nep-exp New Economics Papers
on Experimental Economics
Issue of 2022‒11‒07
33 papers chosen by

  1. Identifying and Overcoming Gender Barriers in Tech: A Field Experiment on Inaccurate Statistical Discrimination By Jan Feld; Edwin Ip; Andreas Leibbrandt; Joseph Vecci
  2. Sample Constrained Treatment Effect Estimation By Raghavendra Addanki; David Arbour; Tung Mai; Cameron Musco; Anup Rao
  3. Does the Squeaky Wheel Get More Grease? The Direct and Indirect Effects of Citizen Participation on Environmental Governance in China By Mark Buntaine; Michael Greenstone; Guojun He; Mengdi Liu; Shaoda Wang; Bing Zhang
  4. Demand for Privacy from Data Brokers By Avi Collis; Ananya Sen; Joy Wu
  5. Promoting socially desirable behaviors through persuasion and commitment: Experimental evidence By Cécile Bazart; Mathieu Lefebvre; Julie Rosaz
  6. Norm-Signalling Punishment By Daniele Nosenzo; Erte Xiao; Nina Xue
  7. Can Grit Be Taught ? Lessons from a Nationwide Field Experiment with Middle-School Students By Santos,Indhira Vanessa; Petroska-Beska,Violeta; Amaro Da Costa Luz Carneiro,Pedro Manuel; Eskreis-Winkler,Lauren; Munoz Boudet,Ana Maria; Berniell,Ines; Krekel,Christian; Arias,Omar; Duckworth,Angela Lee
  8. In Someone Else’s Shoes : Promoting Prosocial Behavior Through Perspective Taking By Chatruc,Marisol Rodríguez; Rozo Villarraga,Sandra Viviana
  9. Beware the performance of an algorithm before relying on it: Evidence from a stock price forecasting experiment By Tiffany Tsz Kwan TSE; Nobuyuki HANAKI; Bolin MAO
  10. Can grit be taught? Lessons from a nationwide field experiment with middle-school students By Omar Arias; Pedro Carneiro; Angela Duckworth; Lauren Eskreis-Winkler; Christian Krekel; Ana Maria Munoz Boudet; Violeta Petroska-Beska; Indhira Santos
  11. Incentivizing Conservation of de facto Community-Owned Forests By van Soest,Daan; Adjognon,Guigonan Serge; van der Heijden,Eline
  12. Targeting in Tax Compliance Interventions : Experimental Evidence from Honduras By Del Carmen,Giselle; Espinal Hernandez,Edgardo Enrique; De Gouvea Scot De Arruda,Thiago
  13. Measuring Socially Appropriate Social Preferences By Carpenter, Jeffrey P.; Robbett, Andrea
  14. Gender Differences in Economics Course-Taking and Majoring : Findings from an RCT By Halim,Daniel Zefanya; Powers,Elizabeth T.; Thornton,Rebecca Lynn
  15. Lowering Barriers to Remote Education: Experimental Impacts on Parental Responses and Learning By Beam, Emily A.; Mukherjee, Priya; Navarro-Sola, Laia
  16. Income Interdependence and Informal Risk Sharing: The Effects of Future Interactions and Directed Altruism By Paan Jindapon; Pacharasut Sujarittanonta; Ajalavat Viriyavipart
  17. Information, Loss Framing, and Spillovers in Pay-for-Performance Contracts By Bauhoff,Sebastian Peter Alexander; Kandpal,Eeshani
  18. How to start a grassroots movement By Ehrlich, David; Szech, Nora
  19. A Horse Race of Monetary Policy Regimes: An Experimental Investigation By Olena Kostyshyna; Luba Petersen; Jing Yang
  20. The impact on nudge acceptability judgements of framing and consultation of the targeted population By Ismaël Rafaï; Arthur Ribaillier; Dorian Jullien
  21. Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy : Survey and Experimental Evidence from Papua New Guinea By Hoy,Christopher Alexander; Wood,Terence; Moscoe,Ellen Elizabeth
  22. Addressing Gender-Based Segregation through Information : Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in theRepublic of Congo By Gassier,Marine; Rouanet,Lea Marie; Traore,Lacina
  23. How Do Racial Cues Affect Attitudes toward Immigrants in a Racially Homogeneous Country? Evidence from a survey experiment in Japan By IGARASHI Akira; MIWA Hirofumi; ONO Yoshikuni
  24. Experimental analysis of farmers’ willingness to participate in carbon sequestration programmes By Julia B. Block; Michael Danne; Oliver Mußhoff
  25. Nudging in the Time of the Coronavirus : Evidence from an Experimental Tax Trial in Albania at theOnset of a Global Pandemic By Karver,Jonathan George; Shijaku,Hilda; Ungerer,Christoph T F
  26. Intra-Household Negotiation in Ivory Coast: Experimental Evidence from Rural Areas By Dimova, Ralitza; Abou, Edouard Pokou; Basu, Arnab K.; Viennet, Romane
