nep-exp New Economics Papers
on Experimental Economics
Issue of 2022‒02‒14
38 papers chosen by

  1. Does commonness fill the common fund? Experimental evidence on the role of identity for public good contributions in India By Konda, Bruhan; Dietrich, Stephan; Nillesen, Eleonora
  2. Thumbs Down for the Thumbs Up Emoji: Experimental Evidence on the Impact of Instantaneous Positive Reinforcement on Charitable Giving By Ben Grodeck; Philip J. Grossman
  3. Voluntary 'donations' versus reward-oriented 'contributions': Two experiments on framing in funding mechanisms By Adena, Maja; Huck, Steffen
  5. Lying in Two Dimensions By D.J. da Cunha Batista Geraldes; Franziska Heinicke; S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157222241 Rosenkranz
  6. Big and Small Lies By D.J. da Cunha Batista Geraldes; Franziska Heinicke; Duk Gyoo Kim
  7. School Choice with Consent: An Experiment By Claudia Cerrone; Yoan Hermstrüwer; Onur Kesten
  8. Puzzling Answers to Crosswise Questions - Examining Overall Prevalence Rates, Primacy Effects and Learning Effects By Walzenbach, Sandra; Hinz, Thomas
  9. Countering misinformation with targeted messages: Experimental evidence using mobile phones By Alex Armand; Britta Augsburg; Antonella Bancalari; Kalyan Kumar Kameshwara
  10. Gender Differences in Private and Public Goal Setting By Jordi Brandts; Sabrine El Baroudi; Stefanie Huber; Christina Rott
  11. Experiment on Gender Representation in Majoritarian Bargaining By Andrzej Baranski; D.J. da Cunha Batista Geraldes; Ada Kovaliukaite; James Tremewan
  12. How does group identification affect redistribution in representative democracies? An Experiment By Shaun P. Hargreaves Heap; Emma Manifold; Konstantinos Matakos; Dimitrios Xefteris
  13. Worth your weight: experimental evidence on the benefits of obesity in low-income countries By Elisa Macchi
  14. Gender differences in investments and risk preferences By Holden, Stein T.; Tilahun, Mesfin
  15. Comparing behavior between a large sample of smart students and a representative sample of Japanese adults By Nobuyuki Hanaki; Keigo Inukai; Takehito Masuda; Yuta Shimodaira
  16. Coordination and the poor maintenance trap: an experiment on public infrastructure in India By Alex Armand; Britta Augsburg; Antonella Bancalari
  17. Feed the children By Laurens Cherchye; Pierre-André Chiappori; Bram De Rock; Charlotte Ringdal; Frederic Vermeulen
  18. Effect of health insurance in India: a randomized controlled trial By Anup Malani; Phoebe Holtzman; Kosuke Imai; Cynthia Kinnan; Morgen Miller; Shailender Swaminathan; Alessandra Voena; Bartosz Woda; Gabriella Conti
  19. Do sentencing guidelines result in lower inter-judge disparity? Evidence from framed field experiment (updated version), By Cécile Bourreau-Dubois; Myriam Doriat-Duban; Bruno Jeandidier; Jean-Claude Ray
  20. 2021 Summary Data of Natural Field Experiments Published on By John List
  21. Intertemporal consumption and debt aversion: A replication and extension By Ahrens, Steffen; Bosch-Rosa, Ciril; Meissner, Thomas
  22. The role of reporting institutions and image motivation in tax evasion and incidence By Kaisa Kotakorpi; Satu Metsälampi; Topi Miettinen; Tuomas Nurminen
  23. Project factsheet: Overcoming barriers to women’s political participation through advocacy training: Designing a field experiment in Nigeria By Adida, Claire; Arriola, Leonardo; Kosec, Katrina; Matanock, Aila; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung
  24. Ever since Allais By Aluma Dembo; Shachar Kariv; Matthew Polisson; John Quah
  25. I Won’t Make the Same Mistake Again: Burnout History and Job Preferences By Philippe Sterkens; Stijn Baert; Eline Moens; Eva Derous; Joey Wuyts
  26. An information intervention and consent to data linkage: experimental evidence from teaching By Fullard, Joshua
  27. The politicized pandemic: Ideological polarization and the behavioral response to COVID-19 By Gianluca Grimalda; Fabrice Murtin; David Pipke; Louis Putterman; Matthias Sutter
  28. On trust in Malawi Behaviour in trust games in 18 Malawian villages in 2007 By Moe Skjølsvold, Tomas; Berge, Erling; Bjørnstad, Sverre; Wiig, Henrik
  29. Labelled loans and human capital investments By Britta Augsburg; Bet Caeyers; Sara Giunti; Bansi Malde; Susanna Smets
  30. The social and political consequences of wartime sexual violence: New evidence from list experiments in three conflict-affected populations By Carlo Koos; Richard Traunmüller
  31. Competition, Selection Bias and Gender Differences Among Economics Majors By Aurelie Dariel; Nikos Nikiforakis; Jan Stoop
  32. Income Contingency and the Electorate’s Support for Tuition By Philipp Lergetporer; Ludger Woessmann
  33. When nature calls back: sustaining behavioural change in rural Pakistan By Britta Augsburg; Antonella Bancalari; Zara Durrani; Madhav Vaidyanathan; Zach White
  34. In Medio Stat Virtus? Effective Communication and Preferences for Redistribution in Hard Times By Paola Bertoli; Veronica Grembi; Massimo Morelli; Anna Rosso
  35. Consumers' Preferences for Energy-Efficient Air Conditioners in a Developing Country: A Discrete Choice Experiment Using Eco Labels By Miwa Nakai; Majah-Leah V. Ravago; Yoichi Miyaoka; Kiyoshi Saito; Toshi. H Arimura
  36. Video-based behavioral change communication to change consumption patterns: Experimental evidence from urban Ethiopia By Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Baye, Kaleab; de Brauw, Alan; Hirvonen, Kalle; Wolle, Abdulazize
