nep-eur New Economics Papers
on Microeconomic European Issues
Issue of 2022‒04‒25
25 papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia

  1. The link between migratory background and crime perceptions. A repeated cross-sectional analysis with household data By Bortoletto, Gianluca
  2. Intra-EU Migration, Public Transfers, and Assimilation: Evidence for the Netherlands By Suari-Andreu, Eduard; van Vliet, Olaf
  3. The UK’s global economic elite: a sociological analysis using tax data By Advani, Arun; Burgherr, David; Savage, Mike; Summers, Andrew
  4. Can Public Policy Increase Paternity Acknowledgment? Evidence from Earnings-Related Parental Leave By Raute, Anna; Weber, Andrea; Zudenkova, Galina
  5. Scarring Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Italian Labour Market By Fiaschi, Davide; Tealdi, Cristina
  6. Inequality and Income Dynamics in Germany By Drechsel-Grau, Moritz; Peichl, Andreas; Schmieden, Johannes; Schmid, Kai D.; Walz, Hannes; Wolter, Stefanie
  7. The Hidden Cost of Smoking: Rent Premia in the Housing Market By Cigdem Gedikli; Robert Hill; Oleksandr Talavera; Okan Yilmaz
  8. Working life and human capital investment By Gohl, Niklas; Haan, Peter; Kurz, Elisabeth; Weinhardt, Felix
  9. The true returns to the choice of occupation and education By Cotofan, Maria; Layard, Richard; Clark, Andrew E.
  10. Understanding the Reallocation of Displaced Workers to Firms By Brandily, Paul; Hémet, Camille; Malgouyres, Clément
  11. Age variations and population over-coverage: is low mortality among migrants merely a data artefact? By Wallace, Matthew; Wilson, Ben
  12. The Impact of Campaign Finance Rules on Candidate Selection and Electoral Outcomes: Evidence from France By Nikolaj Broberg; Vincent Pons; Clemence Tricaud
  13. The diffusion of robotic surgery: examining technology use in the English NHS By Maynou, Laia; Pearson, Georgia; McGuire, Alistair; Serra-Sastre, Victoria
  14. Commuting for crime By Kirchmaier, Thomas; Langella, Monica; Manning, Alan
  15. Ethnic Minority Background and Personality Characteristics: Evidence from a Representative Sample of the Adult Population By Ayaita, Adam
  16. The Influence of Cousin Order and Cousin Group Size on Educational Outcomes By Kieron Barclay; Dalton Conley
  17. Sibling Spillovers and the Choice to Get Vaccinated: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design By Humlum, Maria Knoth; Morthorst, Marius Opstrup; Thingholm, Peter Rønø
  18. Fertility and Family Labor Supply By Katrine Jakobsen; Thomas H Jørgensen; Hamish Low
  19. Happy to help: the welfare effects of a nationwide micro-volunteering programme By Dolan, Paul; Krekel, Christian; Shreedhar, Ganga; Lee, Helen; Marshall, Claire; Smith, Allison
  20. Employer-to-employer Transitions in Europe By Borowczyk-Martins, Daniel
  21. Good Job, Bad Job, No Job? Ethnicity and Employment Quality for Men in the UK By Clark, Ken; Ochmann, Nico
  22. The impact of spatial clustering of occupation on commuting time and employment status By Tamás Bakó; Judit Kálmán
  23. A comparison of earnings related to higher technical and academic education By Espinoza Bustos, Hector; Speckesser, Stefan
  24. New Evidence on the Effect of Technology on Employment and Skill Demand By Hirvonen, Johannes; Stenhammar, Aapo; Tuhkuri, Joonas
  25. Technology network structure conditions the economic resilience of regions By Gergõ Tóth; Zoltán Elekes; Adam Whittle; Changjun Lee; Dieter F. Kogler

  1. By: Bortoletto, Gianluca
    Abstract: The link between immigration and the crime rates, especially in the host countries, has been extensively studied in the previous literature. In this study, I explore how country of birth and citizenship at individual-level, defined as EU, non-EU or native (e.g., a person living in Italy who is born in another EU country will be categorised as a EU-born, non-EU if born in a non-EU country and native if born in Italy and the same holds for citizenship) affect crime perceptions at household-level. I explore this research question in a repeated cross-sectional framework using data form the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) for a pool of European countries over the period 2004-10. I also consider the interaction effect of citizenship and country of birth with other variables that the literature predicts to be relevant in affecting crime rates. I do not find evidence of a significant impact of country of birth or citizenship on crime. Also, while other factors, such as socio-economic status, population density in the area of living and others, are significant and present a robust effect on crime perceptions, the effect of country of birth and citizenship and of their interaction terms is very context-dependent and not robust to different specifications. Further research should be conducted perhaps combining household data with the characteristics of the neighbourhood where the household lives.