  27. Testing Classic Theories of Migration in the Lab By Batista,Catia; Mckenzie,David J.
  28. Shared Decision-Making : Can Improved Counseling Increase Willingness to Pay for Modern Contraceptives ? By Athey,Susan,Bergstrom,Katy Ann,Hadad,Vitor,Jamison,Julian C,Ozler,Berk,Parisotto,Luca,Sama,Julius Dohbit
  29. Job Preferences of Aged Care Workers in Australia: Results from a Discrete Choice Experiment By Mavromaras, Kostas; Isherwood, Linda; Mahuteau, Stephane; Ratcliffe, Julie; Xiao, Lily; Harrington, Ann; Wei, Zhang
  30. Helping Families Help Themselves ? Heterogeneous Effects of a Digital Parenting Program By Monteiro Amaral,Sofia Fernando; Dinarte Diaz,Lelys Ileana; Dominguez,Patricio; Perez-Vincent,Santiago M.
  31. Do Behavioral Interventions Enhance the Effects of Cash on Early Childhood Development and Its Determinants ? Evidence from a Cluster-Randomized Trial in Madagascar By Datta,Saugato; Martin,Joshua Bader; MacLeod,Catherine; Rawlings,Laura B.; Vermehren,Andrea
  32. Strategyproofness-Exposing Mechanism Descriptions By Yannai A. Gonczarowski; Ori Heffetz; Clayton Thomas
  33. Do emotional carryover effects carry over? By Nikhil Masters; Chris Starmer

  1. By: Jan Feld; Edwin Ip; Andreas Leibbrandt; Joseph Vecci
    Abstract: Women are significantly underrepresented in the technology sector. We design a field experiment to identify statistical discrimination in job applicant assessments and test treatments to help improve hiring of the best applicants. In our experiment, we measure the programming skills of job applicants for a programming job. Then, we recruit a sample of employers consisting of human resource and tech professionals and incentivize them to assess the performance of these applicants based on their resumes. We find evidence consistent with inaccurate statistical discrimination: while there are no significant gender differences in performance, employers believe that female programmers perform worse than male programmers. This belief is strongest among female employers, who are more prone to selection neglect than male employers. We also find experimental evidence that statistical discrimination can be mitigated. In two treatments, in which we provide assessors with additional information on the applicants’ aptitude or personality, we find no gender differences in the perceived applicant performance. Together, these findings show the malleability of statistical discrimination and provide levers to improve hiring and reduce gender imbalance.
    Keywords: field experiment, discrimination, beliefs, gender
    JEL: C93 J23 J71 J78
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Raghavendra Addanki; David Arbour; Tung Mai; Cameron Musco; Anup Rao
    Abstract: Treatment effect estimation is a fundamental problem in causal inference. We focus on designing efficient randomized controlled trials, to accurately estimate the effect of some treatment on a population of $n$ individuals. In particular, we study sample-constrained treatment effect estimation, where we must select a subset of $s \ll n$ individuals from the population to experiment on. This subset must be further partitioned into treatment and control groups. Algorithms for partitioning the entire population into treatment and control groups, or for choosing a single representative subset, have been well-studied. The key challenge in our setting is jointly choosing a representative subset and a partition for that set. We focus on both individual and average treatment effect estimation, under a linear effects model. We give provably efficient experimental designs and corresponding estimators, by identifying connections to discrepancy minimization and leverage-score-based sampling used in randomized numerical linear algebra. Our theoretical results obtain a smooth transition to known guarantees when $s$ equals the population size. We also empirically demonstrate the performance of our algorithms.
    Date: 2022–10
  3. By: Mark Buntaine; Michael Greenstone; Guojun He; Mengdi Liu; Shaoda Wang; Bing Zhang
    Abstract: We conducted a nationwide field experiment in China to evaluate the direct and indirect impacts of assigning firms to public or private citizen appeals treatments when they violate pollution standards. There are three main findings. First, public appeals to the regulator through social media substantially reduce violations and pollution emissions, while private appeals cause more modest environmental improvements. Second, experimentally adding “likes” and “shares” to social media appeals increases regulatory effort, suggesting visibility as an important mechanism. Third, treatment pollution reductions are not offset by control firm increases, based on randomly varying the proportion of treatment firms at the prefecture-level.
    JEL: K32 P28 Q52
    Date: 2022–10
  4. By: Avi Collis (Mccombs School of Business, University of Texas at Austin); Ananya Sen (Heinz College of Information Systems and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University); Joy Wu (Institute for Strategy, Technology and Organization, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat in Munich)
    Abstract: We conduct a novel, randomized-controlled experiment to measure peoples' valuations, beliefs, and expectations about data privacy from data brokers. Our experimental test is to simultaneously understand (1) whether individuals are aware of their data exposure to data brokers and (2) what they are willing to pay to retract and delete their data exposure. To do this, we employ the use of an information intervention to treat individuals to correct and, possibly, new information about data brokers and their own exposure to them. In a pilot conducted, 300 panelists were recruited from Cornell University. We provide incentive-compatible choices to panelists to understand their reservation prices for privacy protection from data brokers. A real privacy product to conduct a deletion of users' data is auctioned to study participants to elicit the reservation values they assign to this service. After experimental interventions, approximately 25 percent of subjects in the personalized information treatment group revised selected-into revising their valuations, compared to the 15 to 16 percent of subjects in the control group. We document an interesting pattern where there is downward revision among subjects who received personalized information about their real data exposure.