  37. Place attachment and preferences for land-based wind power. A discrete choice experiment By Anders Dugstad; Kristine Grimsrud; Gorm Kipperberg; Henrik Lindhjem; Ståle Navrud
  38. Political ideology predicts mood and emotion regulation. Examining potential pathways to key life outcomes. By David L. Dickinson

  1. By: Konda, Bruhan (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University); Dietrich, Stephan (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University); Nillesen, Eleonora (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We examine how the type of common identity affects voluntary contribution to public goods in groups that differ in their social image. We conjecture that groups with perceived high-status identity engage in higher levels of collective action compared to groups with perceived low-status identity. We study this using a lab-in-the-field experiment in rural India with members from the top and bottom of the caste hierarchy. Using a 2-person public good game, we empirically test (i) whether a caste gap in contributions emerges when group identities are made salient (ii) whether these differences are driven by the presence of punishment, and (iii) whether exogenously boosting caste identities by a role model prime diminishes the caste gap. Our results show that stereotyped groups fail to act collectively to provide public goods, possibly due to lack of trust towards their own group members. This gap disappears after the role model priming treatment and reaffirms the role of social identity in explaining the difference in contributions between groups that differ in the social image.
    Keywords: Common identity, Caste, Public goods, Lab-in-the-field experiment
    JEL: C91 D64 D91 H41
    Date: 2021–10–18
  2. By: Ben Grodeck (Department of Economics, Monash University); Philip J. Grossman (Department of Economics, Monash University)
    Abstract: Historically, positive reinforcement (PRI) for charitable giving happens after the fact; thank-you letters, calls, or gifts from the charities to donors. With online giving becoming more prominent, this creates an opportunity for instantaneous PRI. Our study offers the first evidence, to our knowledge, of the effect of instantaneous PRI on donation behavior. We conduct a large-scale online experiment on Amazon Mturk (n=2,375). Participants are randomly assigned to either a baseline with no PRI; a treatment in which subjects receive a static PRI thumbs up emoji (a general recognized gesture of approval); a treatment in which subjects receive a dynamic PRI thumbs up emoji [the emoji increases (decreases) in size as the size of the donation increases (decreases)]; and two other controls. We find that, consistent with much of the findings on thank-you letters, calls, and gifts, our instantaneous dynamic PRI has no significant positive effects on donation behavior. Surprisingly, we also find that static PRI results in significantly less being donated. These results suggest that organizations and policymakers should be hesitant in using instantaneous PRI, as it ranges from null to negative effects.
    Keywords: Positive reinforcement, Charitable giving, Experiment, Fundraising
    JEL: C90 D91 H40
    Date: 2022–02
  3. By: Adena, Maja; Huck, Steffen
    Abstract: In an artefactual field experiment, we implemented a crowdfunding campaign for an institute's summer party and compared donation and contribution framings. We found that the use of the word 'donation' generated higher revenue than the use of 'contribution'. While the individuals receiving the donation framing gave substantially larger amounts, those receiving the contribution framing responded more strongly to reward thresholds and suggestions. An additional survey experiment on MTurk indicated that the term 'donation' triggers more positive emotional responses and that emotions are highly correlated with giving. It appears that making a donation is perceived as a more voluntary act and is thus more successful at generating warm glow than making a contribution. We surmise that this extends to other funding mechanisms.
    Keywords: crowdfunding,field experiment,framing
    JEL: C93 D64 D12
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Luca Panzone (School of Natural and Environmental Science, Newcastle University; The Alan Turing Institute); Natasha Auch (The Alan Turing Institute); Daniel Zizzo (School of Economics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia)
    Abstract: We use an incentive-compatible experimental online supermarket to test the role of commitment and badges in reducing the carbon footprint of grocery shopping. In the experiment, some participants had the opportunity to voluntarily commit to a low carbon footprint basket before their online grocery shopping; while the commitment was forced upon other participants. We also study the impact of an online badge as a soft reward for the achievement of a low carbon footprint basket. Participants from the general population shopped over two weeks, with the experimental stimuli only in week 2; and received their shopping baskets and any unspent budget. Results indicate that requesting a commitment prior to entering the store leads to a reduction in carbon footprint of 8-9%. The online badge led to non-significant reductions in carbon footprint. Commitment mechanisms, either forced or voluntary, appear effective in motivating an environmental goal and search for low-carbon options, particularly in those accepting the commitment.
