nep-eur New Economics Papers
on Microeconomic European Issues
Issue of 2022‒06‒13
24 papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia

  1. Italy: No country for highly educated immigrant workers By d'Agostino, Giorgio; Pieroni, Luca; Scarlato, Margherita
  2. Accounting for Firms in Ethnicity Wage Gaps throughout the Earnings Distribution By Phan, Van; Singleton, Carl; Bryson, Alex; Forth, John; Ritchie, Felix; Stokes, Lucy; Whittard, Damian
  3. Monopsony Makes Firms Not Only Small but Also Unproductive: Why East Germany Has Not Converged By Bachmann, Rüdiger; Bayer, Christian; Stüber, Heiko; Wellschmied, Felix
  4. Inequality of Opportunity in Educational Achievement in Western Europe: contributors and channels By Gustavo A. Marrero; Juan C. Palomino; Gabriela Sicilia
  5. Does Your Doctor Matter? Doctor Quality and Patient Outcomes By Ginja, Rita; Riise, Julie; Willage, Barton; Willén, Alexander
  6. Gender Effects of the Covid-19 Pandemic in the Swiss Labor Market By Dubois, Corinne; Lambertini, Luisa; Wu, Yu
  7. The Full Returns to the Choice of Occupation and Education By Clark, Andrew E.; Cotofan, Maria; Layard, Richard
  8. A european equivalence scale for public in-kind transfers By Rolf Aaberge; Audun Langørgen; Petter Y. Lindgren
  9. Do Temporary Help Agencies Help? Temporary Employment Transitions for Low-Skilled Workers By Raquel Carrasco; Ismael Gálvez-Iniesta; Belén Jerez
  10. The impact of mental health support for the chronically ill on hospital utilisation: evidence from the UK By Jonathan Gruber; Grace Lordan; Stephen Pilling; Carol Propper; Rob Saunders
  11. Gender Gaps in Early Wage Expectations By Leibing, Andreas; Peter, Frauke; Waights, Sevrin; Spieß, C. Katharina
  12. Pandemic Depression: COVID-19 and the Mental Health of the Self-Employed By Marco Caliendo; Daniel Graeber; Alexander S. Kritikos; Johannes Seebauer
  13. Does Money Change Who You Are? Quasi-Experimental Evidence on the Effects of Wage Increases on Personality By Ayaita, Adam
  14. The Benefits of Early Work Experience for School Dropouts: Evidence from a Field Experiment By Jérémy Hervelin; Pierre Villedieu
  15. Inequality within Generation: Evidence from France By Hippolyte d'Albis; Ikpidi Badji
  16. Do public scholarships crowd out parental transfers? Evidence from France By Sébastien Grobon; François-Charles Wolff
  17. The Third Mission in the Academic Profession: Empirical Insights into Academic Identities By Püttmann, Vitus; Thomsen, Stephan L.
  18. Understanding the positive effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on women’s fertility in Norway By Trude Lappegård; Tom Kornstad; Lars Dommermuth; Axel Peter Kristensen
  19. Perceived Returns to Job Search By Adams-Prassl, Abigail; Boneva, Teodora; Golin, Marta; Rauh, Christopher
  20. Which Policies for Vaccine Innovation and Delivery in Europe ? By Mathias Dewatripont
  21. Precarious employment in Greece: economic crisis, labour market flexibilisation, and vulnerable workers By Livianos, Ilios; Tzika, Evi
  22. The short-term effect of the COVID-19 crisis on employment probabilities of labour-market entrants in the Netherlands By Henri Bussink; Tobias Vervliet; Bas ter Weel
  23. The Value of Leisure Synchronization By Georges-Kot, Simon; Goux, Dominique; Maurin, Eric
  24. Measuring Universality in Social Protection: a pilot study for Spain By ARRANZ-MUÑOZ José-María; GARCÍA-SERRANO Carlos; HERNANZ Virginia

  1. By: d'Agostino, Giorgio; Pieroni, Luca; Scarlato, Margherita
    Abstract: This paper estimates the returns of education on the first generation of immigrants in Italy and measures the education pay gap between immigrants and natives. The analysis, drawn on two comparable cross-sectional surveys conducted by the Italian Institute of Statistics in 2009, shows that an immigrant with a tertiary education degree has a 20% increase in hourly wage compared to immigrant workers with a postsecondary education degree. The absence of a legal recognition of the education degree does not produce any return to education for the immigrants. Relevant differences in educational returns are found between immigrants and natives, with an education wage gap of approximately 61%. These results shed new light on the two channels that may contribute to the wage gap between highly educated immigrants and natives in Italy. The first channel moves behind the heterogeneity of highly educated immigrants with respect to their education quality and comparability and on relevant differences in the formal process of recognition of the education degree. The second channel is linked to the job mismatch of the immigrant workforce.