    Keywords: Data Brokers; Privacy; Value of Data; Information Interventions
    JEL: D18 D80 D83
    Date: 2022–09
  5. By: Cécile Bazart (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Mathieu Lefebvre (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Julie Rosaz (BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC), CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'ENtreprise [Dijon] - BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC))
    Abstract: Through a series of experiments, this paper tests the relative efficiency of persuasion and commitment schemes to increase and sustain contribution levels in a Voluntary Contribution Game. The design allows us to compare a baseline consisting of a repeated public good game to four treatments of the same game in which we successively introduce a persuasion message, commitment devices, and communication between subjects. Our results suggest that these non-monetary procedures significantly increase cooperation and reduce the decay of contributions across periods.
    Keywords: Communication,Persuasion,Commitment,Voluntary contribution mechanism
    Date: 2022–12
  6. By: Daniele Nosenzo (Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University); Erte Xiao (Monash University); Nina Xue (Monash University)
    Abstract: The literature on punishment and prosocial behavior has presented conflicting findings. In some settings, punishment crowds out prosocial behavior and backfires, in others, however, it promotes prosociality. We examine whether the punisher’s motives can help reconcile these results through a novel experiment in which the agent’s outcomes are identical in two environments, but in one punishment is self-serving (i.e., potentially benefits the punisher) while in the other it is other-regarding (i.e., potentially benefits a third party). We find that self-regarding punishment reduces the social stigma of selfish behavior, while other-regarding punishment does not. As a result, self-serving punishment is less effective at encouraging compliance and is more likely to backfire compared to other-regarding punishment. Our findings have implications for the design of punishment mechanisms and highlight the importance of the punisher’s motives in the norm-signalling function of punishment.
    Keywords: Punishment, norms, stigma, crowd out, experiment
    JEL: C91 C72 D02
    Date: 2022–10–19
  7. By: Santos,Indhira Vanessa; Petroska-Beska,Violeta; Amaro Da Costa Luz Carneiro,Pedro Manuel; Eskreis-Winkler,Lauren; Munoz Boudet,Ana Maria; Berniell,Ines; Krekel,Christian; Arias,Omar; Duckworth,Angela Lee
    Abstract: This paper studies whether a particular socio-emotional skill —grit (the ability tosustain effort and interest toward long-term goals)—can be cultivated and how this affects student learning. The paperimplements, as a randomized controlled trial, a nationwide low-cost intervention designed to foster grit andself-regulation among sixth and seventh grade students in primary schools in North Macedonia (about 33,000 studentsacross 350 schools). Students exposed to the intervention report improvements in self-regulation, in particular theperseverance-of-effort facet of grit, relative to students in a control condition. The impacts on students are largerwhen both students and teachers are exposed to the curriculum than when only students are treated. Amongdisadvantaged students, the study also finds positive impacts on grade point averages, with gains of up to 28percent of a standard deviation one year post-treatment. However, the findings also point toward a potentialdownside: although the intervention made students more perseverant and industrious, there is some evidence that itmay have reduced consistency in their interests over time.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Gender and Development,Educational Institutions & Facilities,Effective Schools and Teachers
    Date: 2021–11–02
  8. By: Chatruc,Marisol Rodríguez; Rozo Villarraga,Sandra Viviana
    Abstract: Can taking the perspective of an out-group reduce prejudice and promote prosociality Buildingon insights from social psychology, this paper studies the case of Colombian natives and Venezuelan immigrants. Thiswas done by conducting an online experiment in which natives were randomly assigned either to play an online game thatimmersed them in the life of a Venezuelan migrant or to watch a documentary about Venezuelans crossing the border onfoot. Relative to a control group, both treatments increased altruism towards Venezuelans and improved some attitudes,but only the game significantly increased self-reported trust.
    Keywords: Gender and Development,Indigenous Communities,Indigenous Peoples Law,Indigenous Peoples,Educational Sciences,Labor Markets
    Date: 2021–11–30
  9. By: Tiffany Tsz Kwan TSE; Nobuyuki HANAKI; Bolin MAO
    Abstract: We experimentally investigated the relationship between participants' reliance on algorithms, their familiarity with the task, and the performance level of the algorithm. We found that when participants could freely decide on their final forecast after observing the one produced by the algorithm (a condition found to mitigate algorithm aversion), the average degree of reliance on high and low performing algorithms did not significantly differ for participants with little experience in the task. Experienced participants relied less on the algorithm than inexperienced participants, regardless of its performance level. The reliance on the low performing algorithm was positive even when participants could infer that they outperformed the algorithm. Indeed, participants would have done better without relying on the low performing algorithm at all. Our results suggest that, at least in some domains, excessive reliance on algorithms, rather than algorithm aversion, should be a concern.