    Keywords: sustainable consumption, commitment, field experiment, carbon footprint, food consumption.
    JEL: C54 C93 D12 D91 Q18 Q56
    Date: 2022–01–16
  5. By: D.J. da Cunha Batista Geraldes; Franziska Heinicke; S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157222241 Rosenkranz
    Abstract: The expanding literature on lying has exclusively considered lying behavior within a one-dimensional context. While this has been an important first step, many real-world contexts involve the possibility of simultaneously lying in more than one dimension (e.g., reporting one’s income and expenses in a tax declaration). In this paper, we experimentally investigate individual lying behavior in both one- and two-dimensional contexts to understand whether the multi-dimensionality of a decision affects lying behavior. In the one-dimensional treatment, participants are asked to roll two dice in one hand and to report the sum of both dice. In the two-dimensional treatment, participants are asked to roll two dice at the same time, but one in each hand, and to report the two dice separately. Our paper provides the first evidence regarding lying behavior in a multi-dimensional context. Using a two-dimensional die-roll task, we show that participants lie partially between dimensions, i.e., they distribute lying unevenly across dimensions, which results in greater over-reporting of the lower outcome die. These findings suggest a pertinent policy to tackle the infamous societal challenge of tax fraud: Tax report checks should focus on the item(s) for which a taxpayer profile hints at higher self-benefits in case of misreporting.
    Keywords: lying, honesty, morals, multi-dimensional, lab experiment, lab-in-the-field experiment
    Date: 2021–01
  6. By: D.J. da Cunha Batista Geraldes; Franziska Heinicke; Duk Gyoo Kim
    Abstract: Lying involves many decisions yielding big or small benefits. Are big and small lies complementary or supplementary? In a laboratory experiment where the participants could simultaneously tell a big and a small lie, our study finds that lies are complementary. The participants who lie more in the big lie, also do so in the small lie and vice versa. Our study also finds that although replacing one dimension of the lying opportunities with a randomly determined prize does not affect the overall lying behavior, repeatedly being lucky on a high-stakes prize leads to less lying on the report of a low-stakes outcome.
    Keywords: laboratory experiment, lying, luck, honesty
    Date: 2021–01
  7. By: Claudia Cerrone (Middlesex University); Yoan Hermstrüwer (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn); Onur Kesten (School of Economics, The University of Sydney)
    Abstract: Public school choice often yields student placements that are neither fair nor efficient. Kesten (2010) proposed an efficiency-adjusted deferred acceptance algorithm (EADAM) that allows students to consent to waive priorities that have no effect on their assignment. In this article, we provide first experimental evidence on the performance of EADAM. We compare EADAM with the deferred acceptance mechanism (DA) and with two variants of EADAM. In the first variant, we vary the default option: students can object – rather than consent – to the priority waiver. In the second variant, the priority waiver is enforced. We find that both efficiency and truth-telling rates are substantially higher under EADAM than under DA, even though EADAM is not strategy-proof. When the priority waiver is enforced, we observe that efficiency further increases, while truth-telling rates decrease relative to the EADAM variants where students can dodge the waiver. Our results challenge the importance of strategy-proofness as a condition of truth-telling and point to a trade-off between efficiency and vulnerability to preference manipulation.
    Keywords: efficiency-adjusted deferred acceptance algorithm, school choice, consent, default rules, law
    JEL: C78 C92 D47 I20 K10
    Date: 2022–02–09
  8. By: Walzenbach, Sandra; Hinz, Thomas
    Abstract: This validation study on the crosswise model (CM) examines five survey experiments that were implemented in a general population survey. Our first crucial result is that in none of these experiments was the crosswise model able to verifiably reduce social desirability bias. In contrast to most previous CM applications, we use an experimental design that allows us to distinguish a reduction in social desirability bias from heuristic response behaviour, such as random ticking, leading to false positive or false negative answers. In addition, we provide insights on two potential explanatory mechanisms that have not yet received attention in empirical studies: primacy effects and panel conditioning. We do not find consistent primacy effects, nor does response quality improve due to learning when respondents have had experiences with crosswise models in past survey waves. We interpret our results as evidence that the crosswise model does not work in general population surveys and speculate that the question format causes mistrust in participants.
    Keywords: crosswise model,randomized response,social desirability bias,primacy effects,learning effects,panel conditioning,privacy concerns
    JEL: C83
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Alex Armand (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Nova School of Business and Economics); Britta Augsburg (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Antonella Bancalari (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of St. Andrews); Kalyan Kumar Kameshwara (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: Widespread misconceptions can be critical, especially in times of crisis. Through a field experiment, we study how to address such wrong or inaccurate beliefs using messages delivered to individual citizens using mobile phones. We focus on misinformation related to the COVID-19 pandemic in a hard-to-reach population – India’s slum residents. We randomly allocate participants to receive voice and video messages introduced by a local citizen, the messenger, and in which medical practitioners debunk misconceptions. To understand the role of targeting, we randomly vary the signaled religious identity of the messenger into either Muslim or Hindu, guaranteeing exogenous variation in religion concordance between messenger and recipient. Doctor messages are effective at increasing knowledge of, and compliance with, COVID-19 policy guidelines. Changes in misconceptions are observed only when there is religion concordance and mainly for religious-salient misconceptions. Correcting misconceptions with information requires targeting messages to specific populations and tailoring them to individual characteristics.