    Keywords: Immigrant pay gap, High education, Overeducation
    JEL: J15 J24 J31
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Phan, Van (University of the West of England, Bristol); Singleton, Carl (University of Reading); Bryson, Alex (University College London); Forth, John (Cass Business School); Ritchie, Felix (University of the West of England, Bristol); Stokes, Lucy (National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR)); Whittard, Damian (University of the West of England, Bristol)
    Abstract: Ethnicity wage gaps in Great Britain are large and have persisted over time. Previous studies of these gaps have been almost exclusively confined to analyses of household data, so they could not account for the role played by individual employers, despite growing evidence of their wage-setting power. We study ethnicity wage gaps using high quality employer-employee payroll data on jobs, hours, and earnings, linked with the personal and family characteristics of workers from the national census for England and Wales. We show that firm-specific wage effects account for sizeable parts of the estimated differences between the wages of white and ethnic minority workers at the mean and other points in the wage distribution, which would otherwise mostly have been attributed to differences in individual worker attributes, such as education levels, occupations, and locations. Nevertheless, there are substantial gaps between the wage structures of white and ethnic minority employees which cannot be accounted for by who people work for or other attributes, especially among higher earners.
    Keywords: decomposition methods, unconditional quantile regression, employer-employee data, UK labour market
    JEL: J31 J7 J71
    Date: 2022–05
  3. By: Bachmann, Rüdiger (University of Notre Dame); Bayer, Christian (University of Bonn); Stüber, Heiko (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg); Wellschmied, Felix (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
    Abstract: When employers face a trade-off between growing large and paying low wages—that is, when they have monopsony power—some productive employers will decide to acquire fewer customers, forgo sales, and remain small. These decisions have adverse consequences for aggregate labor productivity. Using high-quality administrative data from Germany, we document that East German plants (compared to West German ones) face a steeper size-wage curve, invest less into marketing, and remain smaller. A model with labor market monopsony, product market power, and customer acquisition matching these features of the data predicts 10 percent lower aggregate labor productivity in East Germany.
    Keywords: aggregate productivity, plant heterogeneity, unions, monopsony power, size-wage curve, monopolistic competition, customer capital, size distortions
    JEL: E20 E23 E24 J20 J42 J50
    Date: 2022–05
  4. By: Gustavo A. Marrero (Universidad de La Laguna); Juan C. Palomino (University of Oxford); Gabriela Sicilia (Universidad de La Laguna)
    Abstract: Evidence on inequality of opportunity in terms of educational achievement (IOpE) has not yet explored the relevance of different contributors and channels. Using the latest microdata from the 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment, we find that IOpE accounts, on average, for 32% of total educational inequality in Western Europe, with substantial variation across countries. Differences in households’ cultural environment and in parental occupation are the most important contributors, with school’s characteristics being also relevant in Central Europe. We then estimate for the first time the role of channelling variables in translating differences in circumstances into different educational achievement. In most countries, students’ educational and occupational expectations, their reading habits and skills, and the repetition of previous courses are the most influential channels. These findings provide policymakers with key insights to design educational interventions to effectively increase educational -and, ultimately, social- opportunities across European countries.
