nep-fle New Economics Papers
on Financial Literacy and Education
Issue of 2021‒09‒13
two papers chosen by

  1. Promoting Female Economic Inclusion for Tax Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Alex Adegboye; Joseph Nnanna
  2. The Comparative Economics of Financial Access in Gender Economic Inclusion By Simplice A. Asongu; Rexon T. Nting

  1. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Alex Adegboye (Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria); Joseph Nnanna (The Development Bank of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria)
    Abstract: This study explores whether female economic inclusion enhances tax performance in a sample of 48 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2000 to 2018. The study’s empirical evidence is based on the generalized method of moments in order to account for endogeneity concerns. Three tax performance measurements are used, notably, total taxes revenue excluding social contributions, reported tax revenue derived from natural resources sources, and total non-resource tax revenue. Three female inclusion indicators are used, namely, female employment in industry, female labour force participation, and female employment. The following empirical evidences are documented; (i) There is a negative net effect from the enhancement of female employment in the industry on the total tax revenue. (ii) There is a positive net effect of female employment in the industry on the non-resource taxes. An extended threshold analysis is performed to establish the critical masses that could further influence tax performance positively. The following thresholds are established. (i) a minimum of 15.35 “employment in industry, female (% of female employment)†for the total tax revenue and (ii) a maximum of 23.75 “employment in industry, female (% of female employment)†for the non-resource tax revenue. These critical masses are crucial for sustainable development because, below or beyond these thresholds, policymakers should complement the female economic inclusion with other economic measures designed to improve tax performance in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: Gender, economic inclusion, tax performance, sustainable development, Africa
    JEL: H20 H71 I28 J08 J21
    Date: 2020–01
  2. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Rexon T. Nting (University of Wales, London, UK)
    Abstract: The study has investigated the comparative importance of financial access in promoting gender inclusion in African countries. Gender inclusion is proxied by the female labour participation rate while financial channels include: financial system deposits and private domestic credit. The empirical evidence is based on non-contemporary Fixed Effects regressions. In order to provide more implications on comparative relevance, the dataset is categorised into income levels (middle income versus (vs.) low income); legal origins (French civil law vs. English common law); religious domination (Islam vs. Christianity); openness to sea (coastal vs. landlocked); resource-wealth (oil-poor vs. oil-rich) and political stability (stable vs. unstable). Six main hypotheses are tested, notably, that middle income, English common law, Christianity, coastal, oil-rich and stable countries enjoy better levels of “financial access†-induced gender inclusion compared to respectively, low income, French civil law, Islam, landlocked, oil-poor and unstable countries. All six tested hypothesis are validated. This is the first study on the comparative importance of financial access in gender economic participation.
    Keywords: Inequality; Gender Inclusion; Financial development; Africa
    JEL: I30 L96 O16 O55
    Date: 2020–01

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.