    Date: 2021–09–02
  10. By: Jordi Brandts; Sabrine El Baroudi (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Stefanie Huber (University of Amsterdam); Christina Rott (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We conduct a field and an online classroom experiment to study gender differences in self-set performance goals and their effects on performance in a real-effort task. We distinguish between public and private goals, performance being public and identifiable in both cases. Participants set significantly more ambitious goals when these are public. Women choose lower goals than men in both treatments. Men perform better than women under private and public goals as well as in the absence of goal setting, consistent with the identifiability of performance causing gender differences, as found in other studies. Compared to private goal setting, public goal setting does not affect men’s performance at all but it leads to women’s performance being significantly lower. Comparing self-set goals with actual performance we find that under private goal setting women’s performance is on average 67% of goals, whereas for men it is 57%. Under public goal setting the corresponding percentages are 43% and 39%, respectively.
    Keywords: gender differences, goal setting, public observability, experiment
    JEL: C91 J01 J16 J82
    Date: 2022–01–28
  11. By: Andrzej Baranski; D.J. da Cunha Batista Geraldes; Ada Kovaliukaite; James Tremewan
    Abstract: Does the gender composition of committees affect negotiations in majoritarian bargaining? We report the results of an experiment in which subjects are placed in triads to negotiate the division of a sum of money under majority rule and the gender composition of the group is manipulated, ranging from all female (FFF), female majority (FFM), male majority (MMF), to all male (MMM). Results show that men are more likely to make the opening offer, and contrary to our hypothesis, agreements are reached fastest in MMM and slowest in FFF. The proportion of grand coalitions is increasing in the number of females while minimal winning coalitions (MWCs) increase monotonically in the number of males. MWCs are disproportionately more likely to be same-gender in MMF, which leads to a gender gap in earnings compared to FFM. When provisional MWCs form prior to a final agreement, excluded men are more proactive than excluded women in attempting to break the coalition by making alluring offers, which partially explains why mixed gender MWCs are less frequent in MMF compared to FFM. Notably, some females adopt male-type behavior in MMF regarding their initial proposals and aggressiveness when left out from a MWC.
    Keywords: Unstructured bargaining, gender differences, experiment
    Date: 2021–01
  12. By: Shaun P. Hargreaves Heap; Emma Manifold; Konstantinos Matakos; Dimitrios Xefteris
    Abstract: We test in the laboratory four mechanisms whereby group identification might affect redistribution in representative democracies. For voters, group identification can give rise to a preference for own-group payoffs, for electing an own-group candidate, and could be used to assess candidate-sincerity. For candidates, identity might affect the optimal campaign platform. There is evidence to support all four. The influence of own-group pay-offs has been studied before, but the other mechanisms have not. These new mechanisms combine to make redistribution depend on a hitherto unrecognized factor: the political representation of the minority group.
    Keywords: Identity; Inequality; Redistribution; Minority Representation; Representative Democracy; Voting Experiment
    JEL: C91 D63 D72 D90
    Date: 2022–02–02
  13. By: Elisa Macchi
    Abstract: I study the economic value of obesity—a seemingly inconsequential but unhealthy status symbol in poor countries. Randomizing decision-makers in Kampala, Uganda to view weight-manipulated portraits, I make four findings. First, obesity is perceived as a reliable signal of wealth rather than beauty and health. Second, being obese facilitates access to credit: in a real-stakes experiment involving loan officers, the obesity premium is comparable to raising borrower self-reported earnings by 60%. Third, asymmetric information drives this premium, which drops significantly when more financial information is provided. Fourth, obesity benefits and wealth-signaling value are commonly overestimated, raising the cost of healthy behaviors.
    Keywords: Obesity, status, asymmetric information
    JEL: I10 O10 Z13
    Date: 2022–01
  14. By: Holden, Stein T. (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Tilahun, Mesfin (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: We analyze individual investment behavior among 822 young men and women that are members of 111 formal business groups in northern Ethiopia. We collected baseline data and investment data one year later combined with incentivized field experiments to obtain dis-aggregated risk preference data. We find that business women on average invest significantly less at individual level than business men but Cohen’s d values for the gender difference are moderate in size. Women are found to have higher Constant Relative Risk Aversion coefficients, to be more loss averse, but also to be more optimistic in their expectations than men. Women were also poorer in non-land assets, came from more land-poor parents and had lower incomes. The gender differences in risk attitudes and baseline endowments could explain some of but not all of the gender differences in investments.
    Keywords: Gender difference; Individual investment; Risk preferences; Prospect theory; Cohen’s d; Business groups; Northern Ethiopia
    JEL: C93 D90
    Date: 2022–01–25
  15. By: Nobuyuki Hanaki; Keigo Inukai; Takehito Masuda; Yuta Shimodaira
    Abstract: We address a concern about the external validity, in particular, the representativeness of the sampled population, of an experiment conducted with university students. We do so by conducting large-scale (partly) incentivized online surveys of students at a Japanese university and of a sample of Japanese adults to measure individual characteristics such as cognitive ability, mentalizing skills, preferences for risk and distribution, and personality traits. While significant differences between these two samples are observed in many of these characteristics, the correlational structures among these characteristics are very similar in the two samples.