    Keywords: Education systems, Inequality of opportunity, Channels of transmission, Western Europe
    JEL: D63 I24 I28 O52
    Date: 2022–05
  5. By: Ginja, Rita (University of Bergen); Riise, Julie (University of Bergen); Willage, Barton (University of Colorado, Denver); Willén, Alexander (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: We estimate doctor value-added and provide evidence on the distribution of physician quality in an entire country, combining rich population-wide register data with random assignment of patients to general practitioners (GPs). We show that there is substantial variation in the quality of physicians, as measured by patients’ post-assignment mortality, in the primary care sector. Specifically, a one standard deviation increase in doctor quality is associated with a 12.2percentage point decline in a patient’s two-year mortality risk. While we find evidence of observable doctor characteristics and practice styles influencing a GP’s value-added, a standard decomposition exercise reveals that most of the quality variation is driven by unobserved differences across doctors. Finally, we show that patients are unable to identify who the highquality doctors are, and that patient-generated GP ratings are uncorrelated with GP value-added. Using a lower bound of the predicted value of an additional life year in Norway ($35,000), our results demonstrate that replacing the worst performing GPs (bottom 5 percent of the VA distribution) with GPs of average quality generates a social benefit of $27,417 per patient, $9.05 million per GP, or $934 million in total. At the same time, our results show that higher-quality GPs are associated with a lower per-patient cost.
    Keywords: Value-added; health behaviors; mortality rate
    JEL: H75 I11 I14 J18
    Date: 2022–06–05
  6. By: Dubois, Corinne (Department of Economics); Lambertini, Luisa (EPFL); Wu, Yu (EPFL)
    Abstract: We study the impact of the pandemic on gender gaps in labor market outcomes in Switzerland. Using the Swiss labor force survey data, we document a significant increase in the gender gap in labor market participation. We find no evidence of a worsening of unemployment gender gap during the pandemic but we find a large gender gap in being on STW, a government policy that subsidizes wage payments for employees whose hours are cut at companies in temporary distress. Unlike the United States, the presence of children in the household did not worsen labor gender gaps. Sector and occupation, however, play an important role in explaining gender gaps. In particular, we document substantial heterogeneity in the effect of the pandemic on participation, STW, hours worked, and wage outcomes depending on the availability of telework in the respondent’s occupation.
    Keywords: Covid-19; labor market inequality; labor market policies; gender gaps.
    JEL: E24 J01 J08 J21
    Date: 2022–05–20
  7. By: Clark, Andrew E. (Paris School of Economics); Cotofan, Maria (CEP, London School of Economics); Layard, Richard (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: Information on both earnings and non-pecuniary rewards is needed to understand the occupational dispersion of wellbeing. We analyse subjective wellbeing in a large UK sample to construct a measure of "full earnings", the sum of earnings and the value of non-pecuniary rewards, in 90 different occupations. Labour-market inequality is underestimated: the dispersion of full earnings is one-third larger than the dispersion of earnings. Equally, the gender and ethnic gaps in the labour market are larger than those in earnings alone, and the full returns to education on the labour market are underestimated. These results are similar in data on US workers. In neither cross-section nor panel data do we find evidence of compensating differentials.
    Keywords: occupation, wages, non-pecuniary benefits, inequality
    JEL: I31 J31
    Date: 2022–05
  8. By: Rolf Aaberge; Audun Langørgen; Petter Y. Lindgren (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: This paper introduces a theory-based equivalence scale for public in-kind transfers, which justifies comparison of distributions of extended income (cash income plus the value of public services) between European countries. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed equivalence scale in an empirical analysis of the effects of public health care, long-term care, education and childcare expenditure on estimates of income inequality and poverty for 24 European countries. The empirical results show significant effects of public in-kind transfers on the level of income inequality and poverty for all countries. Over the period 2006–2018, inequality and poverty estimates display rather different trends across European countries.