    Date: 2022–10
  10. By: Omar Arias; Pedro Carneiro; Angela Duckworth; Lauren Eskreis-Winkler; Christian Krekel; Ana Maria Munoz Boudet; Violeta Petroska-Beska; Indhira Santos
    Abstract: We study whether a particular socio-emotional skill - grit (the ability to sustain effort and interest towards long-term goals) - can be cultivated through a large-scale program, and how this affects student learning. Using a randomized control trial, we evaluate the first nationwide implementation of a low-cost intervention designed to foster grit and self-regulation among sixth and seventh-grade students in primary schools in North Macedonia (about 33,000 students across 350 schools). The results of this interventions are mixed. Exposed students report improvements in self-regulation, in particular the perseverance-of-effort facet of grit, relative to students in a control condition. Impacts on students are larger when both students and teachers are exposed to the curriculum than when only students are treated. For disadvantaged students, we also find positive impacts on grade point averages, with gains of up to 28 percent of a standard deviation one-year post-treatment. However, while this intervention made students more perseverant and industrious, it reduced the consistency-of-interest facet of grit. This means that exposed students are less able to maintain consistent interests for long periods.
    Keywords: socio-emotional skills, grit, GPAs, middle-school students, field experiment, RCT
    Date: 2022–10–17
  11. By: van Soest,Daan; Adjognon,Guigonan Serge; van der Heijden,Eline
    Abstract: Payments for environmental services are a nature conservation policy in which landowners receive financial compensation conditional on verified environmental service delivery. Contracts for payments for environmental services have been found to be effective in inducing conservation on private lands, but they may give rise to strong free-riding incentives when implemented on lands that are, de facto or de jure, commonly owned. This study implemented a randomized controlled trial in arid Burkina Faso to test the relative effectiveness of two collective payment for environmental services schemes in inducing forest conservation—a linear group payment scheme, in which group payments increase linearly with tree survival rates, and a threshold group payment scheme. The extant theory predicts that the latter incentive mechanism will (weakly) outperform the former. This paper develops a new theory that shows that the reverse may also hold—but only if the relationship between effort and tree survival rates is very uncertain. The findings show that threshold group payments increase intermediate measures of cooperation, but—consistent with Burkina Faso’s harsh conditions rendering tree survival quite stochastic—actual survival rates are higher with the linear group payments. The paper presents field experimental evidence as well as lab experimental results to explore the mechanisms giving rise to these results.
    Keywords: Natural Resources Management,Sustainable Land Management,Coastal and Marine Resources,Forestry Management,Energy and Natural Resources,Sustainable Land and Crop Management,Forestry,Forests and Forestry,Natural Resources Management and Rural Issues,Environmental Protection,Environmental Disasters&Degradation,Science of Climate Change,Climate Change and Health,Climate Change and Environment,Health Care Services Industry
    Date: 2021–06–08
  12. By: Del Carmen,Giselle; Espinal Hernandez,Edgardo Enrique; De Gouvea Scot De Arruda,Thiago
    Abstract: Tax authorities often use low-cost communication with taxpayers to encourage voluntarycompliance and avoid other costly interventions. This paper reports findings from an experiment with more than 30,000taxpayers in Honduras, designed to assess how taxpayers with different risk scores respond to a communicationintervention. Across several outcomes, the average effect of the intervention on compliance was 0. Contrary to theexpectation of experts surveyed, only taxpayers considered to be at low risk of noncompliance increase their filing andreported income. Using rich administrative data and a causal forest algorithm, the paper finds that ex-ante predictedrisk and responsiveness to the intervention are negatively correlated. These findings can inform the design of targetedinterventions by tax authorities.
    Date: 2022–03–14
  13. By: Carpenter, Jeffrey P. (Middlebury College); Robbett, Andrea (Middlebury College)
    Abstract: We extend the literature structurally estimating social preferences by accounting for the desire to adhere to social norms. Our representative agent is strongly motivated by norms and failing to account for this causes us to overestimate how much agents care about helping those who are worse off. We endogenously identify latent preference types that replicate previous estimates; however, accounting for the normative appropriateness of decisions reveals different motives. Rather than being mostly altruistic, participants are better described as strong altruists or norm followers. Our results (which are robust to moral wiggle room) thus recast prior findings in a new light.
