.; Martinsson, Peter; Matzat, Dominik; Wollbrant, Conny
  6. Gender differences in child investment behaviour among agricultural households: Evidence from the Lesotho Child Grants Programme By Ashwini Sebastian; Ana Paula de la O Campos; Silvio Daidone; 2 Benjamin Davis; Ousmane Niang; Luca Pellerano4

  1. By: Ljunge, Martin (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: This paper presents evidence of how attitudes toward gender roles in the home and market are shaped by Hofstede’s six cultural dimensions. Children of immigrants in a broad set of European countries with ancestry from across the world are studied. Individuals are examined within country of residence using variation in cultural dimensions across countries of ancestry. The approach focuses attention on how gender roles are shaped across generations within families. Both influences on the father’s and mother’s side are studied. Ancestry from more masculine cultures shape more traditional gender roles on both parents’ sides. On the father side more pragmatic cultures foster gender equality on the mother’s side power distance promote equality attitudes, although this influence differs markedly between daughters and sons. Pragmatism is in several circumstances the strongest influence on gender norms.
    Keywords: Gender roles; intergenerational transmission; Hofstede cultural dimensions; Gender
    JEL: D13 D83 J16 Z13
    Date: 2016–11–02
  2. By: Thomas Buser (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands); Huaiping Yuan (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: We conduct three lab experiments and use field data from the Dutch Math Olympiad to study how the gender gap in willingness to compete evolves in response to experience. The main result is that women are more likely than men to stop competing if they lose. In the Dutch Math Olympiad, this means that girls who do not make the top 1000, and therefore do not advance to the next round, are less likely to compete again one year later while there is no effect on boys. In an additional experiment, we show that men are more likely than women to start and keep competing after receiving positive feedback. In a third experiment, we show that the gender difference in the reaction to losing is not present when winning and losing are random rather than the outcome of competition. The fact that women are more likely to give up competing after a setback may help to explain why fewer women make it to the top in business and academia.
    Keywords: willingness to compete; gender; feedback; career decisions; laboratory experiment
    JEL: C91 D03 J01 J16
    Date: 2016–11–10
  3. By: Gray Kimbrough
    Abstract: A wealth of research has shown that the commutes of American women are shorter, both in time and distance, than those of American men. This study takes advantage of a large, nationally representative dataset, the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), to examine gender differences in commute character and time. A method of calculating commuting time that accounts for stops along the journey is applied to ATUS data; analysis of gender differences in the number, type, and length of stops demonstrates the need for this commuting measure. Explanations for womenâs shorter commutes are reviewed and tested alongside predicted relationships from a simple labor supply model. Controlling for marital status and the presence of children, women are more likely to be accompanied by children for their commute, and women tend to make longer stops than men. Multivariate regression results support two previously proposed explanations for the gender commuting time gap, based on gender differences in wages and types of jobs held. Contrary to the previously proposed Household Responsibility Hypothesis, this analysis provides evidence that greater household responsibility does not explain womenâs shorter commutes.
    JEL: J22 R41 J16
    Date: 2016–11–11
  4. By: Terrier, Camille (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: I use a combination of blind and non-blind test scores to show that middle school teachers favor girls when they grade. This favoritism, estimated in the form of individual teacher effects, has long-term consequences: as measured by their national evaluations three years later, male students make less progress than their female counterparts. Gender-biased grading accounts for 21 percent of boys falling behind girls in math during middle school. On the other hand, girls who benefit from gender bias in math are more likely to select a science track in high school.
    Keywords: teachers, gender biases, progress, achievement inequalities
    JEL: I21 I24 J16
    Date: 2016–11
  5. By: Furtner, Nadja C. (University of Munich, Munich, Germany); Kocher, Martin G. (University of Munich, Munich, Germany); Martinsson, Peter (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Matzat, Dominik (University of Munich, Munich, Germany); Wollbrant, Conny (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: Evidence of gender differences in cooperation in social dilemmas is inconclusive. This paper experimentally elicits unconditional contributions, a contribution vector (cooperative preferences), and beliefs about the level of others’ contributions in variants of the public goods game. We show that existing inconclusive results can be understood and completely explained when controlling for beliefs and underlying cooperative preferences. Robustness checks based on data from around 450 additional independent observations around the world confirm our main empirical results: Women are significantly more often classified as conditionally cooperative than men, while men are more likely to be free riders. Beliefs play an important role in shaping unconditional contributions, and they seem to be more malleable or sensitive to subtle cues for women than for men.
    Keywords: Public goods; conditional cooperation; gender; experiment
    JEL: C91 D64 H41
    Date: 2016–11
  6. By: Ashwini Sebastian; Ana Paula de la O Campos; Silvio Daidone; 2 Benjamin Davis; Ousmane Niang; Luca Pellerano4
    Abstract: We examine the impacts of an unconditional cash transfer in Lesotho using an experimental impact evaluation design. We find that the cash transfer led to different outcomes for girls and boys, overall favouring secondary school-aged girls. Girls in this age group were less likely to miss school, spent more time at school, and faced a reduced time burden in household chores. While the general results are maintained in households with a married couple present, in de jure female-headed households, outcomes improved among secondary school-aged boys relative to secondary school-aged girls. By contrast, having the father as recipient was more likely to have positive impacts on girls’ schooling, decrease boys’ labour in farming while simultaneously increasing boys’ labour input in household chores. This puts into question the existence of gender preferences in schooling in Lesotho and suggests that impacts on child welfare are influenced by time and labour constraints and by gender-based differences in opportunity costs of a child’s time.
    Keywords: cash transfers, gender, child schooling, child time use, child farm labour, female- headed households

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