    Keywords: Income distribution; poverty; equivalence scales; needs adjustment; public services; inkind transfers
    JEL: D30 H40 I30
    Date: 2022–05
  9. By: Raquel Carrasco; Ismael Gálvez-Iniesta; Belén Jerez
    Abstract: We investigate how being employed by a Temporary Help Agency (THA) affects transition rates to alternative labor market states for low-skilled workers. Our approach is based on the estimation of competing risk discrete duration models, and reveals the importance of accounting for short duration dependence. We use Spanish administrative data for the period 2005-2017. We find that having a THA contract rather than a direct-hire temporary contract increases the probability of entering into unemployment or another agency job at all durations.
  10. By: Jonathan Gruber; Grace Lordan; Stephen Pilling; Carol Propper; Rob Saunders
    Abstract: Individuals with common mental disorders (CMDs) such as depression and anxiety frequently have co-occurring long-term physical health conditions (LTCs) and this co-occurrence is associated with higher hospital utilisation. Psychological treatment for CMDs may reduce healthcare utilisation through better management of the LTC, but there is little previous research. We examined the impact of psychological treatment delivered under the nationwide Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme in England on hospital utilisation 12-months after the end of IAPT treatment. We examined three types of hospital utilisation: Inpatient treatment, Outpatient treatment and Emergency room attendance. We examined individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (n=816), Diabetes (n=2813) or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (n=4115) who received psychological treatment between April 2014 and March 2016. IAPT episode data was linked to hospital utilisation data which went up March 2017. Changes in the probability of hospital utilisation were compared to a matched control sample for each LTC. Individuals in the control sample received IAPT treatment between April 2017 and March 2018. Compared to the control sample, the treated sample had significant reductions in the probability of all three types of hospital utilisation, for all three LTCs 12-months after the end of IAPT treatment. Reductions in utilisation of Emergency Room, Outpatient and non-elective Inpatient treatment were also observed immediately following the end of psychological treatment, and 6-months after, for individuals with diabetes and CVD, compared to the matched sample. These findings suggest that psychological interventions for CMDs delivered to individuals with co-occurring long-term chronic conditions may reduce the probability of utilisation of hospital services. Our results support the roll-out of psychological treatment aimed at individuals who have co-occurring common mental disorders and long-term chronic conditions.
    Keywords: depression, hospital utilisation, psychological interventions, chronic conditions
    Date: 2022–12
  11. By: Leibing, Andreas (DIW Berlin); Peter, Frauke (DZHW-German Centre for Research on Higher Education and Science Studies); Waights, Sevrin (DIW Berlin); Spieß, C. Katharina (Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung (BiB))
    Abstract: Using detailed data from a unique survey of high school graduates in Germany, we document a gender gap in expected full-time earnings of more than 15%. We apply a regression-compatible Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition and find that especially differences in coefficients help explain the gap. In particular, the effects of having time for family as career motive and being first-generation college student are associated with large penalties in female wage expectations exclusively. This is especially true for higher expected career paths. Resulting expected returns to education are associated with college enrollment of women and could thus entrench subsequent gaps in realized earnings.
    Keywords: wage expectations, gender gap, college enrollment
    JEL: I26 J31 D84
    Date: 2022–05
  12. By: Marco Caliendo (University of Potsdam, IZA Bonn, DIW Berlin, IAB Nuremberg); Daniel Graeber (DIW Berlin, University of Potsdam); Alexander S. Kritikos (DIW Berlin, University of Potsdam, IAB Nuremberg, IZA Bonn); Johannes Seebauer (DIW Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin)
    Abstract: We investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on self-employed people’s mental health. Using representative longitudinal survey data from Germany, we reveal differential effects by gender: whereas self-employed women experienced a substantial deterioration in their mental health, self-employed men displayed no significant changes up to early 2021. Financial losses are important in explaining these differences. In addition, we find larger mental health responses among self-employed women who were directly affected by government-imposed restrictions and bore an increased childcare burden due to school and daycare closures. We also find that self-employed individuals who are more resilient coped better with the crisis.
