nep-fle New Economics Papers
on Financial Literacy and Education
Issue of 2022‒01‒31
eight papers chosen by

  1. Financial inclusion: the globally important determinants By Ozili, Peterson K
  2. Financial Literacy and Numeracy By Elisa Darriet; Marianne Guille; Jean-Christophe Vergnaud
  3. What About Super? Financial Literacy as a Barrier to Market Entry By Boykett, Paul
  4. Black Economy, Financial Inclusion, Financial Liberalization Nexus: A Panel Analysis of Developing Countries By Sulehri, Fiaz Ahmad; Ahmed, Usman; Alim, Wajid
  5. Consumer Credit with Over-Optimistic Borrowers By Florian Exler; Igor Livshits; James MacGee; Michele Tertilt
  6. Sustainable Finance Literacy and the Determinants of Sustainable Investing By Massimo Filippini; Markus Leippold; Tobias Wekhof
  7. Bids for Speed: An empirical Study of Investment Strategy Automation in a Peer-to-Business Lending Platform By Eric Darmon
  8. Central Bank Digital Currencies: The Motivation By Van Roosebeke, Bert; Defina, Ryan

  1. By: Ozili, Peterson K
    Abstract: This paper highlights the globally-important determinants of financial inclusion. The determinants identified in this paper are formal account ownership; demand for formal savings; demand for formal borrowings; financial literacy and education; debit and credit cards usage; the need to receive remittances from family and friends; size of the financial system; number of automated teller machines (ATMs); number of bank branch; closeness to a bank; availability and access to mobile phones; availability of digital financial products and services; technology infrastructure; government policy; culture and traditional belief systems; national financial inclusion strategy and implementation; and direct legislation.
    Keywords: financial inclusion; determinants; unbanked adults; access to finance; digital finance; financial literacy
    JEL: G20 G21 I31
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Elisa Darriet (LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM], LEMMA - Laboratoire d'économie mathématique et de microéconomie appliquée - UP2 - Université Panthéon-Assas - SU - Sorbonne Université); Marianne Guille (LEMMA - Laboratoire d'économie mathématique et de microéconomie appliquée - UP2 - Université Panthéon-Assas - SU - Sorbonne Université); Jean-Christophe Vergnaud (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: The aim of this chapter is to investigate the relationship between financial literacy and numeracy. It turns out that numeracy and financial literacy are strongly correlated. In order to clarify this relationship, we review, in a first section, the general definition of numeracy and its most commonly used measures. We then try to enlighten the distinction that can be made between numeracy and financial literacy. In a second section, we focus on the relationship between numeracy and financial literacy using the main empirical studies performed. Since the analyses of their results show that numeracy is a key determinant of financial literacy, we highlight, in a third and final section, the key role that numeracy could have in education programs and consumer protection policies to improve financial decisions.
    Keywords: Financial literacy,Numeracy
    Date: 2021–10
  3. By: Boykett, Paul (Monash University)
    Abstract: A majority of households do not invest their savings and fewer make voluntary contributions to superannuation. This may increase their risk of financial hardship in later life and has raised questions about the role of governments and educators in addressing barriers to market entry. Our probit model framework measures the effect of financial literacy on market participation and contributes new evidence by analysing superannuation and demographical heterogeneity in market barriers. Results indicate that poor financial literacy deters voluntary superannuation contributions and traditional investment, particularly for low-income households. Evidence also suggests that financial advice facilitates market entry while improving financial literacy could shift investor’s financial market exposure towards superannuation in later life. These findings enrich our understanding of market barriers and help to guide superannuation policy.
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Sulehri, Fiaz Ahmad; Ahmed, Usman; Alim, Wajid
    Abstract: This study has examined the impact of financial liberalization and financial inclusion on the black economy in the case of developing countries from 2004 to 2019. The black economy is selected as an explained variable, whereas financial inclusion, financial liberalization, tax collection, level of corruption and political instability are selected as explanatory variables. Panel unit root issue has been checked with the help of PP-Fisher Chi-square (PP-FC), ADF-Fisher Chi-square (ADF-FC), Im, Pesaran, and Shin W-stat (IPSW), and Levin, Lin & Chu t* (LLC) unit root tests. The fixed-effect model has been used for examining the dependence of the black economy on selected explanatory variables. Panel Granger causality test has been applied for checking the causal relationship among the selected variables. The results show that financial liberalization has a negative and insignificant impact on the black economy. Financial inclusions, the level of corruption, and political instability have a positive and significant impact on the black economy. Tax collection has a negative and significant impact on the black economy. The results of the causality test show that most of the variables have unidirectional causality between each other. Based on estimated results, the developing countries should control corruption, political instability, hence level of financial inclusion and tax collection for the reduction of the black economy
    Keywords: Financial Liberalization, Financial Inclusion, Black Economy
    JEL: G00 O15
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Florian Exler; Igor Livshits; James MacGee; Michele Tertilt
    Abstract: Do cognitive biases call for regulation to limit the use of credit? We incorporate over-optimistic and rational borrowers into an incomplete markets model with consumer bankruptcy. Over-optimists face worse income risk but incorrectly believe they are rational. Thus, both types behave identically. Lenders price loans forming beliefs—type scores—about borrower types. This gives rise to a tractable theory of type scoring. As lenders cannot screen types, borrowers are partially pooled. Over-optimists face cross subsidized interest rates but make financial mistakes: borrowing too much and defaulting too late. The induced welfare losses outweigh gains from cross subsidization. We calibrate the model to the U.S. and quantitatively evaluate policies to address these frictions: financial literacy education, reducing default cost, increasing borrowing costs, and debt limits. While some policies lower debt and filings, only financial literacy education eliminates over borrowing and improves welfare. Score-dependent borrowing limits can reduce financial mistakes but lower welfare.