    Keywords: country of birth, citizenship, household, crime, vandalism, crime perceptions
    JEL: J15 J68 R29
    Date: 2022–03–21
  2. By: Suari-Andreu, Eduard; van Vliet, Olaf
    Abstract: In this study we investigate public transfer receipt and assimilation of EU migrants in the Netherlands. To do so, we use high quality administrative panel data containing comprehensive information on all public transfers individuals can receive. Results show that, after controlling for composition effects, EU migrants are less likely to receive public transfers compared to Dutch natives and they receive significantly lower amounts conditional on transfer receipt. These differences are particularly large during the �first years after arrival in the Netherlands. Three to five years after arrival, the differences become indistinguishable from zero, indicating that EU migrants gradually assimilate into public transfer receipt. The size and the sign of the differences depend on whether we consider contributory or non-contributory transfers. Further exploration by means of an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition shows that the composition effects are mostly due to differences in age and variables related to family structure.
    Keywords: Migration, Mobility, European Union, Public Transfers, Migrant Assimilation
    JEL: D1 D14 H2 H53 H55 J6 J61
    Date: 2022–03–21
  3. By: Advani, Arun; Burgherr, David; Savage, Mike; Summers, Andrew
    Abstract: In this paper we show the importance of international ties amongst the UK’s global economic elite, by exploiting administrative data derived from tax records. We show how this data can be used to shed light on the kind of transnational dynamics which have long been hypothesised to be of major significance in the UK, but which have previously proved intractable to systematic study. Our work reveals the enduring and distinctive influence of long-term imperial forces, especially to the former ‘white settler’ ex-dominions which have been called the ‘anglosphere’. These are allied to more recent currents associated with European integration and the rise of Asian economic power. Here there are especially strong ties to the ‘old EU-6’ nations of France, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Italy. The incredible detail and universal coverage of our data means that we can study those at the very top with a level of granularity that would be impossible using traditional survey sources. We find compelling support for the public perception that non-doms are disproportionately highly affluent individuals who can be viewed as a part of a global elite. However, whilst there is some evidence for the stereotype of the global wealthy parking themselves in the UK, this underplays the significance of the working rich. Our analysis also reveals the remarkable concentration of non-doms in central areas of London.
    Keywords: ES/L011719/1
    JEL: N0 E6
    Date: 2022–04
  4. By: Raute, Anna (Queen Mary, University of London); Weber, Andrea (Central European University); Zudenkova, Galina (TU Dortmund)
    Abstract: A child's family structure is a fundamental determinant of future well-being, making it essential to understand how public policies affect the involvement of fathers. In this paper, we exploit a reform of the German parental leave system—which increased mother's income and reduced legal father's financial support burden—to measure the impact on the relationship contract choices of parents who were unmarried at conception. Based on detailed birth record data, we demonstrate that short-run reform incentives during the first period after birth nudge unmarried fathers into the long-term commitment of acknowledging paternity. This shift reduces single motherhood by 6% but leaves the share of marriages at birth constant. Moreover, the change in relationship contract choices is mostly driven by parents of boys. These findings are compatible with predictions from a model where parents choose between three types of relationship contracts based on the mother's and father's incomes and support obligations. Our results highlight the necessity of studying intermediate relationship contracts (i.e., between the extremes of marriage and single motherhood) to improve our understanding of potential risk groups among the rising number of children growing up outside of marriage.