    Keywords: self-employment, COVID-19, mental health, gender, representative longitudinal survey data, PHQ-4 score, resilience
    JEL: L26 D31 I14 I18 J16
    Date: 2022–05
  13. By: Ayaita, Adam
    Abstract: Using the 2015 introduction of a statutory minimum wage in Germany as a quasi-experiment, I investigate the effects of wage increases on personality. The degree to which each worker’s wage is affected by the reform is used as an instrument for the increase in hourly wage in a two-stage least squares estimation based on nationally representative panel data. The results show that wage increases have a positive effect on the trait of openness. An analysis of potential mechanisms indicates that the result is likely to be driven by an increase in monthly earnings rather than a change in working hours.
    Keywords: income,minimum wage,money,personality,quasi-experiment,wage
    JEL: A12 D31 D63 J31 J38
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Jérémy Hervelin (CY - CY Cergy Paris Université, THEMA - Théorie économique, modélisation et applications - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université); Pierre Villedieu (Sciences Po - Sciences Po, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether work experience gained through a subsidized job program can improve the employment prospects of young school dropouts. Relying on a correspondence study field experiment conducted in France, we find that the chances to be invited for a job interview are more than doubled (from 7.6 percent to 19.3 percent) when youths signal a one-year job-related experience in their résumé - either in the private or public sector; either certified or not - compared to youths who remained mainly inactive after dropping out from high school. We show that this effect is fairly stable across firm, contract or labor market characteristics, and also when testing another channel of application where resumes were sent spontaneously to firms.
    Keywords: School dropouts,Work experience,Subsidized employment,Job Interview,Field experiment
    Date: 2022–03–24
  15. By: Hippolyte d'Albis (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Ikpidi Badji (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Intra-generational inequalities focus on the distributions within age groups. On the basis of French household income surveys carried out from 1996 to 2014, the Gini coefficient and D9/D1 inter-decile ratio were calculated so as to evaluate intra-generational income inequality before and after redistribution by the tax and welfare system. Age-Cohort-Period models were then estimated in order to disentangle age and generation effects. Over a life cycle, intra-generational inequality displays a hump-shaped curve peaking at age 55-59. This inequality is significantly lower among the youngest, whichever inequality indicator is used, and among the oldest, when measured by the inter-decile ratio. Comparison of pre-and postredistribution income reveals that the tax and welfare system particularly reduces inequality among the young. Intra-generational inequality measured by the Gini coefficient increases significantly from one generation to the next. Measured by the inter-decile ratio, the increase is considerable for the gross income of those generations born from the 1970s on. However, the tax and welfare system has compensated for this increase, because analysis of the interdecile ratio applied to disposable income shows no significant difference between generations.
    Keywords: income inequality,age groups,generations,Age-Cohort-Period model
    Date: 2022–03
  16. By: Sébastien Grobon (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne & DARES); François-Charles Wolff (LEMNA, université de Nantes & TEPP)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the extent to which means-tested scholarships received by higher education students in France crowd out parental financial support. We estimate a private transfer function using survey data completed in 2014 on a sample of students aged between 18 and 24. When introducing the amount of public scholarship as exogenous covariate, we find that one additional euro of scholarship is associated with a decrease in private transfers of 0.40-0.50 euros. We also consider an instrumental variable strategy which exploits the non-linear schedule of the scholarship amount and find a larger effect with a decrease of 0.50-0.65 euros. Overall, our results suggest that a substantial part of student scholarship benefits low-income parents through a reduction in the money they give to their student children
    Keywords: public scholarship; students; parental transfers; crowding-out effect; altruism
    JEL: D64 I2 I3 J13 D10
    Date: 2022–03
  17. By: Püttmann, Vitus (Leibniz University of Hannover); Thomsen, Stephan L. (Leibniz University of Hannover)
    Abstract: In line with the growing relevance of higher education and science for societal development and innovation processes, there has been a steady increase in the salience of interrelations with the extra-academic environment in the context of academics' work. Insights into the status of this so-called third mission in the academic profession remain fragmented, however. We use the concept of an academic identity as an analytical lens to investigate this status empirically based on an original survey among 4,284 professors in Germany across the full range of academic disciplines. The results show that the third mission is firmly included in the academic identities of many, but not all, professors and that the forms of inclusion differ. Specifically, we are able to identify four types of identities: (1) the dedicated type who embraces the third mission as a whole; (2) the idealistic type who emphasizes responsibility toward society and sociopolitical matters; (3) the pragmatic type who emphasizes material work-related and personal benefits; and (4) the reserved type, characterized by an overall distanced stance. We furthermore find evidence of a strong impact of disciplinary communities on the specific types of identities that academics develop, whereas the organizational context and the cohorts to which academics belong appear less relevant. In addition, there are indications that individual characteristics shape the identity formation process. Last, there are strong and differential associations between academics' identities and their actual third mission engagement. Overall, it appears that the third mission—at least if its multifaceted nature is considered—is a relevant area of activity for a significant share of the academic profession.
