nep-eur New Economics Papers
on Microeconomic European Issues
Issue of 2022‒02‒07
24 papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia

  1. Does Grandparenting Pay off for the Next Generations? Intergenerational Effects of Grandparental Care By Mara Barschkett; C. Katharina Spiess; Elena Ziege
  2. Pandemic Policy and Life Satisfaction in Europe By Andrew E. Clark; Anthony Lepinteur
  3. Working Time Mismatch and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Employees’ Time Autonomy and Gender By Christian Grund; Katja Rebecca Tilkes
  4. Are Grandchildren Good for You? Well-Being and Health Effects of Becoming a Grandparent By Birgit Leimer; Reyn Joris van Ewijk
  5. Redistributive effect and the progressivity of taxes and benefits: evidence for the UK, 1977–2018 By Nicolas Hérault; Stephen P. Jenkins
  6. Time, Income and Subjective Well-Being – 20 Years of Interdependent Multidimensional Polarization in Germany By Joachim Merz; Bettina Scherg
  7. The importance of global value chains and regional capabilities for the economic complexity of EU-regions By Colozza, Federico; Boschma, Ron; Morrison, Andrea; Pietrobelli, Carlo
  8. Shifting the Tax Burden away from Labour towards Inheritances and Gifts – Simulation results for Germany By Andreas THIEMANN; Diana OGNYANOVA; Edlira NARAZANI; Balazs PALVOLGYI; Athena Kalyva; Alexander LEODOLTER
  9. The Intended and Unintended Effects of Promoting Labor Market Mobility By Marco Caliendo; Steffen Künn; Robert Mahlstedt
  10. Board Gender Quotas and Outward Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from France By Koray Aktas; Valeria Gattai; Piergiovanna Natale
  11. How Causal Is Separation? Lessons Learnt from Endogenous Switching Regression Models for Single Mothers’ Economic Strain in Germany By Antonia Birkeneder; Christina Boll
  12. The Fertility Response to Cutting Child Related Welfare Benefits By Sandner, Malte; Wiynck, Frederik
  13. Cross-border mobility in European countries: associations between cross-border worker status and health outcomes By Lucas Nonnenmacher; Michèle Baumann; Etienne Le Bihan; Philippe Askenazy; Louis Chauvel
  14. Venture Capital Financing and Green Patenting By Andrea Bellucci; Serena Fatica; Aliki Georgakaki; Gianluca Gucciardi; Simon Letout; Francesco Pasimeni
  15. Disability and Material Deprivation: a Profile of Disadvantage in Italy By Chiara Mussida; Dario Sciulli
  16. Flexible Wages and the Costs of Job Displacement By Fernandes, Sofia; Tojerow, Ilan
  17. The Age U-shape in Europe: The Protective Role of Partnership By Andrew E. Clark; Hippolyte d'Albis; Angela Greulich
  18. Green mobility and well-being By Echeverría, Lucía; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto
  19. Footsie, yeah! Share prices and worker wellbeing By Alex Bryson; Andrew E. Clark; Colin Green
  20. Big Data for smart cities and citizen engagement: evidence from Twitter data analysis on Italian municipalities By Silvia Blasi; Edoardo Gobbo; Silvia Rita Sedita
  21. How Does the Position in Business Group Hierarchies Affect Workers' Wages? By Egger, Hartmut; Jahn, Elke; Kornitzky, Stefan
  22. Spatio-temporal dynamics of European innovation: An exploratory approach via multivariate functional data cluster analysis By Rhoden, Imke; Weller, Daniel; Voit, Ann-Katrin
  23. Causality in the Link between Income and Satisfaction: IV Estimation with Internal Instruments By Susanne Elsas
  24. Paths academic scientists take to entrepreneurship: Disaggregating direct and indirect influences By Dohse, Dirk; Goel, Rajeev K.; Göktepe‐Hultén, Devrim

  1. By: Mara Barschkett; C. Katharina Spiess; Elena Ziege
    Abstract: Grandparents act as the third largest caregiver after parental care and daycare in Germany, as in many Western societies. Adopting a double-generation perspective, we investigate the causal impact of this care mode on children’s health, socio-emotional behavior, and school outcomes, as well as parental well-being. Based on representative German panel data sets, and exploiting arguably exogenous variations in geographical distance to grandparents, we analyze age-specific effects, taking into account counterfactual care modes. Our results suggest null or negative effects on children’s outcomes: If children three years and older are in full-time daycare or school and, in addition, cared for by grandparents, they have more health and socio-emotional problems, in particular conduct problems. In contrast, our results point to positive effects on parental satisfaction with the childcare situation and leisure. The effects for mothers correspond to an increase of 11 percent in satisfaction with the childcare situation and 14 percent in satisfaction with leisure, compared to the mean, although the results differ by child age. While the increase in paternal satisfaction with the childcare situation is, at 21 percent, even higher, we do not find an effect on paternal satisfaction with leisure.