    Date: 2022–02
  16. By: Alex Armand (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Nova School of Business and Economics); Britta Augsburg (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Antonella Bancalari (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of St. Andrews)
    Abstract: Poorly maintained public infrastructure is common in low- and middle-income countries, with consequences for service delivery and public health. By experimentally identifying the impact of incentives for local maintenance for both providers and potential users, this paper provides one of the ?rst economic analyses of provider–user dynamics in the presence of local coordination failure. Focusing on shared sanitation facilities for slum residents in two major Indian cities, we randomly allocate facilities to either a control or two treatments. The ?rst treatment incentivizes maintenance of the facility among providers, while the second treatment adds a sensitization campaign about the returns of a well-maintained facility among potential users. Using surveys, behavioral and objective measurements for both providers and potential users, we show that incentivizing maintenance does not favor collective action. The treatments raise the quality of facilities and reduce free riding, but at the cost of user selection. Providers improve routine maintenance, but also respond strategically to the newly-introduced incentives. While slum residents’ private willingness to pay and cooperation are unaffected, their demand for public intervention increases. The second treatment raises aware-ness, but does not affect behavior.
    Date: 2021–06–22
  17. By: Laurens Cherchye (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven); Pierre-André Chiappori (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Columbia University); Bram De Rock (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Université libre de Bruxelles); Charlotte Ringdal (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Frederic Vermeulen (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Leuven)
    Abstract: To understand the household decision-making process regarding food expenditures for children in poor households in Nairobi, we conduct an experiment with 424 married couples. In the experiment, the spouses (individually and jointly) allocated money between themselves and nutritious meals for one of their children. First, we ?nd strong empirical support for individual rationality and cooperative behavior. Second, our results suggest that women do not have stronger preferences for children’s meals than men. Third, the spouses’ respective bargaining positions derived from consumption patterns strongly correlate with more traditional indicators. Finally, we document signi?cant heterogeneity both between individuals and intra-household decision processes.
    Date: 2021–10–05
  18. By: Anup Malani (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Phoebe Holtzman (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Kosuke Imai (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Cynthia Kinnan (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Morgen Miller (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Shailender Swaminathan (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Alessandra Voena (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Chicago); Bartosz Woda (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Gabriella Conti (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London)
    Abstract: We report on a large randomized controlled trial of hospital insurance for above-poverty-line Indian households. Households were assigned to free insurance, sale of insurance, sale plus cash transfer, or control. To estimate spillovers, the fraction of households offered insurance varied across villages. The opportunity to purchase insurance led to 59.91% uptake and access to free insurance to 78.71% uptake. Access increased insurance utilization. Positive spillover effects on utilization suggest learning from peers. Many beneficiaries were unable to use insurance, demonstrating hurdles to expanding access via insurance. Across a range of health measures, we estimate no significant impacts on health.
    Date: 2021–12–07
  19. By: Cécile Bourreau-Dubois (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Myriam Doriat-Duban (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Bruno Jeandidier (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jean-Claude Ray (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Date: 2021–12–21
  20. By: John List
    Abstract: In 2019, I put together a summary of data from my field experiments website that pertained to natural field experiments. Several people have asked me if I have an update. In this document I update all figures and numbers to show the details for 2021. I also include the description from the 2019 paper below.
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Ahrens, Steffen; Bosch-Rosa, Ciril; Meissner, Thomas
    Abstract: We replicate Meissner (2016) where debt aversion was reported for the first time in an intertemporal consumption and saving problem. While Meissner (2016) uses a German sample, our subjects are US undergraduate students. All of the main findings from the original study replicate, with similar effect sizes. Additionally, we extend the original analysis by correlating a new individual index of debt aversion on individual characteristics such as gender, cognitive ability, and risk aversion. The findings suggest that gender and risk aversion are not correlated with debt aversion. However, cognitive ability is positively correlated with debt aversion. Overall, this paper confirms the importance of debt aversion in intertemporal consumption problems and validates the approach of Meissner (2016).
    Keywords: Debt Aversion,Replication,Experiment
    JEL: C91 D84 G11 G41
    Date: 2022
  22. By: Kaisa Kotakorpi; Satu Metsälampi; Topi Miettinen; Tuomas Nurminen
    Abstract: We investigate effects of tax reporting mechanisms on evasion and incidence in experimental double auction markets where counterfactual reporting and market outcomes can be studied after convergence. There are two control conditions: (i) markets without taxes and (ii) markets where taxes are automatically levied. These are compared to (iii) markets with seller-reporting only and fines paid if low-probability audit discovers evasion, to (iv) markets with both seller- and buyer-reporting and a higher audit probability due to any gap in the numbers reported by the seller and her customers, and to (v) markets where, in addition, buyer-reporting is costly. The latter two mimic varying reporting incentives in the so called third-party reporting in tax enforcement. We find that 20% of the sellers are truthful when only sellers report, but that 80% and 66% of them are truthful under costless and costly third-party reporting, respectively. Pricing, incidence, and reporting patterns in all treatments can be explained by a model of lying costs with image concerns based on Gneezy et al. (2018).
