nep-evo New Economics Papers
on Evolutionary Economics
Issue of 2022‒03‒21
six papers chosen by
Matthew Baker
City University of New York

  1. The Shadow of the Neolithic Revolution on Life Expectancy: A Double-Edged Sword By Oded Galor; Omer Moav; Ömer Özak
  2. Evolutionary Transformation of the Global System and the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Search for a New Development Trajectory By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  3. Four levers of reciprocity across human societies: concepts, analysis and predictions By Lehmann, Laurent; Powers, Simon T.; van Schaik, Carel P.
  4. Introduction to the special issue on Behavioral and Experimental Economics for Policy Making By Marie Claire Villeval
  5. Comparing data gathered in an online and a laboratory experiment using the Trustlab platform By Nobuyuki Hanaki; Takayuki Hoshino; Kohei Kubota; Fabrice Murtin; Masao Ogaki; Fumio Ohtake; Naoko Okuyama
  6. Impact of COVID-19 Crisis, Global Transformation Approaches and Emerging Organisational Adaptations: Towards a Restructured Evolutionary Perspective By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos

  1. By: Oded Galor (Brown University); Omer Moav (University of Warwick); Ömer Özak (Southern Methodist University)
    Abstract: This research explores the persistent effect of the Neolithic Revolution on the evolution of life expectancy in the course of human history. It advances the hypothesis and establishes empirically that the onset of the Neolithic Revolution and the associated rise in infectious diseases triggered a process of adaptation reducing mortality from infectious diseases while increasing the propensity for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Exploiting an exogenous source of variation in the timing of the Neolithic Revolution across French regions, the analysis establishes the presence of these conflicting forces - the beneficial effects on life expectancy before the second epidemiological transition and their adverse effects thereafter.
    Keywords: Life Expectancy, Health, Mortality, Neolithic Revolution, Epidemiological Transition, Infectious Disease, Auto-immune Disease, Diabetes, Crohn's Disease, HIV, COVID-19
    JEL: I10 I15 J10 N00 N30 O10 O33 Z10
    Date: 2022–03
  2. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this study, we aim to determine how the global turmoil of COVID-19 acts as a catalyst for global transformations. After examining recent sociological and economic implications of this pandemic crisis, we analyse specific theoretical frameworks that can be helpful to illuminate some of the features of the current global evolutionary readjustment from an elliptic point of view. These theoretical approaches are the techno-economic paradigm shift, the notion of ‘endless transition’, the fourth industrial revolution analytical framework, and the approach of ‘new globalisation’. Finally, we identify that the current pandemic crisis has caused a ‘stroke’ to the world economy that accelerates developments and radically intensifies the pre-existing challenges. Especially for the less developed, stable, and resilient socio-economic systems and organisations (the case study of Cyprus is examined, respectively), we conclude that their survival and growth depends primarily upon their potential for adaptiveness, innovation, and on building efficient change management aptitudes and mechanisms.
    Keywords: evolutionary global transformation; COVID-19 pandemic; economic development; techno-economic paradigm shift; endless transition; fourth industrial revolution; new globalisation; Cypriot socio-economic system; adaptiveness; change management
    JEL: B52 F63 F69 M19 O10
    Date: 2021–11–16
  3. By: Lehmann, Laurent; Powers, Simon T.; van Schaik, Carel P.
    Abstract: This paper surveys five human societal types -- mobile foragers, horticulturalists, pre-state agriculturalists, state-based agriculturalists, and liberal democracies -- from the perspective of three core social problems faced by interacting individuals: coordination problems, social dilemmas, and contest problems. We characterize the occurrence of these problems in the different societal types and enquire into the main force keeping societies together given the prevalence of these. To address this, we consider the social problems in light of the theory of repeated games, and delineate the role of intertemporal incentives in sustaining cooperative behaviour through the reciprocity principle. We analyze the population, economic and political structural features of the five societal types, and show that intertemporal incentives have been adapted to the changes in scope and scale of the core social problems as societies grew in size. In all societies, reciprocity mechanisms appear to solve the social problems by enabling lifetime direct benefits to individuals for cooperation. Our analysis leads us to predict that as societies increase in complexity, they need more of the following four features to enable the scalability and adaptability of the reciprocity principle: nested grouping, decentralized enforcement and local information, centralized enforcement and coercive power, and formal rules.
    Date: 2022–02–18
  4. By: Marie Claire Villeval (GATE - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENS LSH - Ecole Normale Supérieure Lettres et Sciences Humaines - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Nobuyuki Hanaki; Takayuki Hoshino; Kohei Kubota; Fabrice Murtin; Masao Ogaki; Fumio Ohtake; Naoko Okuyama
    Abstract: This paper compares the results of an experiment conducted both in the laboratory and online with participants recruited from the same subject pool using the Trustlab platform. This platform has been used to obtain incentivized and internationally comparable behavioral economics measures of altruism, cooperation, reciprocity, trust, and trustworthiness, employing representative samples in many countries. We find no significant difference between the results from sessions conducted in the laboratory and online. While the existing literature shows that the choice between laboratory and online experiments can cause differences in results in some cases, our findings support the hypothesis that they do not cause differences in the behavioral economics measures when using the Trustlab platform.
    Date: 2022–03
  6. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The pandemic crisis of COVID-19, despite its unforeseen and explosive spread, constitutes a structural disturbance of global socio-economic balances. Through the fourth industrial revolution and amid the unexpected and profound recessionary economic pressures on a global scale, our world is heading towards a “new globalisation.” Exploring the economic and social implications of the COVID-19 crisis through several theoretical tools for interpreting the current global transformation, we conclude that the global economy is facing a severe threat. A renewed evolutionary theoretical interpretation seems imperative, and any perseverance to simplified and strictly fragmentary past approaches can only be ineffective. In this context, the long-term and sustainable exit of this crisis seems to require multiform organisational adaptations, at all levels of operation and by all actors, that can come only with the joint dynamics of innovation and effective change management.
    Keywords: COVID-19; organisational adaptation; innovation; evolutionary economics; digital transformation; new globalisation; change management
    JEL: B52 F69 M19 O30
    Date: 2021–12–01

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