    Keywords: grandparental childcare, socio-emotional outcomes, cognitive outcomes, parental well-being, instrumental variable
    JEL: D1 I21 I31 J13 J14
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Andrew E. Clark (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Anthony Lepinteur ( - Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: We use data from the COME-HERE longitudinal survey collected by the University of Luxembourg to assess the effects of the policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic on life satisfaction in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden over the course of 2020. Policy responses are measured by the Stringency Index and the Economic Support Index from the Blavatnik School of Government. Stringency is systematically associated with lower life satisfaction, controlling for the intensity of the pandemic itself. This stringency effect is larger for women, those with weak ties to the labor market, and in richer households. The effect of the Economic Support is never statistically different from zero.
    Keywords: COVID-19,Life satisfaction,Policy stringency,Economic support
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Christian Grund; Katja Rebecca Tilkes
    Abstract: Evidence shows that working time mismatch, i.e. the difference between actual and desired working hours, is negatively related to employees’ job satisfaction. Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we examine the potential moderating effect of working time autonomy on this relation and we also consider the corresponding role of gender. First, individual fixed effects panel estimations reaffirm both the negative link of working hours mismatch and the positive relation of working time autonomy to employees’ job satisfaction. Second, our results show a positive moderating relation of working time autonomy on the link between mismatch and job satisfaction. Third, our analyses hint at gender-specific differences: particularly women seem to benefit from the moderation role of working time autonomy.
    Keywords: working time mismatch; working hours discrepancies; job satisfaction; over-employment; Socio-Economic Panel; working time autonomy
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Birgit Leimer (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz); Reyn Joris van Ewijk (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz)
    Abstract: Becoming a grandparent is one of the major life transitions experienced by older individuals. Using data from ten Western European countries, we show that grandparenthood on average leads to a reduction in well-being while hardly impacting physical, cognitive and mental health. Effects are heterogeneous, though. Reductions in well-being appear among those having less family contact and not providing child care. Those with the opposite profile – except grandmothers providing daily child care – experience some health improvements without reduced well-being. Well-being reductions are not driven by unwanted/unplanned children. Grandparenthood induces people to retire, but retirement seems no relevant channel for well-being and health effects.
    Date: 2022–12–01
  5. By: Nicolas Hérault (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, the University of Melbourne); Stephen P. Jenkins (London School of Economics and Political Science)
    Abstract: We apply the Kakwani approach to decomposing redistributive effect into average rate, progressivity, and reranking components using yearly UK data covering 1977–2018. We examine cash and in-kind benefits, and direct and indirect taxes. In addition, we highlight an empirical implementation issue – the definition of the reference (‘pre-fisc’) distribution. Drawing on an innovative counterfactual approach, our empirical analysis shows that trends in the redistributive effect of cash benefits are largely associated with cyclical changes in average benefit rates. In contrast, trends in the redistributive effects of direct and indirect taxes are mostly associated with changes in progressivity. For in-kind benefits, changes in the average benefit rate and progressivity each played the major roles at different times.
