nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2016‒10‒23
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Stockholms universitet

  1. The Changing Nature of Gender Selection into Employment: Europe over the Great Recession By Juan Dolado; Cecilia García-Peñalosa; Linas Tarasonis
  2. Differences in the effects of vocational training on men and women : constraints on women and drop-out behaviour By Cho, Yoonyoung.; Kalomba, Davie.; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq.; Orozco, Victor.
  3. Domestic work, wages, and gender equality : lessons from developing countries By Oelz, Martin.; Rani, Uma.
  4. Women in the labour market in China By Dasgupta, Sukti.; Matsumoto, Makiko.; Xia, Cuntao.
  5. Antisocial Attitudes, Gender and Moral Judgments: An Experimental Study By Juergen Bracht; Adam Zylbersztejn
  6. Undoing Gender with Institutions. Lessons from the German Division and Reunification By Quentin Lippmann; Alexandre Georgieff; Claudia Senik
  7. Gender Quota inside the Boardroom: Female Directors as New Key Players? By Antoine Rebérioux; Gwenaël Roudaut
  8. Money or Grit? Determinants of MisMatch by Race and Gender By Russell Cooper; Huacong Liu

  1. By: Juan Dolado (European University Institute); Cecilia García-Peñalosa (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) - Ecole Centrale Marseille (ECM) - AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Linas Tarasonis (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) - Ecole Centrale Marseille (ECM) - AMU - Aix Marseille Université)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the role played by selectivity issues induced by nonemployment in explaining gender wage gap patterns in the EU since the onset of the Great Recession. We show that male selection into the labour market, traditionally disregarded, has increased. This is particularly the case in peripheral European countries, where dramatic drops in male unskilled jobs have taken place during the crisis. As regards female selection, traditionally positive, we document mixed findings. While it has declined in some countries, as a result of increasing female LFP due to an added-worker effect, it has become even more positive in other countries. This is due to adverse labour demand shifts in industries which are intensive in temporary work where women are over-represented. These adverse shifts may have more than offset the rise in unskilled female labour supply.
    Keywords: sample selection,gender wage gap
    Date: 2016–06
  2. By: Cho, Yoonyoung.; Kalomba, Davie.; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq.; Orozco, Victor.
    Abstract: The following paper Differences in the effects of vocational training on men and women: Constraints on women and drop-out behaviour authored by our partners at the World Bank, Yale University and the Malawi National AIDS Commission, evaluates the impacts of the “Technical and Vocational Skills Training pilot program (TVST)” for vulnerable youth, the first study of its kind to experimentally evaluate vocational training in Africa.
    Keywords: vocational training, youth, women, dropout, gender, vulnerable groups, social conditions, evaluation, Malawi, formation professionnelle, jeunesse, femmes, abandon des études, genre, groupes vulnérables, conditions sociales, évaluation, Malawi, formación profesional, juventud, mujeres, abandono de estudios, género, grupos vulnerables, condiciones sociales, evaluación, Malawi
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Oelz, Martin.; Rani, Uma.
    Keywords: domestic work, women workers, labour market, minimum wage, sex discrimination, labour standards, compliance, role of ILO, developing countries, travail domestique, travailleuses, marché du travail, salaire minimum, discrimination fondée sur le sexe, normes du travail, respect des obligations, rôle de l'OIT, pays en développement, trabajo doméstico, trabajadoras, mercado de trabajo, salario mínimo, discriminación por razones de sexo, normas del trabajo, cobranza coactiva, papel de la OIT, países en desarrollo
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Dasgupta, Sukti.; Matsumoto, Makiko.; Xia, Cuntao.
    Abstract: Although the rate is relatively high in China, it has declined in recent years, as has the employment to population ratio. Furthermore, there is a significant wage gap between women in and men, much of which remains “unexplained” when we carry out a decomposition analysis. To improve gender equality in the labour market, the paper points to four areas that require further attention from a policy perspective: (1) measures to promote equal access to employment for women and men; (2) creation of an enabling environment for workers with family responsibilities; (3) improved coverage of social security measures, especially for rural women; and (4) design of an appropriate retirement policy.
    Keywords: gender equality, sex discrimination, women workers, labour market, employment, income, care work, social security, retirement, China, égalité des genres, discrimination fondée sur le sexe, travailleuses, marché du travail, emploi, revenu, prestations de soins, sécurité sociale, retraite, Chine, igualdad de géneros, discriminación por razones de sexo, trabajadoras, mercado de trabajo, empleo, ingreso, prestación de cuidados, seguridad social, jubilación, China
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Juergen Bracht (University of Aberdeen Business School, Department of Economics, Edward Wright Building, Dunbar Street, Aberdeen, AB24 3QY, Scotland); Adam Zylbersztejn (Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 2, GATE L-SE UMR 5824, F-69342 Lyon, France)