    Keywords: paid parental leave, family structure, paternity establishment
    JEL: H42 I38 J12 J13 J16 J18
    Date: 2022–02
  5. By: Fiaschi, Davide (University of Pisa); Tealdi, Cristina (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic raised the share of inactive individuals in 2020 in Italy, mostly at the expense of permanent and fix-term employment. We document sizable asymmetric effects across categories of individuals, defined on the basis of gender, age and geographical area. In particular, the pandemic disproportionately affected females and, among those, more severely the ones living in large households in the North and Center of Italy. These findings find a rationale both in the presence of young children, which imposes strong constraints to the female labour force participation, and in the worse labour market opportunities in the South, which lead to a strong self-selection of women in the labour market. Despite the short period of observation after the burst of COVID-19 pandemic (four quarters of 2020), the identified effects appear large and persistent, rising awareness about the likely long-lasting scarring effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the labour market choices and opportunities of Italian women.
    Keywords: labour market flows, transition probabilities, labour market shares, female inactivity rate
    JEL: C18 C53 E32 E24 J6
    Date: 2022–02
  6. By: Drechsel-Grau, Moritz (University of Zurich); Peichl, Andreas (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München); Schmieden, Johannes (IZA); Schmid, Kai D. (Heilbronn University of Applied Sciences); Walz, Hannes (FAU, Erlangen Nuremberg); Wolter, Stefanie (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg)
    Abstract: We provide a comprehensive analysis of income inequality and income dynamics for Germany over the last two decades. Combining personal income tax and social security data allows us – for the first time – to offer a complete picture of the distribution of annual earnings in Germany. We find that cross-sectional inequality rose until 2009 for men and women. After the Great Recession inequality continued to rise at a slower rate for men and fell slightly for women due to compression at the lower tail. We further document substantial gender differences in average earnings and inequality over the life-cycle. While for men earnings rise and inequality falls as they grow older, many women reduce working hours when starting a family such that average earnings fall and inequality increases. Men's earnings changes are on average smaller than women's but are substantially more affected by the business cycle. During the Great Recession, men's earnings losses become magnified and gains are attenuated. Apart from recession years, earnings changes are significantly right-skewed reflecting the good overall state of the German labor market and increasing labor supply. In the second part of the paper, we study the distribution of total income including incomes of self-employed, business owners, and landlords. We find that total inequality increased significantly more than earnings inequality. Regarding income dynamics, entrepreneurs' income changes are more dispersed, less skewed, less leptokurtic and less dependent on average past income than workers' income changes. Finally, we find that top income earners have become less likely to fall out of the top 1 and 0.1 percent.
    Keywords: inequality, income dynamics, mobility, non-labor income
    JEL: D31 E24 E31 J31
    Date: 2022–02
  7. By: Cigdem Gedikli (Swansea University); Robert Hill (University of Graz); Oleksandr Talavera (University of Birmingham); Okan Yilmaz (Swansea University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we provide novel evidence on the additional costs associated with smoking. While it may not be surprising that smokers pay a rent premium, we are the first to quantify the size of this premium. Our approach is innovative in that we use text mining methods that extract implicit information on landlords' attitudes to smoking directly from Zoopla UK rental listings. Applying hedonic, matching and machine-learning methods to the text-mined data, we find a positive smoking rent premium of around 6 percent. This translates into 14.40GBP of indirect costs, in addition to 40GBP of weekly spending on cigarettes estimated for an average smoker in the UK.
    Keywords: Smoking; Rental market; Hedonic regression; Matching; Text mining; Random forest; Smoking rent premium; Contracting frictions
    JEL: I30 R21 R31
    Date: 2022–03
  8. By: Gohl, Niklas; Haan, Peter; Kurz, Elisabeth; Weinhardt, Felix
    Abstract: This paper provides a novel test of a key prediction of human capital theory that educational investment decisions depend on the length of the pay-off period. We obtain causal estimates by leveraging a unique reform of the German public pension system that, across a sharp date-of-birth cutoff, increased the early retirement age by three years. Using RDD, DiD, and IV estimation strategies on census and householdpanel data, we show that this reform causally increased educational investment in the form of on-thejob training. In contrast, non-job related training before retirement was not affected. We explore heterogeneity and additional outcomes.