    Keywords: experiment, social norms, social preferences, altruism, moral wiggle room, structural estimation, finite mixture models
    JEL: C91 D01 D91 D63 D30 C49
    Date: 2022–09
  14. By: Halim,Daniel Zefanya; Powers,Elizabeth T.; Thornton,Rebecca Lynn
    Abstract: This paper reports on gender differences in responses to a randomized controlled trial that provided encouragement and information nudges to take subsequent economics courses and major in the subject for students enrolled in large introductory economics classes at a large elite public university. Two treatments combined encouragement to major in economics with information on either financial or prosocial returns to the major. Men receiving either treatment were more likely to take an additional economics course, but not to major in economics. In contrast, the treatments were not estimated to significantly affect women’s course-taking and majoring. Two treatment mediators are also examined: expected versus actual grade and having a female teaching assistant. There were also differing effects of mediators on treatment responses for men and women. Women were more nudge-able to take another course when they received a better-than-expected introductory class grade, and men were more nudge-able to take another course when they had a female teaching assistant.
    Keywords: Gender and Development,Labor Markets,Educational Sciences,Economics of Education,Education For All,Education for Development (superceded),Educational Policy and Planning - Textbook,Educational Populations
    Date: 2021–07–19
  15. By: Beam, Emily A. (University of Vermont); Mukherjee, Priya (University of Wisconsin-Madison); Navarro-Sola, Laia (IIES, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: We conduct a randomized controlled trial with households of secondary school students in Bangladesh to investigate how parents adjust their investments in response to three educational interventions: an informational campaign about an educational phone application, an internet data subsidy, and one-on-one phone learning support. We find that offering an educational service in a context where other barriers to take-up exist can still trigger parental educational investments by acting as a signal or nudge. These behavioral changes result in lasting learning gains concentrated among richer households, reflecting that the relevant behavior change—increased tutoring investment—is easier for them to implement. In contrast, when interventions do increase take-up, they have the potential to narrow the socioeconomic achievement gap. We observe that increased usage of the targeted educational service limits parental behavioral responses. This implies that learning gains in these cases are directly caused by the potential effectiveness of the services adopted. In our setting, remote one-to-one teacher support improves learning among students from poorer households, whereas receiving the free data package jointly with the app information has no impact on learning.
    Keywords: human capital, parental investments, educational technology, educational inequality
    JEL: C93 I21 I24 J13 O15
    Date: 2022–09
  16. By: Paan Jindapon; Pacharasut Sujarittanonta; Ajalavat Viriyavipart
    Abstract: We propose a framework to analyze the effects of income correlation between two players on risk sharing without commitment. In theory, the likelihood that a risk-sharing agreement is self-enforcing decreases with income correlation. We tested this prediction in the laboratory with negative, zero, and positive correlation coefficients and observed the largest average transfer in the positive-correlation treatment. This surprising result suggests that experiencing the same state of income could create a social bond and induce altruism between the two players. Therefore, informal risk sharing can be successful in a group with social identity despite high income interdependence.
    Keywords: Risk sharing; Income correlation; Infinite horizon games; Income smoothing; Altruism; Economic experiments
    JEL: D81 C91 C73 O17
    Date: 2022–10
  17. By: Bauhoff,Sebastian Peter Alexander; Kandpal,Eeshani
    Abstract: Do incentives matter beyond the information conveyed by pay-for-performance contracts? Does loss framing matter? And do incomplete contracts generate spillovers on unincentivized tasks? This study reports on a framed field experiment with 1,363 maternity care workers in 691 primary health facilities in Nigeria to answer these questions. Participants were randomized into three study arms—(1) information with a flat participation fee, (2) performance-based rewards, and (3) performance-based penalties. In each arm, participants had to identify correct clinical actions based on the records of hypothetical patients receiving maternity care. Five of fifteen possible actions were incentivized but performance was measured on all fifteen. Compared to information alone, both rewards and penalties increase time on task by 11 percent, correct overall performance by 6 to 8 percent, and directly incentivized performance by 20 percent. Incentives also generate positive spillovers of 14 percent on unincentivized tasks. Loss framing does not affect performance. Results suggest that improving health worker effort by 8 percent would have an impact on neonatal mortality at par with the short run effect of adding a physician to a health facility. Finally, findings show that a small incentive captures most of the impact, implying that incentives work by making information more effective and that pay-for-performance contracts can be made significantly more cost-effective.
    Keywords: Health Care Services Industry,Reproductive Health,Health Economics&Finance,Health Service Management and Delivery
    Date: 2021–06–02
  18. By: Ehrlich, David; Szech, Nora
    Abstract: We study the influence of social messages that promote a digital public good, a COVID-19 tracing app. We vary whether subjects receive a digital message from another subject, and, if so, at what cost it came. Observed maximum willingness to invest in sending varies, from 1 cent up to 20 euros. Does this affect receivers' sending behavior? Willingness to invest in sending increases when previously receiving the message. Yet, cost signals have no impact. Thus, grassroots movements can be started at virtually no cost. App-support matters normatively as non-supporters are supposed to be punished in triage.