    Abstract: We study questionnaire responses to moral dilemmas hypothetical situations in which sacrificing one life may save many other lives. We demonstrate gender differences in moral judgments: male participants are more supportive of the sacrifice than female participants. We investigate the importance of the previously studied source of the endorsement of the sacrfice: antisocial attitudes. First, we elicit the individual proneness to spiteful behavior using an incentivized experimental game. We demonstrate that spitefulness can be sizable but it is not associated with gender. Second, we find that gender is associated with moral judgments even when we account for individual differences in antisocial attitudes. Our results suggest that the performance of many institutions (related to the distribution of wealth or punishment, for instance) may be affected by the gender of the decision-makers.
    Keywords: Gender, moral dilemmas, moral judgments, spite, antisocial attitudes, experiment
    JEL: C91 D03 D63
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Quentin Lippmann (PSE - Paris School of Economics); Alexandre Georgieff (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), PSE - Paris School of Economics); Claudia Senik (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), PSE - Paris School of Economics, UP4 - Université Paris-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: Social scientists have provided empirical evidence that "gender trumps money", in the sense that gender norms can be more powerful then economic rationality in shaping daily arrangements between spouses. In particular, it has been shown that when they deviate from the "male breadwinner" norm, women react by "doing gender", i.e. overplaying their feminine role by increasing the number of housework hours that they accomplish. It has also been shown that the risk of divorce increases when a woman earns more than her husband. This paper shows that, however powerful, these norms are cultural and can be trumped by institutions. We use the 41-year division of Germany as a natural experiment and look at differences between East and West Landers in terms of gender behavior after the German reunification. As most countries of the socialist bloc, the former GDR had designed institutions that were much more gender equalizing than their counterpart in the former FRG. We show that these institutions have created a culture that keeps influencing behavior up to the current period. In particular, East Germany differs from West Germany in the sense that a woman can earn more than her husband without "doing gender" and without putting her marriage at risk.
    Keywords: Gender norms,Culture,Institutions,German Division,Household economics
    Date: 2016–04
  7. By: Antoine Rebérioux (LADYSS - Laboratoire dynamiques sociales et recomposition des espaces - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UPOND - Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense - UP8 - Université Paris 8, Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UP7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Gwenaël Roudaut (Ecole Polytechnique [Palaiseau] - Ecole Polytechnique)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether women’s situation within French boards has improved following the adoption of a board-level gender quota in 2011. To do so, we focus on the individual role of female directors as proxied by their fees. Our sample includes the listed companies belonging to the SBF120 index over the 2006-2014 period. We first show that the quota has succeeded in opening the doors of boardrooms to new, unseasoned female directors (not present on the director labor market before the regulation). These unseasoned female directors have distinctive characteristics (in terms of independence, experience, age, nationality, etc.) as compared to other board members. More importantly, we show that women, whether unseasoned or seasoned, experience an inner glass ceiling, with “positional” gender segregation within French boards. In particular, companies have failed so far to open the access of the most important board committees (namely monitoring committees: audit, compensation and nomination) to women. It results in a within-firm gender fees gap of 5%. Overall, the quota has rather amplified this segregation process, with an increase in the average within-firm gender fees gap.
    Keywords: board, committees, gender quota, segregation, director fees
    Date: 2016–03–31
  8. By: Russell Cooper; Huacong Liu
    Abstract: This paper studies mismatch in educational attainment. Mismatch arises when high ability individuals do not obtain a college degree and/or low ability individuals do obtain such a degree. Using data from the NLSY97 survey, the paper estimates a structural model of education choice that matches the moments of mismatch, college attainment and labor market outcomes. The analysis conditions on both gender and race. The model with occasionally binding borrowing constraint fits the moments better than a model with perfect capital markets, indicating that capital market frictions may contribute to mismatch. The influence of parents on educational attainment is present though this channel appears to operate through attitudes rather than through the provision of resources. Once this link between parents and children is taken into account, the influence of borrowing constraints disappears. In this case, mismatch reflects differences in tastes rather than borrowing constraints. The paper also presents a decomposition of the college wage premium into the returns to schooling and the selection into higher education. The analysis highlights the power of selection into higher education as an explanation of the college wage premium by gender and race.
    JEL: E21 E24 I21 I23 I26
    Date: 2016–10

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