    Keywords: human capital; retirement policies; RDD
    JEL: J24 J26 H21
    Date: 2021–03–19
  9. By: Cotofan, Maria; Layard, Richard; Clark, Andrew E.
    Abstract: Which occupations are best for wellbeing? There is a large literature on earnings differentials, but less attention has been paid to occupational differences in non-pecuniary rewards. However, information on both types of rewards is needed to understand the dispersion of wellbeing across occupations. We analyse subjective wellbeing in a large representative sample of UK workers to construct a measure of “full earnings”, the sum of earnings and the value of non-pecuniary rewards, in 90 different occupations. We first find that the dispersion of earnings underestimates the extent of inequality in the labour market: the dispersion of full earnings is one-third larger than the dispersion of earnings. Equally, the gender and ethnic gaps in the labour market are larger than data on earnings alone would suggest, and the true returns to completed secondary education (though not to a degree) are underestimated by earnings differences on their own. Finally, we show that our main results are similar, and stronger, for a representative sample of US workers.
    Keywords: occupation; wages; non-pecuniary benefits; inequality
    JEL: I31 J31
    Date: 2021–02–19
  10. By: Brandily, Paul (Paris School of Economics); Hémet, Camille (Paris School of Economics); Malgouyres, Clément (Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: We study job displacement in France. In the medium run, losses in firm-specific wage premium account for a substantial share of the overall cost of displacement. However, and despite the positive correlation between premium and productivity in the cross-section of firms, we find that workers are reemployed by high productivity, low labor share firms. The observed reallocation is therefore productivity-enhancing, yet costly for workers. We show that destination firms are less likely to conclude collective wage agreements and have lower participation rates at professional elections. Overall, our results point to a loss in bargaining power.
    Keywords: displaced workers, wage, reallocation, productivity, labor share
    JEL: J63 J31
    Date: 2022–02
  11. By: Wallace, Matthew; Wilson, Ben
    Abstract: The migrant mortality advantage has been observed extensively, but its authenticity is debated. In particular, concerns persist that the advantage is an artefact of the data, generated by the problems of recording mobility among foreign-born populations. Here, we build on the intersection of two recent developments: the first showing substantial age variation in the advantage-a deep U-shaped advantage at peak migration ages-and the second showing high levels of population over-coverage, the principal source of data artefact, at the same ages. We use event history analysis of Sweden's population registers (2010-15) to test whether this over-coverage can explain age variation in the migrant mortality advantage. We document its U-shape in Sweden and, crucially, demonstrate that large mortality differentials persist after adjusting for estimated over-coverage. Our findings contribute to ongoing debate by demonstrating that the migrant mortality advantage is real and by ruling out one of its primary mechanisms.
    Keywords: censoring bias; data artefact/artifact; emigration; event history analysis; health; international migration; mortality; over-coverage; population registers; Sweden; 2019-00603]; 2016-07105; 2016–07115; 340- 2013-5164]
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2022–03–01
  12. By: Nikolaj Broberg; Vincent Pons; Clemence Tricaud
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of campaign finance rules on electoral outcomes. In French departmental and municipal elections, candidates competing in districts above 9,000 inhabitants face spending limits and are eligible for public reimbursement if they obtain more than five percent of the votes. Using an RDD around the population threshold, we find that these rules increase competitiveness and benefit the runner-up of the previous race as well as new candidates, in departmental elections, while leaving the polarization and representativeness of the results unaffected. Incumbents are less likely to get reelected because they are less likely to run and obtain a lower vote share, conditional on running. These results appear to be driven by the reimbursement of campaign expenditures, not spending limits. We do not find such effects in municipal elections, which we attribute to the use of a proportional list system instead of plurality voting.
    JEL: D72 K16 P16
    Date: 2022–02
  13. By: Maynou, Laia; Pearson, Georgia; McGuire, Alistair; Serra-Sastre, Victoria
    Abstract: This paper examines the adoption and diffusion of medical technology as associated with the dramatic recent increase in the surgical use of robots. We consider specifically the sequential adoption and diffusion patterns of three interrelated surgical technologies within a single healthcare system (the English NHS): robotic, laparoscopic and open radical prostatectomy. Robotic and laparoscopic techniques are minimally invasive procedures with similar patient benefits, but the newer robotic technique requires a high initial investment cost to purchase the robot and carries high maintenance costs over time. Using data from a large UK administrative database, Hospital Episodes Statistics, for the period 2000–2018, we analyse 173 hospitals performing radical prostatectomy, the most prevalent and earliest surgical area of adoption of robotic surgery. Our empirical analysis first identifies substitution effects, with robotic surgery replacing the incumbent technology, including the recently diffused laparoscopic technology. We then quantify the spillover of robotic surgery as it diffuses to other surgical specialties. Finally, we perform time-to-event analysis at the hospital level to quantitatively examine the adoption. Results show that a higher number of urologists and a wealthier referral area favor robot adoption.
