nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2016‒11‒06
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Gender Gaps in the Effects of Childhood Family Environment: Do They Persist into Adulthood? By Brenøe, Anne Ardila; Lundberg, Evelina
  2. Gender, competition and performance:Evidence from real tournaments By Peter Backus; María Cubel; Matej Guid; Santiago Sánchez-Pages; Enrique Lopez Manas
  3. Do remittances impact gender equality ? Evidence from Africa By Hamed Sambo
  4. Racial and Gender Discrimination in Transportation Network Companies By Yanbo Ge; Christopher R. Knittel; Don MacKenzie; Stephen Zoepf
  5. Gender, Competition and Performance: Evidence from Real Tournaments By Peter Backus; Maria Cubel; Matej Guid; Santiago Sanchez-Pages; Enrique Lopez Manas
  6. The EU gender earnings gap : job segregation and working time as driving factors By Boll, Christina; Rossen, Anja; Wolf, André
  7. Sex-Differences in Language and Socio-Emotional Skills: Evidence from Large Scale Studies of Very Young Children By Bando, Rosangela; López Bóo, Florencia

  1. By: Brenøe, Anne Ardila (University of Copenhagen); Lundberg, Evelina (Uppsala University)
    Abstract: We examine the differential effects of family disadvantage on the education and adult labor market outcomes of men and women using high-quality administrative data on the entire population of Denmark born between 1966 and 1995. We link parental education and family structure during childhood to male-female and brother-sister differences in teenage outcomes, educational attainment, and adult earnings and employment. Our results are consistent with U.S. findings that boys benefit more from an advantageous family environment than do girls in terms of the behavior and grade-school outcomes. Father's education, which has not been examined in previous studies, is particularly important for sons. However, we find a very different pattern of parental influence on adult outcomes. The gender gaps in educational attainment, employment, and earnings are increasing in maternal education, benefiting daughters. Paternal education decreases the gender gaps in educational attainment (favoring sons) and labor market outcomes (favoring daughters). We conclude that differences in the behavior of school-aged boys and girls are a poor proxy for differences in skills that drive longer-term outcomes.
    Keywords: gender gap, parental education, family structure, education, labor market outcomes
    JEL: I20 J1 J2 J3
    Date: 2016–10
  2. By: Peter Backus (University of Manchester& Barcelona Institute of Economics (IEB)); María Cubel (Universitat de Barcelona); Matej Guid (University of Ljubljana); Santiago Sánchez-Pages (Universitat de Barcelona); Enrique Lopez Manas (Google Developer Expert)
    Abstract: There is a growing literature looking at how men and women respond differently to competition. We contribute to this literature by studying gender differences in performance in a high-stakes and male dominated competitive environment, expert chess tournaments. Our findings show that women underperform compared to men of the same ability and that the gender composition of games drives this effect. Using within player variation in the conditionally random gender of their opponent, we find that women earn significantly worse outcomes against male opponents. We examine the mechanisms through which this effect operates by using a unique measure of within game quality of play. We find that the gender composition effect is driven by women playing worse against men, rather than by men playing better against women. The gender of the opponent does not affect a male player’s quality of play. We also find that men persist longer against women before resigning. These results suggest that the gender composition of competitions affects the behavior of both men and women in ways that are detrimental to the performance of women. Lastly, we study the effect of competitive pressure and find that players’ quality of play deteriorates when stakes increase, though we find no differential effect over the gender composition of games.
    Keywords: Competition, Gender, Stereotype threat, Chess
    JEL: D03 J16 J24 J70 L83 M50
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Hamed Sambo (Centre d'Economie de l'Université de Paris Nord (CEPN))
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of remittances on gender equality in Africa using panel data from 21 African countries spanning the years 2006-2014. The two-step IV-GMM method was considered after taking into account the potential endogeneity of remittances. We found that remittances have a positive effect on gender equality in general but this effect is only significant in Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, we found that remittances positively impact women’s economic and women’s political empowerment. They also have a positive e↵ect on women’s education attainment and women’s health and survival. However, theses impacts are only significant in Sub-Saharan Africa, except for women’s health and survival.