    JEL: H21 H22 H26 D40 D44 D91
    Date: 2021–06
  23. By: Adida, Claire; Arriola, Leonardo; Kosec, Katrina; Matanock, Aila; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung
    Abstract: This factsheet describes a planned project in Nigeria, working with existing partners, that will provide useful policy recommendations for empowering women in the public sphere. It has the potential to inform implementation of the National Gender Policy in Agriculture prepared by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD) and programming by the Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development (MWASD) by sharing specific lessons on how to harness women’s social capital and leadership skills to promote more equitable agricultural and development policies. The project pairs an intervention aimed at generating leadership skills, a sense of collective efficacy, and effective participation in local politics among women’s groups in Nigeria with a rigorous randomized controlled trial (RCT) to understand what works and how to give women a voice in their communities. It builds on programming by ActionAid Nigeria, our implementing partner; we will further refine this programming through qualitative work and embed it in a theory of change. ActionAid Nigeria prioritizes the leadership of women, especially those living in poverty and exclusion.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; gender; women; women's participation; advocacy; training; politics; policies
    Date: 2021
  24. By: Aluma Dembo (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Oxford); Shachar Kariv (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Matthew Polisson (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Bristol); John Quah (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: The Allais critique of expected utility theory (EUT) has led to the development of theories of choice under risk that relax the independence axiom, but which adhere to the conventional axioms of ordering and monotonicity. Unlike many existing labora-tory experiments designed to test independence, our experiment systematically tests the entire set of axioms, providing much richer evidence against which EUT can be judged. Our within-subjects analysis is nonparametric, using only information about revealed preference relations in the individual-level data. For most subjects we ?nd that departures from independence are statistically signi?cant but minor relative to departures from ordering and/or monotonicity.
    Date: 2021–06–14
  25. By: Philippe Sterkens; Stijn Baert; Eline Moens; Eva Derous; Joey Wuyts (-)
    Abstract: The existing burnout literature has predominantly focussed on the determinants of burnout, whereas its consequences for individual careers have received little attention. In this study, we investigate whether recently burned-out individuals and persons with a very high risk of clinical burnout differ in job preferences from non-burned-out workers. Moreover, we link these differences in preferences with (1) diverging perceptions of job demands and resources in a job, as well as (2) distinct weighting of such perceptions. To this end, a highquality sample of 582 employees varying in their history and current risk of burnout judged fictitious job offers with experimentally manipulated characteristics in terms of their willingness to apply as well as perceived job demands and resources. We find that recently burned-out employees appreciate possibilities to telework and fixed feedback relatively more, while being relatively less attracted to opportunities for learning on the job. Moreover, employees with a very high risk of burnout are more attracted to part-time jobs. These findings can be partially explained by differences in the perceived resources offered by jobs.
    Keywords: burnout, labour market, job search, job preference, factorial survey experiment
    JEL: J62 I12 C91 C83
    Date: 2022–01
  26. By: Fullard, Joshua
    Abstract: Using new survey data of teachers in England we investigate the propensity for teachers to consent to data linkage, differences by observable characteristics and the effect of a randomly assigned information intervention. We find that consent rates are high (75 percent), possibly due to the relationship between participating schools and the research team, but observe differences by ethnicity, sex, and sector - teachers from a non-white background, male teachers and those who work in the independent sector are significantly less likely to consent. While we find that the provision of additional information does not increase consent to data linkage our heterogeneity analysis shows that the information treatment has a large, positive, effect on teachers who work in the independent sector – a subgroup of teachers who have a significantly lower rate of consent.
    Date: 2022–01–21
  27. By: Gianluca Grimalda (Kiel Institute for the World Economy; Centre for Global Cooperation Research, University of Duisburg-Essen; Jaume I University); Fabrice Murtin (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)); David Pipke (Kiel Institute for the World Economy); Louis Putterman (Brown University); Matthias Sutter (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, University of Cologne, University of Innsbruck, IZA, and CESifo)
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between political attitudes and prosociality in a survey of a representative sample of the U.S. population during the first summer of the COVID-19 pandemic. We find that an experimental measure of prosociality correlates positively with adherence to protective behaviors. Liberal political ideology predicts higher levels of protective behavior than conservative ideology, independently of the differences in prosociality across the two groups. Differences between liberals and conservatives are up to 4.4 times smaller in their behavior than in judging the government’s crisis management. This result suggests that U.S. Americans are more polarized on ideological than behavioral grounds.