    Keywords: adoption; diffusion; robotic surgery; substitution; technology; Efficiency Research Program funded by The Health Foundation; Award Reference Number 7432.
    JEL: O33 I12 C41 C33 J20
    Date: 2022–04–01
  14. By: Kirchmaier, Thomas; Langella, Monica; Manning, Alan
    Abstract: People care about crime, with the spatial distribution of both actual and perceived crime affecting the amenities from living in different areas and residential decisions. The literature finds that crime tends to happen close to the offender’s residence but does not clearly establish whether this is because the location of likely offenders and crime opportunities are close to each other or whether there is a high commuting cost for criminals. We use a rich administrative dataset from one of the biggest UK police forces to disentangle these two hypotheses, providing an estimate of the cost of distance and how local socio-economic characteristics affect both crimes that are committed and the offenders’ location. We find that the cost of distance is very high and has a great deterrence effect. We also propose a procedure for controlling for the selection bias induced by the fact that offenders’ location is only known when they are caught.
    Keywords: crime; commuting
    JEL: K42
    Date: 2021–02–19
  15. By: Ayaita, Adam
    Abstract: In this study, I measure statistical differences in personality characteristics (personality traits, attitudes, and values) between individuals with an ethnic minority vs. ethnic majority background. I analyze (a) overall differences and (b) conditional differences when holding other demographic factors and the qualification level constant. This analysis might inform research on ethnic discrimination, as some researchers have proposed that discrimination might be based on statistical group differences in unobserved characteristics, such as personality characteristics (statistical discrimination). I use data of N = 6,330 individuals from a representative sample of the adult population in Germany. Analogously to field experiments showing discrimination, only individuals who have completed secondary schooling in Germany are considered in the analysis. The results suggest that, overall, ethnic minority individuals score slightly higher in openness and slightly lower in conscientiousness than ethnic majority individuals. These differences are more robust—but still small—when control variables are included. I find no significant group differences in the other Big Five personality traits, feeling of connectedness to the majority population, or gender equality values. The results partially support the theory of statistical discrimination, as some decision makers might discriminate against ethnic minority applicants on the basis of their slightly lower average conscientiousness.
    Keywords: attitudes,ethnic background,discrimination,personality,values
    JEL: J15 J71 M51
    Date: 2022
  16. By: Kieron Barclay; Dalton Conley
    Abstract: Despite growing interest in the potential influence of grandparents on grandchild status attainment, research has not addressed whether the ordinal position or number of grandchildren affects outcomes. We apply sibling- and cousin-fixed effects analyses to Swedish population data to examine how cousin order and cousin group size influence grade point average (GPA) percentile rank at the end of compulsory school. We study cohorts born 1972-2003 (N=1,591,979). In cousin fixed effects analyses, second-born, fifth-born, and tenth or later born maternal cousins achieve GPA ranked scores 1.04, 2.17, and 4.97 percentile points lower than first-born cousins, respectively. Amongst paternal cousins the differences relative to the first-born cousin are 0.02, 0.46, and 1.86 percentile points low-er, respectively—suggesting the greater influence of the mother’s extended family. In further analyses we examine whether an arguably exogenous shock to cousin group size, a twin birth to an aunt or uncle, has any impact on GPA percentile rank. Instrumental variable analyses indicate that an increase in maternal cousin group size has a statistically significant negative effect on GPA rank, lowering GPA rank in percentile points by 0.27, but an increase in paternal cousin group size does not negatively affect GPA rank.
    JEL: D13 I21 J1
    Date: 2022–03
  17. By: Humlum, Maria Knoth (Aarhus University); Morthorst, Marius Opstrup (Aarhus University); Thingholm, Peter Rønø (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: We investigate the effects of the introduction of a population-wide Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program on the vaccine take-up of the targeted group of 15-year-old girls and their older sisters. For identification, we rely on a regression discontinuity design and high-quality Danish administrative data to exploit that date of birth determines program eligibility. We find that the program increased the HPV vaccine take-up of both the targeted girls and their older sisters. While the direct effects of the program reduced vaccine-takeup inequality, the spillover effects, in contrast, contributed to an increase in vaccine take-up inequality.