    Keywords: Kakwani decomposition, inequality, redistributive effect, progressivity, reranking, benefits, taxes
    JEL: D31 H24 H50 I38
    Date: 2021–11
  6. By: Joachim Merz; Bettina Scherg
    Abstract: Society drifts apart in many dimensions. Economists focus on income of the poor and rich and the distribution of income but a broader spectrum of dimensions is required to draw the picture of multiple facets of individual life. In our study of multidimensional polarization we extend the income dimension by time, a pre-requisite and fundamental resource of any individual activity. In particular, we consider genuine personal time as a pronounced source of social participation in the sense of social inclusion/exclusion and Amartya Sen’s capability approach. With an interdependence approach to multidimensional polarization we allow compensation between time and income, parameters of a CES-type subjective well-being function, where a possible substitution is evaluated empirically by the German population instead of arbitrarily chosen. Beyond subjective well-being indices we propose and apply a new intensity/gap measure to multidimensional polarization, the mean minimum polarization gap 2DGAP. This polarization intensity measure provides transparency with regard to each single attribute, which is important for targeted policies, while at the same time their interdependent relations is respected. The empirical investigation of interdependent multidimensional polarization incidence and intensity uses the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and detailed time use diary data from the three German Time Use Surveys (GTUS) 1991/92, 2001/02 and the actual 2012/13. We focus on the working individuals where the working poor requires increasing interest in the economic and social political discussion. The microeconometric two-stage selectivity corrected estimation of interdependent multidimensional risk (incidence) and intensity quantifies socio-economic factors behind. Four striking results appear: First, genuine personal leisure time additional to income is a significant subjective well-being and polarization dimension. Second, its interdependence, its compensation/substitution, evaluated by the German Society, is of economic and statistical significance. Remarkably, besides compensation regimes, there are interdependent multidimensional polarization regimes where even higher income cannot compensate time deficits. Third, interdependent multidimensional polarization incidence (headcount ratio) decreased over those 20 years in Germany, however and in particular, as shown by the new minimum 2DGAP approach, interdependent multidimensional polarization intensity increased over those 20 years in Germany. Fourth, there are different multidimensional polarization results and developments for the poverty and affluence poles and regimes, for fulltime self-employed, employees and subsequently for further socio-economic groups. And, polarization also appears with respect to social participation.
    Keywords: Interdependent multidimensional polarization, time and income poverty and affluence, subjective well-being, life satisfaction, minimum multidimensional polarization intensity gap (2DGAP), extended economic well-being, satisfaction/happiness, social participation, working poor and affluent, middle class, selfemployment and employees, CES well-being function, two-stage Heckman estimates of polarization incidence and intensity
    JEL: I32 D31 J22
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Colozza, Federico (University of Roma Tre); Boschma, Ron (Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht University, and UiS Business School, University of Stavanger); Morrison, Andrea (Department of Political and Social Sciences, University of Pavia, Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht University, and ICRIOS, Bocconi University); Pietrobelli, Carlo (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and University of Roma Tre)
    Abstract: This paper combines various literatures on Global Value Chains (GVC), Economic Complexity and Evolutionary Economic Geography. The objective is to assess the role of regional capabilities and GVC participation in fostering economic complexity in 236 NUTS2-regions in Europe. Our results suggest there is no such thing as a common path of economic upgrading across EU regions. Regions with high economic complexity tend to keep their advantageous positions, as they are capable of benefitting from both regional capabilities (as proxied by a high relatedness between local activities) and external linkages in terms of GVC participation. Conversely, low-complex regions do not benefit from GVC participation, unless their regional capabilities (in terms of relatedness density) are also stronger.