    Keywords: Polarization, Ideology, Trust in politicians, COVID-19, Prosociality, Health behavior, Worries
    JEL: D01 D72 D91 I12 I18 H11 H12
    Date: 2022–01–20
  28. By: Moe Skjølsvold, Tomas (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Berge, Erling (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Bjørnstad, Sverre (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Wiig, Henrik (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: This paper originates from a series of “trust games” performed in Malawi during the summer of 2007. The results from the games are interpreted as pure stylized cases of a social dilemma. Some dilemmas, such as the prisoner’s dilemma, are more difficult to resolve than others. These are also called social traps. A group encountering a social trap can resolve it to the advantage of the group only by cooperation. The experiments were conducted in 18 villages, 6 from each of the 3 regions North, Centre, and South. Fifteen households from each village participated in the study. These were first interviewed, and later one person from each household was selected to play a trust game against another representative from the village. We lost a total of 3 players resulting in game results from 267 trust games. The interviews were analysed separately and provided the material for the construction of indexes by factor analysis (Berge et al. 2020a). The paper discusses the problems encountered in using this type of experiments. Economists specializing in experiments like this will often presume that results from a trust game are a good measure of general trust. The analysis of our data suggests that the game results measure actions. Actions that can be interpreted as demonstrating trust, but not trust as such. The trust games played are constructed as a social trap. The analysis of the data suggests that there is correlation between living in a village imbued by a culture of cooperation and the ability to avoid stepping into the trap in the game. All villages seem to be characterized by a culture of cooperation. Hence all players on average earn by participating in the game. But we also see that just as the theory predicts, the ego-centred players in a village with a high level of cooperation are the players who earn the most. By constructing indexes that characterize the context of each player we see that the ego-centred player earns most in villages located closer to an urban centre and where trust in relatives and family members are strongest. The winnings are somewhat less where trust in traditional authorities is stronger. The outcomes for these general relations are modified by the fact that the impact of the indexes is different in the different regions South, Centre, and North.
    Keywords: Malawi; trust game; villages; factor indexes
    JEL: C72 C93 Z13
    Date: 2022–01–19
  29. By: Britta Augsburg (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Bet Caeyers (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Sara Giunti (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Bansi Malde (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Kent); Susanna Smets (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: Imperfect capital markets and commitment problems impede lumpy human capital investments. Labelled loans can alleviate both constraints, but little is known about their effectiveness in practice. We draw on a cluster randomized controlled trial in rural India to provide the first evidence that labelled microcredit is effective in increasing take-up of a lumpy human capital investment, a safe toilet. Testing predictions from a theoretical model provides novel evidence that loan labels influence household borrowing and investment decisions. Not all loans are used for sanitation investments, suggesting that loan labels offer a soft commitment incentive.
    Date: 2021–04–27
  30. By: Carlo Koos; Richard Traunmüller
    Abstract: Wartime sexual violence is widespread across conflict zones and thought to leave a disastrous legacy for survivors, communities, and nations. Yet, systematic studies on i) the prevalence and ii) the social and political consequences of wartime sexual violence are fraught with severe data limitations. Based on individual-level survey evidence from three conflict-affected populations in Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, and Sri Lanka, we make two contributions.
    Keywords: Wartime sexual violence, List experiment, Post-conflict, Civic participation, Ethnic relations, Trust, War, Violence
    Date: 2022
  31. By: Aurelie Dariel; Nikos Nikiforakis; Jan Stoop (Division of Social Science)
    Abstract: Evidence from behavioral experiments with volunteer samples suggests that there exists a substantial gap in the willingness of men and women to compete. We ask whether a similar gap can be found in a population of economics majors – a population of interest as questions loom regarding the reasons for the underrepresentation of women in economics. We find a substantial gender gap in competitiveness – as well as in risk attitudes – among economics majors. We also find that self-selection into the lab causes us to overestimate this gap among volunteers by a factor of 2 to 3 depending on the econometric model.
    Date: 2022–01
  32. By: Philipp Lergetporer (Technical University of Munich and ifo Institute; CESifo); Ludger Woessmann (University of Munich and ifo Institute; Hoover Institution, Stanford University; CESifo, IZA, and CAGE)
    Abstract: We show that the electorate’s preferences for using tuition to finance higher education strongly depend on the design of the payment scheme. In representative surveys of the German electorate (N>18,000), experimentally replacing regular upfront by deferred income-contingent payments increases public support for tuition by 18 percentage points. The treatment turns a plurality opposed to tuition into a strong majority of 62 percent in favor. Additional experiments reveal that the treatment effect similarly shows when framed as loan repayments, when answers carry political consequences, and in a survey of adolescents. Reduced fairness concerns and improved student situations act as strong mediators.
    Keywords: tuition; higher education finance; income-contingent loans; voting.
    JEL: H52 I22 D72
    Date: 2022–02
  33. By: Britta Augsburg (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Antonella Bancalari (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of St. Andrews); Zara Durrani (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Madhav Vaidyanathan (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Zach White (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: We implement a mixed method approach that combines a randomized controlled trial and qualitative data collection to assess whether, and if so how, behavioural change can be sustained. We do so in the context of Pakistan’s national sanitation strategy to combat open defecation, Community-Led Total Sanitation. Our findings demonstrate that continued follow-up activities, that build on the original intervention, reduced reversal to unsafe sanitation, but only where initial conditions are unfavourable —i.e. poor public infrastructure and low-quality sanitation facilities. Promotion efforts are hence best targeted towards those that face larger difficulties in constructing and maintaining high quality sanitation.