    Keywords: health investments, health behavior, peer effects, sibling spillovers, HPV, vaccine, health inequality
    JEL: I10 I18 I12 I14
    Date: 2022–02
  18. By: Katrine Jakobsen; Thomas H Jørgensen; Hamish Low
    Abstract: We study the importance of fertility adjustments for labor market responsiveness of men and women. First, we use longitudinal Danish register data and tax reforms from 2009 to provide new empirical evidence on fertility adjustments to tax changes. We find asymmetric effects between men and women: Increases in marginal net-of tax wages of women decrease fertility whereas increases in marginal net-of-tax wages of men increase fertility. Second, we quantify the importance of these fertility adjustments for understanding labor supply responses to tax reforms. To this end, we estimate a life-cycle model of family labor supply in which couples choose the timing and number of children, which also replicates the asymmetric fertility adjustments. In the model, allowing fertility adjustments increase the labor supply responsiveness of women by 28%, and, as a result, tax reforms can have larger and more persistent effects.
    Date: 2022–03–10
  19. By: Dolan, Paul; Krekel, Christian; Shreedhar, Ganga; Lee, Helen; Marshall, Claire; Smith, Allison
    Abstract: There is a strong suggestion from the existing literature that volunteering improves the wellbeing of those who give up their time to help others, but much of it is correlational and not causal. In this paper, we estimate the wellbeing benefits from volunteering for England's National Health Service (NHS) Volunteer Responders programme, which was set up in response to the Covid-19 pandemic. Using a sample of over 9,000 volunteers, we exploit the oversubscription of the programme and the random assignment of volunteering tasks to estimate causal wellbeing returns, across multiple counterfactuals. We find that active volunteers report significantly higher life satisfaction, feelings of worthwhileness, social connectedness, and belonging to their local communities. A social welfare analysis shows that the benefits of the programme were at least 140 times greater than its costs. Our findings advance our understanding of the ways in which pro-social behaviours can improve personal wellbeing as well as social welfare.
    Keywords: subjective wellbeing; volunteering; pro-social action; quasi-natural experiment; social welfare analysis; 221400/Z/20/Z]
    JEL: I31 I38 D61 D64
    Date: 2021–05–31
  20. By: Borowczyk-Martins, Daniel (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School)
    Abstract: I measure time series of the probabilities that an individual changes employer, sep-arates from employment, and joins employment during the month, using cross-sectional data from the European Union Labor Force Survey covering 13 countries during the past two decades. Employer-to-employer mobility is large and accounts for a sizable fraction of worker mobility in all countries; its levels, both absolute and relative to nonemploy-ment reallocation, vary considerably across countries. In most countries, the employer-to-employer probability exhibits large and procyclical variation. By contrast, there are no systematic cross-country patterns in the low-frequency evolution of employer-to-employer mobility.
    Keywords: Employer-to-employer mobility; Labor market flows; Business cycles
    JEL: E24 J63
    Date: 2022–03–31
  21. By: Clark, Ken (University of Manchester); Ochmann, Nico (DIW Berlin)
    Abstract: Ethnic minority men find it harder to obtain good jobs in the UK labour market than White British men. Over time, while the very high unemployment rates experienced by some non-white ethnic groups have significantly declined and their share of good jobs has grown, their share of bad jobs has grown by more. Bad jobs have replaced no jobs for these groups with Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, and Black African men doing worst. In economic downturns access to good jobs gets relatively harder for some non-white ethnic minority groups compared to the White British majority. The second (UK-born) generation fares better in access to good jobs compared to their foreign-born counterparts. In particular second-generation Bangladeshis and Black Africans experience a higher probability of being in good jobs than the previous generation.