    Keywords: third mission, knowledge transfer, continuing education, societal engagement, academic profession, academic identity, professor
    JEL: I23 O35 O36
    Date: 2022–05
  18. By: Trude Lappegård; Tom Kornstad; Lars Dommermuth (Statistics Norway); Axel Peter Kristensen
    Abstract: This study examines the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on fertility in Norway at the individual level. Studies using data at the macro level have found a positive short-term effect of the pandemic on fertility level in Norway, but women’s fertility response to the pandemic may differ depending on their life situation. We use the first lockdown on March 12, 2020 as a marker of the pandemic and apply a regression discontinuity design to compare births of women that were conceived before the pandemic started with those conceived during the first eight months of the pandemic. The positive effect on women’s fertility in Norway was mainly driven by women in life phases that have generally high fertility rates (women aged 28–35 years and women who already have children). These groups are likely to be in an economic and socially secure and stable situation in which the restrictions due to the pandemic had limited influence. Besides two exceptions, we do not find differences in the effect of the pandemic on childbearing by women’s work situation. This is most likely related to the strong welfare state and the generous additional pandemic-related measures taken by the Norwegian government.
    Keywords: Fertility; Demography; COVID-19; Regression discontinuity design
    JEL: J13 J11 I24
    Date: 2022–05
  19. By: Adams-Prassl, Abigail (University of Oxford); Boneva, Teodora (University of Bonn); Golin, Marta (University of Zurich); Rauh, Christopher (University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: In this paper we provide the first evidence on workers' perceptions of the returns to job search effort. The perceived job finding probability is nearly linear in hours searched and only slightly concave for most respondents. While workers are over-optimistic about the probability of receiving a job offer conditional on any search, they perceive the marginal return to additional search hours as positive but comparably low. Job seekers receiving an offer update their perceived returns upwards, while others' beliefs regress towards the direction of the mean. We find little evidence that the novel aspects of the pandemic recession have fundamentally changed workers' motivations for job search: that an existing job is expected to end or has unsatisfactory pay are the primary motives for on-the-job search. On the contrary, workers' ability to do their tasks from home is not a strong predictor of job search nor a significant motive for switching occupations.
    Keywords: job search, perceived returns, working from home, COVID-19, subjective beliefs, reservation wage
    JEL: J62 J64
    Date: 2022–05
  20. By: Mathias Dewatripont
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the subsequent steps of the covid vaccine experience in the European Union. It stresses the features of the US innovation ecosystem which were responsible for its success. It argues that the European Union did reasonably well in procuring vaccines and logistically organizing their delivery but that vaccine hesitancy proved to be a key constraint. The paper discusses European countries’ vaccination strategies and their plusses and minusses. Finally, it draws some lessons for dealing with the tradeoff between drug and vaccine innovation and affordability, an issue whose importance is bound to grow with promising but costly scientific advances.