    Keywords: Grassroots movements,digital public good,social messages,COVID-19 tracing app,triage
    JEL: D9 I12 I18 H12
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Olena Kostyshyna; Luba Petersen; Jing Yang
    Abstract: We provide a comprehensive assessment of leading monetary policy frameworks away from and at the ELB. Inflation targeting, dual mandate, average inflation targeting under 4- and 10-period horizons, price level targeting, and nominal GDP level targeting are evaluated in a laboratory setting. Contrary to theoretical prediction with full information rational expectations, participants exhibit backward-looking expectations and, consequently, rate-targeting mandates outperform level targeting. More history dependence worsens macroeconomic stability. Inflation expectations are managed better when mandates are framed in terms of inflation rates than price levels. Central bank communication significantly improves the performance of price level targeting.
    JEL: C92 E52 E70
    Date: 2022–10
  20. By: Ismaël Rafaï (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (1965 - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015-2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Arthur Ribaillier (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (1965 - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015-2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Dorian Jullien (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to better understand how judgements about nudge acceptability are formed and whether they can be manipulated. We conducted a randomized experiment with N = 171 participants to test whether acceptability judgements could be (1) more favourable when the decision to implement the nudges was made following a consultation with the targeted population and (2) influenced by the joint framing of the nudge's purpose and effectiveness (in terms of an increase in desirable behaviour versus decrease in undesirable behaviour). We tested these hypotheses on various nudge scenarios and obtained mixed results that do not clearly support our hypotheses for all nudge scenarios. A surprising result that calls for further work is that by mentioning that a nudge had been implemented through a consultation with the targeted population its acceptability could be lowered.
    Keywords: behavioural public policies,nudges,acceptability,framing,consultation
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Hoy,Christopher Alexander; Wood,Terence; Moscoe,Ellen Elizabeth
    Abstract: This paper examines the drivers of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and tests various means ofincreasing people’s willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. The study draws on data collected through a broadlyrepresentative phone survey with 2,533 respondents and an online randomized survey experiment with 2,392 participantsin Papua New Guinea. Both surveys show that less than 20 percent of the respondents who were aware a vaccine existedwere willing to be vaccinated. The main reason respondents stated for their hesitancy regarding the vaccine was concernabout side effects; however, the majority also said health workers could change their mind, particularly if informationwas communicated in person. The phone survey illustrated that people’s level of trust in the vaccine and theirbeliefs about the behavior of others are strongly associated with their intention to get a COVID-19 vaccine. In contrast,people’s concern about COVID-19, most trusted source of information (including social media), and vaccinationhistory were unrelated to their intention to get vaccinated. The online experiment showed that a message that emphasizedthe relative safety of the vaccine by highlighting that severe side effects are rare, while also emphasizing thedangers of COVID-19, increased intention to get vaccinated by around 50 percent. Collectively, these results suggestthat policy makers would be well placed to direct their efforts to boosting the general population’s trust thatgetting vaccinated substantially reduces the risk of severe illness or death from COVID-19.
    Keywords: Early Child and Children's Health,Public Health Promotion,Immunizations,Disease Control & Prevention,Reproductive Health,Health Care Services Industry,ICT Applications,Educational Sciences
    Date: 2021–11–05
  22. By: Gassier,Marine; Rouanet,Lea Marie; Traore,Lacina
    Abstract: This paper describes a randomized experiment that used a sample of men and women who wereeligible for a vocational training program in the Republic of Congo to test the effect of providing information ontrade-specific earnings on trade choice. The analysis finds that women are 28.6 percent more likely to apply to atraditionally male- dominated trade when receiving this information. Men and women are also both more likely toapply to more lucrative trades. This may in part be driven by the intervention filling an information gap. The analysissuggests, however, that behavioral mechanisms, which make trade-specific returns more salient in the decision processof applicants, play an even bigger role. Indeed, there are much larger treatment effects among women who have technicalknowledge and experience or male role models, even though the information does not impact their expectations ofearnings in male-dominated trades. The treatment is thus most effective among women who are already well positionedto cross over into male-dominated trades and can give greater weight to earning considerations when choosing atrade. The results indicate that this low-cost intervention can be a useful tool to encourage women to cross over tomore lucrative trades in which their presence has been limited, and thereby contribute to reducing the gender gapin earnings. There is also a high potential for interventions that would pair information on returns andtrade exposure.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Gender and Development,Educational Sciences,Vocational Education & Technical Training,Vocational & Technical Education
    Date: 2022–02–09
  23. By: IGARASHI Akira; MIWA Hirofumi; ONO Yoshikuni
    Abstract: In the United States, race plays an important role in shaping intergroup relations. African Americans, for example, are highly disadvantaged. Yet, little is known about how race affects the formation of intergroup attitudes in non-U.S. contexts. Two conflicting possibilities have been raised: either non-U.S. countries follow the U.S. racial hierarchy and it is spreading throughout the world, or each society has develops its own norms through its unique history and institutions, and racial hierarchies are not shared in non-U.S. contexts. To examine these possibilities, we chose a homogeneous, predominantly non-white, and non-U.S. context, Japan, and conducted a survey experiment to measure Japanese people’s attitudes toward immigrants from White, African, and Asian American backgrounds. The results showed that Japanese do not prefer White Americans over African Americans as immigrants. Rather, they exhibited a preference for African Americans. These results indicate that the racial hierarchy that shapes intergroup attitudes in the U.S. is not necessarily shared in Japan.