    Keywords: ethnic groups, job quality, business cycles, labour markets
    JEL: J62 J71 J81
    Date: 2022–02
  22. By: Tamás Bakó (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies,Budapest, Hungary andBudapest Metropolitan University, Hungary); Judit Kálmán (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies,Budapest, Hungary andCorvinus University Budapest, Hungary)
    Abstract: In this study we reveal the impact of spatial clustering of occupations on the probability of employment and commuting time, with particular emphasis on differences between genders and household types. Based on Hungarian 2011 census data our research confirmed previous results of some USA studies according to which women work in less spatially clustered occupations compared to men. Our most important result is that more clustered the occupation, the longer the commuting time, and the lower the probability of employment. The effect of occupational clustering on commuting time is larger for women regardless of household type and for those living in a relationship compared to singles. Our further result is that the greater the occupational diversity of the place of residence, the shorter the commuting time and higher the probability of employment, and the occupational diversity of the place of residence modifies the effect of occupational clustering on commuting time.
    Keywords: Commuting time, occupations, employment probabilities
    JEL: R12 J22
    Date: 2022–03
  23. By: Espinoza Bustos, Hector; Speckesser, Stefan
    Abstract: Not much is known about higher technical education in England, but current education policy looks positively at it to improve labour productivity and social mobility. We provide updated estimates of individual earnings differentials associated with such education, compared to achieving degrees, for all secondary school leavers in 2003. We find an early advantage of higher technical education, which erode over time. By age 30, most degree holders earn more. However, for men with higher technical education in STEM, earnings remain significantly above those of many degree holders. For women, such differences were not found.
    Keywords: returns to education; tertiary education; high-level technical education; vocational eduction; administrative data; Department for Education (DfE) for the data and financial support under the Centre for Vocational Education Research (CVER) work programme.; T&F deal
    JEL: I21 J64
    Date: 2022–02–09
  24. By: Hirvonen, Johannes; Stenhammar, Aapo; Tuhkuri, Joonas
    Abstract: Abstract We present novel evidence on the effects of advanced technologies on employment, skill demand, and firm performance. The main finding is that advanced technologies led to increases in employment and no change in skill composition. Our main research design focuses on a technology subsidy program in Finland that induced sharp increases in technology investment in manufacturing firms. Our data directly measure multiple technologies and skills and track firms and workers over time. We demonstrate novel text analysis and machine learning methods to perform matching and to measure specific technological changes. To explain our findings, we outline a theoretical framework that contrasts two types of technological change: process versus product. We document that firms used new technologies to produce new types of output rather than replace workers with technologies within the same type of production. The results contrast with the ideas that technologies necessarily replace workers or are skill biased.
    Keywords: Technology, Labor, Skills, Industrial policy
    JEL: J23 J24 O33
    Date: 2022–04–11
  25. By: Gergõ Tóth (Agglomeration and Social Networks Lendület Research Group, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Tóth Kálmán u. 4, 1097 Budapest, Hungary and Spatial Dynamics Lab, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8, Dublin, Ireland); Zoltán Elekes (Agglomeration and Social Networks Lendület Research Group, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Tóth Kálmán u. 4, 1097 Budapest, Hungary and Centre for Regional Science at Umea University, Umea University, 901 87 Umea, Sweden); Adam Whittle (Spatial Dynamics Lab, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8, Dublin, Ireland); Changjun Lee (Spatial Dynamics Lab, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8, Dublin, Ireland andDepartment of Media and Social Informatics, Hanyang University, Ansan-si, South Korea); Dieter F. Kogler (Spatial Dynamics Lab, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8, Dublin, Ireland Insight Centre for Data Analytics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the network robustness of the technological capability base of 269 European metropolitan areas against the potential elimination of some of their capabilities. By doing so it provides systematic evidence on how network robustness conditioned the economic resilience of these regions in the context of the 2008 economic crisis. The analysis concerns calls in the relevant literature for more in-depth analysis on the link between regional economic network structures and the resilience of regions to economic shocks. By adopting a network science approach that is novel to economic geographic inquiry, the objective is to stress-test the technological resilience of regions by utilizing information on the co-classification of CPC classes listed on European Patent Office patent documents. We find that European metropolitan areas show heterogeneous levels of technology network robustness. Further findings from regression analysis indicate that metropolitan regions with a more robust technological knowledge network structure exhibit higher levels of resilience with respect to changes in employment rates. This finding is robust to various random and targeted elimination strategies concerning the most frequently combined technological capabilities. Regions with high levels of employment in industry but with vulnerable technological capability base are particularly challenged by this aspect of regional economic resilience.
    Keywords: regional economic resilience, network robustness, metropolitan regions, technology space
    JEL: C53 O30 R11
    Date: 2022–01

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