    Date: 2021–12–03
  34. By: Paola Bertoli; Veronica Grembi; Massimo Morelli; Anna Rosso
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effects of statistical information on the propensity to favor a specific group of recipients when allocating a scarce public resource. We refer to scarce resource with reference to the COVID-19 emergency: allocation of the first round of vaccine and the allocation of financial resources provided by the Italian national government to fight the economic emergency triggered by the pandemic. Randomly allocating the information through an online experiment, we show that treated respondents tend to prioritize the group targeted by the information, and they are more likely to do so if they are "in the middle", in terms of age, political preferences, religiosity and education.
    Keywords: Sensitivity to Information, Beliefs Update, Scarce Resources Distribution
    JEL: D70 D80 D83
    Date: 2021
  35. By: Miwa Nakai; Majah-Leah V. Ravago; Yoichi Miyaoka; Kiyoshi Saito; Toshi. H Arimura
    Abstract: In this paper, we aim to examine consumer behaviour concerning energy-efficient appliances in the context of a developing country. As a case study, we use the Philippines, one of the earliest countries in Southeast Asia to introduce appliance test standards. We conducted face-to-face surveys of potential purchasers of air conditioners (ACs) in Metropolitan Manila, where the percentage of AC owners has increased as a result of economic growth. The survey includes choice experiment questions to estimate preferences for AC attributes, including purchase price, additional functions, country of manufacturer and energy efficiency information. In addition, we examine the types of information on eco labels that encourage consumers to choose an energy-efficient AC, including the default option of an energy efficiency ratio, estimated cost per hour or an energy star rating. Our choice experiment analysis reveals that energy-efficient ACs made by domestic manufacturers with smart functions are more likely to be chosen by consumers. We find that the probability of an energy-efficient AC being chosen can be increased by approximately 15% if the eco label uses an energy star rating rather than an energy efficiency ratio.
    Date: 2022–01
  36. By: Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Baye, Kaleab; de Brauw, Alan; Hirvonen, Kalle; Wolle, Abdulazize
    Abstract: Poor diet quality has been widely identified as a primary reason for malnutrition and the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Low consumption of fruits and vegetables contributes to poor diet quality, and one factor leading to low fruit and vegetable consumption is limited consumer awareness of the health and nutrition benefits of consumption. In this study, we experimentally assess a method of increasing consumer awareness, specifically, through showing households two different versions of a video embedded with messages about increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. The first video included just the basic recommended consumption behavior messages, while the second video also explained why and how fruit and vegetable consumption could improve health and nutrition outcomes. Even four months after viewing the video, average household consumption of fruits and vegetables increased by about 10 percent in both treatment groups relative to the control group, both in kilocalorie and consumption expenditure terms. The videos were developed to eventually show on national TV, suggesting that embedding dietary BCC messages in popular media can have positive impacts on diet quality at scale.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; diet; fruit; vegetables; urban areas; malnutrition; consumer education; nutrition education; videos; behavior change communication; diet quality
    Date: 2021
  37. By: Anders Dugstad; Kristine Grimsrud (Statistics Norway); Gorm Kipperberg; Henrik Lindhjem; Ståle Navrud
    Abstract: Economists have neglected place attachment as a potential explanation for people’s preferences for environmental goods. We conducted the first discrete choice experiment to assess the place attachment concept in the valuation of and response to the place-specific environmental impact from a proposed wind farm in Norway. Place attachment increases required compensation for accepting the wind farm, strengthens resistance, and leads to a higher propensity to systematically choose the status quo option of no wind farm in the discrete choice experiment. This finding suggests that the so-called “not-in-my-backyard” (NIMBY) effect should be recognized as a rational response when people place a high value on local environmental amenities, including place identity and a sense of place.
    Keywords: Place attachment; sense of place; NIMBY (not-in-my-backyard); discrete choice experiment; cultural ecosystem services; wind energy
    JEL: Q40 Q51 Q57
    Date: 2022–01
  38. By: David L. Dickinson
    Abstract: Previous research has identified importance differences in key life outcomes between political conservatives and liberals (e.g., happiness, academic success, involvement in crime). Potential mechanisms suggested in the literature have included self-control or personality traits that may systematically differ by political ideology. We preregistered plans to test for “dark” personality trait and self-control differences in political conservatives and liberals, with aims to replicate previously reported findings. We also examined differences in cognitive reflection style and emotion regulation. Three survey waves were obtained from an initial pool of U.S. participants (n=650 initial respondents, n=498 in Wave 2, n=402 in Wave 3) split roughly equally across political conservatives and liberals. We report a consistent null effect of political ideology on selfcontrol, and dark personality traits, in contrast to previous studies. Our data show higher cognitive reflection tendencies among those who are more politically liberal, consistent with past research. However, we report a previously unidentified difference emotional regulation styles, with conservatives reporting a healthier approach to emotion regulation via cognitive reappraisal strategies. Finally, a common mood elicitation in each of the three studies consistently reveals significantly more negative mood states among political liberals. Together, these findings suggest that mood and mood regulation may be a more important mechanism towards understanding preferred outcome differences in conservatives compared to liberals. Key Words: self-control, political ideology, individual differences, mood regulation, dark personality
    Date: 2022

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.