    Keywords: Consumer Credit; Over-Optimism; Financial Mistakes; Bankruptcy; Default; Financial Literacy; Financial Regulation; Type Score; Cross-Subsidization
    JEL: E21 E49 G18 K35
    Date: 2021–12–07
  6. By: Massimo Filippini (ETH Zürich; University of Lugano - Faculty of Economics); Markus Leippold (University of Zurich; Swiss Finance Institute - University of Zurich); Tobias Wekhof (ETH Zürich - CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research at ETH Zurich)
    Abstract: This paper introduces the concept of sustainable finance literacy, which refers to retail investors' knowledge of regulations, norms, and standards for financial products with sustainable characteristics. We survey a large sample of Swiss households and measure different literacy concepts using two complementary approaches. First, we use traditional multiple-choice questions, and second, a novel approach based on open-ended questions that ask respondents to write a text response. We find that Swiss households, which typically show high financial literacy by international standards, exhibit a low level of sustainable finance literacy. Interestingly, multiple-choice questions lead to a gender gap, with women performing worse than men. However, this difference disappears when open-ended questions are used. Moreover, despite its low level, sustainable finance literacy is a highly significant factor for sustainable product ownership. Therefore, our results reveal an urgent need to establish transparent regulatory standards and strengthen information campaigns on sustainable financial products.
    Keywords: Sustainable finance literacy, sustainable finance products, ESG, household finance, open-ended questions, gender gap
    JEL: G02 G11 G18 C83
    Date: 2022–01
  7. By: Eric Darmon
    Abstract: We investigate how introducing a bidding agent impacts the process and outcome of an online reverse auction in the context of a crowdlending platform. We consider this issue in the context of a peer-to-business platform that connects individual lenders to small and medium-sized enterprises. Using a before/after study design, we perform an econometric analysis and find that introducing a bidding agent had a positive and dramatic impact on the number of bids and bidders and reduced the time necessary to collect the funds. For projects with lower ratings, it also positively impacted the number of lenders and indirectly enhanced portfolio diversification. We find that after the bidding agent was introduced, well-rated projects benefited from lower interest rates, the magnitude of the change depending positively on their rating. These results provide evidence that the bidding agent generates savings in the screening and bidding costs incurred by lenders and benefits both sides of the platform. Our contribution documents the role of bidding agent as a strategic tool to enhance financial intermediation. It also sheds light on how two types of decision support systems (rating-based and bidding agent) interact and shows that this interaction is of crucial importance with respect to the financial regulation of platforms if the crowd has low financial literacy.
    Keywords: decision support system; crowdlending; bidding agent; online reverse auction.
    JEL: D44 D83
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Van Roosebeke, Bert; Defina, Ryan
    Abstract: A growing number of central banks are considering the issuance of central bank digital currencies (CBDCs). Upon their introduction and depending on their exact design, CBDCs may have considerable consequences for deposit insurers as well. In the first of a set of papers, this Fintech Brief sets out four of the main motivations for issuing CBDCs. Acknowledging considerable divergences across jurisdictions, we find: • CBDCs for the general public (“retail CBDCs”) would constitute a central bank liability and a form of digital cash. To the public, they would be an alternative to central bank issued cash and private money, such as bank deposits. • A large and growing share of central banks are experimenting with retail CBDCs. Some 20% of central banks indicate that they are likely to issue a retail CBDC by 2026, 40% indicate this is “possible”. • Short-term monetary policy considerations are unlikely to play a significant role in central banks’ motivation for CBDCs. • Whereas central banks in emerging markets and developing economies note that CBDCs may contribute to promoting financial inclusion, in advanced economies, CBDCs are not the most straightforward instrument in doing so. • The evolution of payments plays a pivotal role in developing CBDCs. Given the declining role of cash in some jurisdictions, CBDCs as a new form of central bank money may contribute to safeguarding trust in the public currency. However, the available CBDC amounts necessary for that purpose may cause conflicts with likely and financial-stability-related limits on the volume of CBDCs that individuals may hold. • As CBDCs would offer an alternative payment solution, they would contribute to resilience in future payment markets that may be privately dominated. However, given their digital nature, CBDCs may well be subject to similar cybersecurity and other digital risks that apply to private payment systems. • CBDCs may contribute to competition and efficiency in an otherwise oligopolistic market for payment services, dominated by BigTechs. While potentially challenging to implement, a regulatory or competition-law-based response may be possible and would be less intrusive than introducing a CBDC. • Central banks face the risk of large-scale use by the public of private or public (i.e. CBDC) digital currencies, not denominated in the domestic currency. These currencies may play a decisive role in the economy, and if foreign-based, largely out of reach of domestic legislation. CBDCs and/or private payment solutions in the domestic currency may assist in mitigating this risk, given sufficient demand for these.
    Keywords: deposit insurance; fintech; CBDC
    JEL: G21 G33
    Date: 2021–11–30

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.