    Keywords: Economic Complexity, Evolutionary Economic Geography, Global Value Chains, Relatedness, Economic Upgrading, EU regions
    JEL: B52 F23 O19 O33 R10
    Date: 2021–12–17
  8. By: Andreas THIEMANN (European Commission – JRC); Diana OGNYANOVA (European Commission – DG ECFIN); Edlira NARAZANI (European Commission – JRC); Balazs PALVOLGYI (European Commission - DG ECFIN); Athena Kalyva (Greek Ministry of Finance); Alexander LEODOLTER (European Commission – DG ECFIN)
    Abstract: Germany’s tax system places a relatively strong emphasis on direct taxes, particularly on labour. At the same time, revenues from the inheritance and gift tax are relatively low. This points towards a large-scale transfer of wealth from one generation to the next that is largely untaxed and thereby maintaining the high degree of wealth inequality observed in Germany. This is due mainly to the wide-ranging tax exemptions for business assets, which make the system complex, inefficient and regressive. This paper presents three hypothetical budget-neutral scenarios of broadening the inheritance and gift tax base while reducing the tax burden on labour income. Keeping the current progressive rates but abolishing tax exemptions would lead to about EUR 9-12 billion additional annual inheritance and gift tax revenue. Replacing the current tax regime by a flat rate of 10% or 15% could yield about EUR 0.5-2.3 billion or EUR 4-6.5 billion. Using EUROMOD, the microsimulation model of the EU, we show that these additional revenues could be used to reduce the tax burden on labour, which would improve income equality. Furthermore, estimations of labour supply responses to these reforms, based on the EUROLAB labour supply model, indicate that lowering the tax burden on labour may also lead to a slight increase in labour supply in particular for low-income earners.
    Keywords: tax shift, inheritance and gift tax, tax wedge on labour, wealth inequality.
    JEL: D31 H2 J2
    Date: 2021–12
  9. By: Marco Caliendo (University of Potsdam, IZA Bonn, DIW Berlin, IAB Nuremberg); Steffen Künn (Maastricht University and ROA, IZA Bonn); Robert Mahlstedt (University of Copenhagen, IZA Bonn, DFI)
    Abstract: Subsidizing the geographical mobility of unemployed workers may improve welfare by relaxing their financial constraints and allowing them to find jobs in more prosperous regions. We exploit regional variation in the promotion of mobility programs along administrative borders of German employment agency districts to investigate the causal effect of offering such financial incentives on the job search behavior and labor market integration of unemployed workers. We show that promoting mobility – as intended – causes job seekers to increase their search radius, apply for and accept distant jobs. At the same time, local job search is reduced with adverse consequences for reemployment and earnings. These unintended negative effects are provoked by spatial search frictions. Overall, the unconditional provision of mobility programs harms the welfare of unemployed job seekers.
    Keywords: Job Search, Active Labor Market Policy, Labor Market Mobility, Unintended Consequence, Search Frictions
    JEL: J61 J68 D04 C21
    Date: 2022–01
  10. By: Koray Aktas; Valeria Gattai; Piergiovanna Natale
    Abstract: We show that board gender quota laws reduce the propensity of French firms to undertake outward foreign direct investment. For this, we use Orbis data for the period 2007–2015 and a difference-in-difference approach. The exogenous increase in the share of women directors decreases the share of foreign subsidiaries by 7 percentage points when the share of women directors is at its highest. The share of foreign subsidiaries is affected by the decrease in the probability of having a foreign subsidiary, which indicates disinvestment. Accordingly, the estimated effects on the number and cost of employees are negative, with no impact on firm performance.
    Keywords: Board diversity, Gender quota, Outward foreign direct investment (OFDI), Europe, Women directors.
    JEL: G30 F23 J16
    Date: 2021–12
  11. By: Antonia Birkeneder; Christina Boll
    Abstract: Single mothers often experience precarious financial conditions. However, it is not fully understood to what extent separation is the cause of these conditions versus being their consequence. Estimating an endogenous switching regression model based on a sample of 626 separated and 5,525 non-separated mothers drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) 1984-2018, we disentangle the roles of causation and selection for separated mothers’ individual earnings as a measure of economic well-being. Our results indicate that separated mothers increase their working hours and sometimes adjust industry in anticipation of the separation event and afterwards. Adjusting for these processes that can be considered caused by the upcoming event, the positive selection into separation turns negative, while the non-separated are clearly positively selected. Thus, comparing average women with mean characteristics, the actually (non-)separated earn lower (higher) wages than women who are randomly assigned to a (non-)separation scenario. Additionally, the separated are more negatively selected into employment. Robustness checks largely confirm our results against changes in sample composition, eliminated group differences in period distribution, and model specification. Thus, our data support the notion that both chronic strain and crisis-caused factors diminish single mothers’ economic well-being. Unobserved traits associated with lower labor market investments and productivity explain part of separated mothers’ economic strain after separation.