    Keywords: Remittances, Gender equality, Economic empowerment, Education attainmenent, Health and Survival, Political empowerment, IV-GMM, Africa
    Date: 2016–08
  4. By: Yanbo Ge; Christopher R. Knittel; Don MacKenzie; Stephen Zoepf
    Abstract: Passengers have faced a history of discrimination in transportation systems. Peer transportation companies such as Uber and Lyft present the opportunity to rectify long-standing discrimination or worsen it. We sent passengers in Seattle, WA and Boston, MA to hail nearly 1,500 rides on controlled routes and recorded key performance metrics. Results indicated a pattern of discrimination, which we observed in Seattle through longer waiting times for African American passengers—as much as a 35 percent increase. In Boston, we observed discrimination by Uber drivers via more frequent cancellations against passengers when they used African American-sounding names. Across all trips, the cancellation rate for African American sounding names was more than twice as frequent compared to white sounding names. Male passengers requesting a ride in low-density areas were more than three times as likely to have their trip canceled when they used a African American-sounding name than when they used a white-sounding name. We also find evidence that drivers took female passengers for longer, more expensive, rides in Boston. We observe that removing names from trip booking may alleviate the immediate problem but could introduce other pathways for unequal treatment of passengers.
    JEL: J15 J16 R4
    Date: 2016–10
  5. By: Peter Backus; Maria Cubel; Matej Guid; Santiago Sanchez-Pages; Enrique Lopez Manas
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Boll, Christina; Rossen, Anja (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Wolf, André
    Abstract: "This paper estimates size and impact factors of the gender pay gap in Europe. It adds to the literature in three aspects. First, we update existing figures on the gender pay gaps in the EU based on the Structure of Earnings Survey 2010 (SES). Second, we enrich the literature by undertaking comprehensive country comparisons of the gap components based on an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Overall, we analyze 21 EU countries plus Norway, which clearly exceeds the scope of existing microdata studies. Third, we examine the sources of the unexplained gap. We find that about one third of the gap can be traced back to the role of the explanatory factors included in our analysis. The sectoral segregation of genders is identified as the most important barrier to gender pay equality in European countries. In addition, the fact that part-time positions are more frequent among women notably contributes to the gap. We conclude that policies aiming at closing the gender pay gap should focus more on the sector level than on the aggregate economy." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: geschlechtsspezifischer Arbeitsmarkt, Lohnunterschied, erwerbstätige Frauen, erwerbstätige Männer, Lohndiskriminierung - internationaler Vergleich, geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren, Segregation, sektorale Verteilung, Wirtschaftssektoren, Arbeitsmarktsegmentation, Europäische Union, Belgien, Bulgarien, Dänemark, Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Estland, Finnland, Frankreich, Griechenland, Italien, Lettland, Litauen, Niederlande, Polen, Portugal, Rumänien, Schweden, Slowakei, Spanien, Tschechische Republik, Ungarn, Großbritannien, Kroatien, Norwegen
    JEL: J31 J16 J24
    Date: 2016–10–24
  7. By: Bando, Rosangela (Inter-American Development Bank); López Bóo, Florencia (Inter-American Development Bank)
    Abstract: This study explores sex differences in language and socio-emotional skills on children 7 months to 6 years old in Latin-America. Females had a significant advantage in both dimensions. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document sex differences in these dimensions at a very young age. In part, we believe this is due to our uniquely large sample size. We found geographical and cultural variation across the countries under study did not affect the gap. Within countries, variation in family characteristics, parenting practices and health investments did not explain the gap. The identification of biological and environmental factors is necessary to inform whether policy should tailor inputs to ensure equality of opportunities.
    Keywords: gender gaps, sex gaps, language, social skills, emotional skills, early childhood
    JEL: I25 J13 J16 O15 Z13
    Date: 2016–10

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