    Keywords: vaccine innovation, covid-19, innovation ecosystem, vaccine hesitancy, drug prices, European health policy
    Date: 2022–05
  21. By: Livianos, Ilios; Tzika, Evi
    Abstract: The discourse on precarious employment has been growing over the last few years, particularly due to the recent financial crisis. Flexible forms of work, such as part-time or temporary, traditionally seen as a way for boosting employment, have now given way to a new form of work, the so-called precarious employment. Greece has been the European country mostly hit by the economic crisis and the levels of unemployment during the past decade have reached unprecedented levels. Nevertheless, the official levels of unemployment only tell a part of the story. Thousands of workers have been “forced” to accept jobs in positions that would not be their first choice, thus masking the real extent of the problem. This paper utilises data from the Labour Force Survey from both before and during the economic crisis in order to investigate different aspects of precarious employment and how these have been intensified. Ten measures of precarious employment are constructed covering six areas including a) contractual precariousness, b) unsociable hours precariousness c) institutional context precariousness d) income precariousness, e) insecurity precariousness and f) working conditions precariousness. The evolution and intensification of aspects of precarious employment is investigated at a country as well as regional level and across various groups of workers. The findings of the study point towards a continuous deterioration of the employment relationship with impacts on both the structures of the economy and targeted towards specific groups of workers.
    Keywords: precarious employment; involuntary employment; regional inequalities; gender equality; economic crisis; Hellenic Observatory
    JEL: J21 R12 R23
    Date: 2022–05
  22. By: Henri Bussink (SEO Economic Research); Tobias Vervliet (SEO Economic Research); Bas ter Weel (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: This research documents employment opportunities of labour-market entrants during the COVID-19 crisis in the Netherlands. Two recent cohorts of graduates are studied and compared to two pre-COVID-19 cohorts: the 2019 cohort was unexpectedly hit by the COVID-19 crisis about six months after entering the labour market and the 2020 cohort graduated and entered the labour market in the midst of a lockdown. Our estimation results suggest short-term effects of lockdowns on employment probabilities, specifically for relatively lower educated labour-market entrants. The effects appear to be relatively small in size and seem to fade when the lockdown measures are eased. Men seem to have suffered more than women and some sectors are hit harder than others, which could result in short-run mismatches. Overall the effects appear to be less severe than during an economic recession, which is most likely due to the tight labour market and the strong measures taken by the government to mitigate the labour-market impact of the COVID-19 crisis.
    Keywords: COVID-19 crisis, employment, young workers
    JEL: I24 J10 J23
    Date: 2022–04–25
  23. By: Georges-Kot, Simon (INSEE); Goux, Dominique (CREST-INSEE); Maurin, Eric (Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper explores the extent to which workers are willing to trade hours worked for leisure time shared with their spouse. This parameter is essential to properly assess contemporary trends in the regulation of work and leisure time. We use the fact that the number and timing of paid vacation days to which French employees are entitled vary in a quasi-random way, from year to year, along with the dates of public holidays. Self-employed workers do not benefit from public holidays but we show that a large fraction of them substitute a day of unpaid leisure for a day of paid work whenever their spouse gets an extra day of paid leave.
    Keywords: leisure, synchronization, public holidays
    JEL: J22 D13
    Date: 2022–04
  24. By: ARRANZ-MUÑOZ José-María; GARCÍA-SERRANO Carlos; HERNANZ Virginia
    Abstract: The aim of this report is to contribute to measure the universality of social protection in a European Union Member State using an approach set forth by Muñoz de Bustillo et al. (2020) based on metrics of coverage and adequacy. Based on the indications provided by the authors of the type of indicators that would be necessary for measuring coverage and adequacy of social protection programmes, we develop the operationalisation of the framework using relevant data and indicators for Spain with the idea that it can be extended to other Member States. The social protection dimensions covered are the following: unemployment benefits, pensions, social assistance and family benefits, health, education, and housing. We rely primarily on data coming from Eurostat, the OECD, and the WHO. We provide the structure of the system of indicators of universality, measure them in each dimension, and aggregate the indicators into a synthetic index. The report concludes with a set of considerations and recommendations arising from the measurement process carried out. It also includes reflections and proposals related to the concept of universality, the role of public provision of social protection, and data sources used and which other potential data series would be useful for measuring universality.
    Keywords: social protection, universality, coverage, adequacy, spain, unemployment benefits, pensions, social assistance and family benefits, health, education, housing
    Date: 2022–04

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