    Keywords: single mothers, earnings, selection, causation, endogenous switching regression model, Socio-economic Panel
    JEL: J12 J22
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Sandner, Malte (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany); Wiynck, Frederik (IAB)
    Abstract: "Despite long-term interest whether welfare benefits motivate fertility, evidence from research has not been consistent. This paper contributes new evidence to this debate by investigating the fertility effect of a German welfare reform. The reform decreased the household income of families on welfare by 18 percent in the first year after the birth of a baby. Using exclusive German social security data on over 460,000 affected women, our analysis finds the reform leads to a fertility reduction of 6.8 percent. This result implies that for mothers on welfare, fertility has an income elasticity of 0.38, which is much smaller than that of general populations reported in the literature. Our findings suggest that welfare recipients’ fertility reacts less strongly to financial incentives than the fertility of overall populations." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Stichprobe der Integrierten Grundsicherungsbiografien (SIG) ; IAB-Open-Access-Publikation
    JEL: I38 J13 C54
    Date: 2022–01–19
  13. By: Lucas Nonnenmacher ( - Université du Luxembourg); Michèle Baumann ( - Université du Luxembourg); Etienne Le Bihan ( - Université du Luxembourg); Philippe Askenazy; Louis Chauvel ( - Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: Background Mobility of workers living in one country and working in a different country has increased in the European Union. Exposed to commuting factors, cross-border workers (CBWs) constitute a potential high-risk population. But the relationships between health and commuting abroad are under-documented. Our aims were to: (1) measure the prevalence of the perceived health status and the physical health outcomes (activity limitation, chronic diseases, disability and no leisure activities), (2) analyse their associations with commuting status as well as (3) with income and health index among CBWs. Methods Based on the ‘ Enquête Emploi ', the French cross-sectional survey segment of the European Labour Force Survey (EU LFS), the population was composed of 2,546,802 workers. Inclusion criteria for the samples were aged between 20 and 60 years and living in the French cross-border departments of Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and Luxembourg. The Health Index is an additional measure obtained with five health variables. A logistic model was used to estimate the odds ratios of each group of CBWs, taking non-cross border workers (NCBWs) as the reference group, controlling by demographic background and labour status variables. Results A sample of 22,828 observations (2456 CBWs vs. 20,372 NCBWs) was retained. The CBW status is negatively associated with chronic diseases and disability. A marginal improvement of the health index is correlated with a wage premium for both NCBWs and CBWs. Commuters to Luxembourg have the best health outcomes, whereas commuters to Germany the worst. Conclusion CBWs are healthier and have more income. Interpretations suggest (1) a healthy cross-border phenomenon steming from a social selection and a positive association between income and the health index is confirmed; (2) the existence of major health disparities among CBWs; and (3) the rejection of the spillover phenomenon assumption for CBWs. The newly founded European Labour Authority (ELA) should take into account health policies as a promising way to support the cross-border mobility within the European Union.
    Date: 2021–03–24
  14. By: Andrea Bellucci (University of Insubria); Serena Fatica; Aliki Georgakaki; Gianluca Gucciardi (UniCredit Bank); Simon Letout; Francesco Pasimeni (IRENA – International Renewable Energy Agency)
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of green innovation in attracting venture capital (VC) financing. We use a unique dataset that matches information on VC transactions, companies' balance sheet variables and data on patented innovation at the firm level over the period 2008-2017. Taking advance of a novel granular definition of green innovative activities that tracks patents at the firm level, we show that green innovators are more likely to receive VC funding than firms without green patents. Likewise, a larger share of green vs. non-green patents in a firm's portfolio increases the probability of receiving VC finance. Robustness checks and extensions tackling several dimensions of heterogeneity corroborate the view that green patenting is an important driver of VC funding.