    Date: 2022–09
  24. By: Julia B. Block; Michael Danne; Oliver Mußhoff
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–10–19
  25. By: Karver,Jonathan George; Shijaku,Hilda; Ungerer,Christoph T F
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness oftaxpayer communications informed by behavioral science in inducing business payroll tax compliance at the onset of theCOVID-19 pandemic. In March 2020, an experimental tax trial targeting 5,423 firms was implemented, coinciding with thenational lockdown due to the global pandemic. The Albanian tax authority sent postal letters to employers and selectedemployees highlighting a suspicion that wages were under-declared to avoid personal income tax withholding.Employers and employees suspected of under-declaring were randomly assigned to receive a soft-tone letter(highlighting the social importance of contributing through taxes), a strong-tone letter (highlighting the penaltiesassociated with under-declaring), or none (forming a control group against which the impact of receiving the letterscould be estimated). For employers receiving soft-tone letters, the study finds large, statistically significantincreases on subsequent payroll declarations (by as much as 10 percent relative to the control group), which graduallyattenuate over the following six months. No statistically significant effects are found for letters sent to employeesor strong-tone letters. The findings highlight (i) the importance of framing of communications as well as theimportance of smart selection of letter recipients for taxpayer communication campaigns, (ii) which type oftaxpayer communications were most effective in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and (iii) the role that randomizedcontrolled trials and behavioral science can play in strengthening the effectiveness of government policy,particularly for public revenue mobilization.
    Keywords: Tax Law,Public Finance Decentralization and Poverty Reduction,Tax Administration,Public Sector Economics,Democratic Government,De Facto Governments,Administrative & Civil Service Reform,Public Sector Administrative & Civil Service Reform,Public Sector Administrative and Civil Service Reform,International Trade and Trade Rules,Economic Adjustment and Lending,Taxation & Subsidies,Macro-Fiscal Policy
    Date: 2022–03–07
  26. By: Dimova, Ralitza (University of Manchester); Abou, Edouard Pokou (Jean Lorougnon Guede University); Basu, Arnab K. (Cornell University); Viennet, Romane (OECD)
    Abstract: Is the impact of women's bargaining power on the welfare of the household always positive? We address this question by developing a novel experimental measure of bargaining power over family expenditures in Ivory Coast and studying its determinants. We find that men prioritise food expenditures, women prioritise the transfers to parents and the two of them show similar revealed preferences with respect to educational expenditures. The bargaining power of the woman over the three categories of expenditures of interest is correlated with the education of the wife, the income of the husband and the bride price. The results contribute to the debate on the superior concern of the woman about child welfare and could have interesting policy implications.
    Keywords: bargaining power, public goods games, revealed preferences, Côte d'Ivoire
    JEL: C93 J43 O55
    Date: 2022–09
  27. By: Batista,Catia; Mckenzie,David J.
    Abstract: The predictions of different classic migration theories are tested by using incentivized laboratory experiments to investigate how potential migrants decide between working in different destinations. First, the authors test theories of income maximization, migrant skill-selection, and multi-destination choice as they vary migration costs, liquidity constraints, risk, social benefits, and incomplete information. The standard income maximization model of migration with selection on observed and unobserved skills leads to a much higher migration rate and more negative skill-selection than is obtained when migration decisions take place under more realistic assumptions. Second, these lab experiments are used to investigate whether the independence of irrelevant alternatives assumption holds. The results show that it holds for most people when decisions just involve wages, costs, and liquidity constraints. However, once the risk of unemployment and incomplete information is added, independence of irrelevant alternatives no longer holds for about 20 percent of the sample.
    Keywords: Employment and Unemployment,Educational Sciences,Social Cohesion,International Trade and Trade Rules
    Date: 2021–08–17
  28. By: Athey,Susan,Bergstrom,Katy Ann,Hadad,Vitor,Jamison,Julian C,Ozler,Berk,Parisotto,Luca,Sama,Julius Dohbit
    Abstract: Long-acting reversible contraceptives are highly effective in preventing unintended pregnancies, but take-up remains low. This paper analyzes a randomized controlled trial of interventions addressing two barriers to long-acting reversible contraceptive adoption, credit, and informational constraints. The study offered discounts to the clients of a women’s hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon, and cross-randomized a counseling strategy that encourages shared decision-making using a tablet-based app that ranks modern methods. Discounts increased uptake by 50 percent, with larger effects for adolescents. Shared decision-making tripled the share of clients adopting a long-acting reversible contraceptive at full price, from 11 to 35 percent, and discounts had no incremental impact in this group.
