nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2016‒10‒30
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. Financial Literacy: Thai Middle Class Women Do Not Lag behind By Antonia Grohmann; Olaf Hübler; Roy Kouwenberg; Lukas Menkhoff
  2. Gender Gaps in the Spanish Labor Market By J. Ignacio Conde-Ruiz; Ignacio Marra de Artíñano
  3. Gender Interaction in Teams: Experimental Evidence on Performance and Punishment Behavior By Seeun Jung; Radu Vranceanu
  4. Giving a Little Help to Girls? Evidence on Grade Discrimination and its Effect on Students Achievement By Camille Terrier
  6. Economic and Demographic Interactions in Post- World War France: A Gendered Approach. By Magali Jaoul-Grammare; Faustine Perrin
  7. The Causes and Consequences of Increased Female Education and Labor Force Participation in Developing Countries By Rachel Heath; Seema Jayachandran
  8. The Career Costs of Children By Adda, Jerome; Dustmann, Christian; Stevens, Katrien

  1. By: Antonia Grohmann; Olaf Hübler; Roy Kouwenberg; Lukas Menkhoff
    Abstract: This research studies the stylized fact of a “gender gap” in that women tend to have lower financial literacy than men. Our data which samples middle-class people from Bangkok does not show a gender gap. This result is not explained by men’s low financial literacy, nor by women’s high income and good education. Rather, it seems influenced by country characteristics on general gender equality and finance-related equality, such as little gender gaps regarding pupils’ mathematics abilities or secondary school enrollment, and women’s strong role in financial affairs. This may indicate ways to reduce the gender gap in financial literacy elsewhere.
    Keywords: financial literacy, financial behavior, gender gap, individual characteristics, societal norms, Thailand
    JEL: D14 J16 D91
    Date: 2016
  2. By: J. Ignacio Conde-Ruiz; Ignacio Marra de Artíñano
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive assessment of the male-female differentials in Spain in terms of labor force participation, working conditions and professional development in order to identify the major obstacles in achieving gender equality. Data were gathered from a wide range of national and international sources, and a comparative analysis with other Western European countries was carried out in order to put the Spanish case into a wider context. Despite the great progress that has been made in the last two decades, which has brought Spain on a par with other European countries, the gender gap is still large in a wide number of areas. These are, for the most part, reflected in the existing gender pay gap, as well as in working conditions involving temporality, undesired part-time work, and over-qualification. Furthermore, women are highly under-represented in positions of power and authority in both public and private organizations and there is a high level of occupational and sectorial segregation. The uneven distribution of tasks at the household level is one of the most important factors behind gender inequality in the labor market, one that is likely further hindering the participation of women in the labor market and contributing to widening the gender gap in many other dimensions. Potential gender policy measures to correct the aforementioned situation in Spain are also discussed.
    Date: 2016–10
  3. By: Seeun Jung (ESSEC Business School - Essec Business School, PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), PSE - Paris School of Economics); Radu Vranceanu (Economics Department - Essec Business School)
    Abstract: This paper reports results from a real-e ort experiment in which men and women are paired to form a two-member team and asked to execute a real-eff ort task. Each participant receives an equal share of the team's output. Workers who perform better than their partner can punish him/her by imposing a fi ne. We manipulate the teams' gender composition (man-man, man-woman, and woman-woman) to analyze whether an individual's performance and sanctioning behavior depends on his/her gender and the gender interaction within the team. The data show that, on average, men perform slightly better than women. A man's performance will deteriorate when paired with a woman, while a woman's performance will improve when paired with a woman. When underperforming, women are sanctioned more often and more heavily than men; if sanctioned, men tend to improve their performance, while women's performance does not change.
    Keywords: Gender studies,Real-e ort task,Team production,Performance,Punishment,Discrimination
    Date: 2015–06–25
  4. By: Camille Terrier (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper tests whether we observe sex-discrimination in teachers' grades, and whether such biases affect pupils' achievement during the school year. I use a unique dataset containing standardized tests, teachers' attributed grades, and pupil's behavior, all three at different periods in time. Based on double-differences, the identification of the gender bias in teachers' grades suggests that (i) girls benefit from a substantive positive discrimination in math but not in French, (ii) girls' better behavior than boys, and their initial lower achievement in math do not explain much of this gender bias. Then, I use the heterogeneity in teachers' discriminatory behavior to show that classes in which teachers present a high degree of discrimination in favor of girls at the beginning of the year are also classes in which girls tend to progress more over the school year compared to boys.
    Keywords: Gender,grading,discrimination,progress
    Date: 2014–11
  5. By: Damien Besancenot (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Kim Huynh (LEM - Laboratoire d'Économie Moderne - UP2 - Université Panthéon-Assas - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche); Francisco Serranito (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UO - Université d'Orléans, DIAL/IRD/LEDa - Développement Institutions et Mondialisation, Pôle IRD et LEDa)
    Abstract: This paper aims at estimating the determinants of co-authorship in economics. More specifically, we test the existence of a potential relationship between the research efficiency of an individual and that of his co-authors (the so called assortative matching hypothesis) using a novel database of French academic scholars. However, individual research productivity should be an endogenous regressor as the quality of an academic's publication will depend somehow on the quality of his co-authors. We have applied the Two Stage Residual Inclusion (2SRI) approach in order to take into account this endogeneity bias. The main empirical result is that the number and the quality of a researcher's co-authors reflect the productivity of that researcher.There is also a significant gender effect: being a woman has no impact on the probability of never collaborating with other economists but it decreases both the quality and the quantity of co-authors. Finally, lifetime cycles are also an important determinant of the co-authorship trend as the social imprinting hypothesis would suggest. So institutional changes occurred in French academia in mid-eighties have had a large impact on individual research productivity.
    Keywords: Co-authorship,Count Data,Zero Inflate Models,Instrumental Variables,gender productivity gap,h index
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Magali Jaoul-Grammare; Faustine Perrin
    Abstract: This paper investigates the interaction between economic, demographic and educational variables in post- World War II France. Based on the assumptions of the unified growth theory, we estimate a vector autoregression for data on fertility, GDP per capita, educational attainment, labor force participation and wages over the period 1962-2008. The methodology employed is based on VAR modeling, using a nonstructural approaches. Our findings are consistent with the statements of the theoretical literature and emphasize the importance of the role played by gender roles on demographic and economic developments. In particular, the analysis shows that relative wages endogenously adjust to the level of female education and fertility. The investigation of the effect of shocks through the analysis of impulse responses confirms these results.
    Keywords: Causality; Vector Auto-regression; Gender; Economic Growth; France.
    JEL: C32 J16 N34
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Rachel Heath; Seema Jayachandran
    Abstract: This article describes recent trends in female education and labor force participation in developing countries. It also reviews the literature on the causes and effects of the recent changes in female education and employment levels.
    JEL: J16 O15
    Date: 2016–10
  8. By: Adda, Jerome; Dustmann, Christian; Stevens, Katrien
    Abstract: We estimate a dynamic life-cycle model of labor supply, fertility and savings, incorporating occupational choices, with specific wage paths and skill atrophy that vary over the career. This allows us to understand the trade-o between occupational choice and desired fertility, as well as the sorting both into the labor market and across occupations. We quantify the life-cycle career costs associated with children, how they decompose into loss of skills during interruptions, lost earnings opportunities and selection into more child-friendly occupations. We analyze the long-run effects of policies that encourage fertility and show that they are considerably smaller than short-run effects.
    Keywords: dynamic structural model; Fertility; gender wage gap; Labor Supply; occupation
    JEL: C15 C33 J13 J22 J24 J31
    Date: 2016–10

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