    Keywords: Venture capital, Green ventures, Patents, Green technology
    JEL: G24 M13 M21 O35 Q55
    Date: 2022–01
  15. By: Chiara Mussida (Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali,DISES, Università Cattolica, Piacenza); Dario Sciulli (Dipartimento di Economia, Università “G. d’Annunzio” di Chieti-Pescara)
    Abstract: We provide a dynamic analysis of material deprivation in Italy by using correlated random effects probit model with endogenous initial conditions, and by looking extensively at the role of disability. We examine the two alternative indicators for material and material and social deprivation, and we offer a subgroups’ analysis. Our results indicate the presence of true state dependence. Nevertheless, the trapping effect associated to material deprivation increases faster when compared to the one associated to material and social deprivation, possibly suggesting that the social dimension tends to mitigate the trap effect of material deprivation. Disability tend to worsen living conditions of the households usually disadvantaged in the Italian society, that are households with low educated, older and female heads, as well as singles and households characterised by low work intensity. This is especially true in case a member with severe disability lives in the household. These results suggest important policy recommendations.
    Keywords: Material deprivation; Disability; Italy; Dynamic probit models; Initial conditions
    JEL: C33 I14 I32 J14
    Date: 2021–12
  16. By: Fernandes, Sofia (Notre Europe); Tojerow, Ilan (Free University of Brussels)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether flexible pay increases the wage costs of job displacement. We use quasi-exogenous variation in the timing of job loss due to mass layoffs spanning over an institutional reform that restricted single-employer bargaining, the Belgian Wage Norm in 1996. We find that average earnings losses over a ten-year period after displacement are 10 percentage points larger under flexible pay. Workers displaced from jobs with higher employer-specific wage premiums—service sector and white-collar—benefit the most from restricted single-employer bargaining as their earnings fully converge to non-displaced workers' earnings within three years. We show that the differences in earnings losses across wage-setting systems are not driven by fluctuations in the business cycle. Finally, the wage-setting reform had similar effects on female workers, though it did not narrow the gender gap in pre-layoff wages. Our results suggest that reduced pay flexibility may help displaced workers catch up faster to non-displaced workers' pay premium ladder conditional on re-employment.
    Keywords: job displacement, wage flexibility, bargaining
    JEL: J31 J51 J63
    Date: 2021–12
  17. By: Andrew E. Clark (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Hippolyte d'Albis (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Angela Greulich (Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: In this study, we ask whether the U-shaped relationship between life satisfactionand age is flatter for individuals who are partnered. An analysis of cross-sectionalEU-SILC data indicates that the decline in life satisfaction from the teens to thefifties is almost four times larger for non-partnered than for partnered individuals,whose life satisfaction essentially follows a slight downward trajectory with age.However, the same analysis applied to three panel datasets (BHPS, SOEP andHILDA) reveals a U-shape for both groups, albeit somewhat flatter for the partneredthan for the non-partnered individuals. We suggest that the difference between thecross-sectional and the panel results reflects compositional effects: i.e., there isa significant shift of the relatively dissatisfied out of marriage in mid-life. Thesecompositional effects tend to flatten the U-shape in age for the partnered individualsin the cross-sectional data.
    Keywords: Life satisfaction,Life cycle,Partnership,Marriage
    Date: 2021
  18. By: Echeverría, Lucía; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto
    Abstract: Recent years have witnessed efforts worldwide to promote green mobility, aimed at boosting sustainable economic growth. However, how green mobility relates to travelers' well-being remains an open question. We explore whether "green" modes of transportation (public transit and walking/cycling) are associated with higher levels of well-being in comparison to private driving, placing special focus on different types of travel (related to paid work, unpaid work, personal care, childcare, and leisure). We use the UK Time Use Survey (UKTUS) from 2014-2015, and exploit information on self-reported enjoyment during travel, as a measure of experienced well-being. We estimate Ordinary Least Squares and Random Effects regressions for each travel category, and find relative, positive effects of physical transport on enjoyment, in terms of personal care and leisure, while the relative negative effects of public transport are observed for childcare and work/paid travel, in relationship to traditional driving modes. Our evidence suggests a need to develop strategies to effectively promote mobility by physical modes, while improving the experience of public transit users.