    Keywords: Family Planning Research,Reproductive Health,Educational Sciences,Health Care Services Industry,Health Service Management and Delivery
    Date: 2021–09–20
  29. By: Mavromaras, Kostas (University of Adelaide); Isherwood, Linda (University of Adelaide); Mahuteau, Stephane (University of Adelaide); Ratcliffe, Julie (Flinders University); Xiao, Lily (Flinders University); Harrington, Ann (Flinders University); Wei, Zhang (University of Adelaide)
    Abstract: Using a Discrete Choice Experiment we estimate the relative value attached by workers on core job attributes identified by previous qualitative research on the Aged Care workforce in Australia: salary (hourly); work hours; training/skill development; staffing numbers; processes for managing work-related stress; and freedom in the job. In this mostly part- time employed workforce, the opportunity for more workhours is welcome, but relatively less important. Nurses (enrolled and more so registered, being typically better-paid and higher-qualified) value pay rises less and training opportunities more than their (typically lower-paid and lower-qualified) care worker counterparts. Casual/temporary workers prefer workplaces that are adequately staffed relatively more than their permanently employed counterparts. In the context of increasing demand for more and for better-quality Aged Care services, the paper's overall findings can inform the current multi-faceted debate about a sustainable way for the Aged Care sector to attract, retain and utilize its workforce.
    Keywords: aged care workforce, discrete choice experiments, job attributes, job preferences
    JEL: J14 J21 J39 C25 I19
    Date: 2022–10
  30. By: Monteiro Amaral,Sofia Fernando; Dinarte Diaz,Lelys Ileana; Dominguez,Patricio; Perez-Vincent,Santiago M.
    Abstract: Parenting practices are crucial for the development of children’s brains and social skills.However, parenting styles may be far from ideal, particularly those of caregivers with high stress levels.Using an individual-level experiment with male and female caregivers of young children in El Salvador, this paperevaluates the impact of a free digital stress management and positive parenting intervention. The results indicate that,for males, the intervention increased stress and anxiety and lowered caregiver-child interactions. The effect on maleswas concentrated among the poorer and those residing with a partner. In contrast, women’s mental health was notimpacted. Yet, their use of physical violence toward children decreased by 18 percent. These results align withtheories linking economic deprivation and family structure to caregivers’ cognitive overload and mental health.
    Date: 2021–11–16
  31. By: Datta,Saugato; Martin,Joshua Bader; MacLeod,Catherine; Rawlings,Laura B.; Vermehren,Andrea
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effects of interventions based on behavioral science on measures of early childhood socio-cognitive development (and related household-level outcomes) for children from households receiving cash transfers in Madagascar, using a multi-arm cluster-randomized trial. Three behavioral interventions (a Mother Leaders group and associated activities, by itself or augmented with a self-affirmation or a plan-making nudge) are layered onto a child-focused cash transfer program targeting children from birth to age six years. Approximately 18 months into the implementation of these interventions and 20 months since baseline, the study finds evidence that households in the behaviorally enhanced arms undertake more desirable parenting behaviors, interact more with their children, prepare more (and more diverse) meals at home, and report lower food insecurity than households that received only cash. Children from households in several of the behaviorally enhanced arms also perform better than children from households in the cash-only arm on several measures of socio-cognitive development, including language learning and social skills.
    Keywords: Disability,Services&Transfers to Poor,Access of Poor to Social Services,Economic Assistance,Social Protections&Assistance,Reproductive Health,Children and Youth,Early Child and Children's Health,Nutrition,Early Childhood Development,Inequality
    Date: 2021–08–09
  32. By: Yannai A. Gonczarowski; Ori Heffetz; Clayton Thomas
    Abstract: A menu description defines a mechanism to player $i$ in two steps. Step (1) uses the reports of other players to describe $i$'s menu: the set of $i$'s potential outcomes. Step (2) uses $i$'s report to select $i$'s favorite outcome from her menu. Can menu descriptions better expose strategyproofness, without sacrificing simplicity? We propose a new, simple menu description of Deferred Acceptance. We prove that -- in contrast with other common matching mechanisms -- this menu description must differ substantially from the corresponding traditional description. We demonstrate, with a lab experiment on two simple mechanisms, the promise and challenges of menu descriptions.
    Date: 2022–09
  33. By: Nikhil Masters (University of Essex; Bournemouth University); Chris Starmer (University of Nottingham)
    Abstract: Existing research has demonstrated carryover effects whereby emotions generated in one context influence decisions in other, unrelated ones. We examine the carryover effect in relation to valuations of risky and ambiguous lotteries with a novel focus on comparing the carryovers arising from a targeted stimulus (designed to elicit a specific emotion) with those arising from a naturalistic stimulus (expected to produce a more complex emotional response). We find carryover effects using both a standard targeted stimulus and a naturalistic one, but they are stronger for the naturalistic stimulus and in the context of ambiguity. These effects are also highly gender-specific with only males being susceptible. To probe the emotional foundations of behaviour, we conduct analysis relating individual self-reports of emotions to incentivised valuation behaviour. Our results cast doubt on the interpretation of some evidence purporting to establish links between specific incidental emotions and risk taking.
    Keywords: Incidental emotions; Emotional carryover; risk; ambiguity; Naturalistic; Structural equation modelling
    Date: 2022

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.