    Keywords: Bienestar; Medios de Transporte; Transporte Público;
    Date: 2021–05
  19. By: Alex Bryson (UCL - University College of London [London]); Andrew E. Clark (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Colin Green (NTNU - Norwegian University of Science and Technology [Aalesund] - NTNU - Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: Purpose A small literature has shown that individual wellbeing varies with the price of company stock, but it is unclear whether this is due to wealth effects amongst those holding stock, or more general effects on sentiment, with individuals taking rising stock prices as an indicator of improvements in the economy. The authors contribute to this literature by using two data sets to establish the relationship between share prices on the one hand and worker wellbeing on the other. Design/methodology/approach First, the authors use over 20 years of British panel data to show that employee happiness and job satisfaction moves with share prices among those whose pay is partly determined by company fortunes. The authors then examine share price movements and employee stock holding in a single corporation and provide suggestive evidence that an increase in the firm's stock price increases the well-being of those who belong to its employee share purchase plan (ESPP). These effects are greatest among those making the largest monthly contributions to the program who have the most to gain (or lose) from stock price fluctuations. There is also tentative evidence that the well-being effects of a higher share price are larger for those who hold more shares. Taken together these results suggest that, although stock price movements have little effect on well-being in the population at large, the well-being of those holding stock in their own company rises when the price of that stock is higher, suggesting the effects of share prices work at least partly via changes in wealth. Findings Taken together these results suggest that the wellbeing effects of share prices work at least partly via changes in wealth. Research limitations/implications The authors cannot be certain that the job satisfaction movements they see are causally linked to share plan participation and bonus receipt. Future research might fruitfully examine the mechanisms at play, and whether the effects identified here are linked to differences in employee motivation and effort over the business cycle. Practical implications Firms may wish to consider the appropriateness of linking their workers' pay to firm performance through share plans or profit shares to establish whether this improves worker wellbeing. Social implications The utility of workers may increase where firms offer some compensation via a share plan or profit share. Originality/value The literature suggests a link between share price movements and worker wellbeing, but the reasons for the link are contested. Using two very different data sources, the authors are able to show that share price increases induce higher worker wellbeing, at least in part, through wealth effects.
    Keywords: Job satisfaction,Profit Sharing,Share prices,Worker wellbeing
    Date: 2021–10
  20. By: Silvia Blasi (University of Verona); Edoardo Gobbo (University of Padova); Silvia Rita Sedita (University of Padova)
    Abstract: Smart cities are increasingly keen to establish a fruitful conversation with their citizens, to better capture their needs, and create virtual platforms for stimulating co-creation processes between government and users, with the final objective of increasing the quality of life and well-being. Social media applications provide an opportunity for dialogic communication, where, for a relatively low cost, a large amount of information reaching a wide audience can be published and exchanged in real time, fueling opportunities for citizens’ engagement. This study is based on a social media listening method, through a twitter data mining, which enabled disentangling different components of citizen engagement (popularity, commitment and virality) for a sample of Italian municipalities. In addition, we executed a deep analysis of the types of communication artifact exchanged and, through a content analysis of the tweets published by followers of the municipalities’ accounts, we identified main areas of interests of the social media conversations. Our results are based on the analysis of online conversations engaged by followers of twitter accounts of a sample of 28 Italian municipalities, chosen among the most active and densely populated. We show that municipalities tend to use the twitter account as a channel of communication to inform the population about a variety of topics, such as transports and public works, among the others. The volume of activity and number of followers (audience) vary from one municipality to the other. There is generally a negative relationship between the density of the population of a municipality and citizens’ engagement: smaller municipalities show a higher citizens’ engagement; the biggest ones, like Roma, Milan, Turin, Naples, are laggards. We finally conducted a city profiling process, which provides a representation of key citizens’ segments in terms of engagement. Policy makers could find in our work useful tools to increase citizens’ listening capacity.
    Keywords: smart cities, e-government, twitter, web scraping, social media listening, we-government
    JEL: M10 M38
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Egger, Hartmut (University of Bayreuth); Jahn, Elke (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg); Kornitzky, Stefan (University of Bayreuth)
    Abstract: We merge firm-level data on ownership linkages with administrative data on German workers to analyze how the position in a business group hierarchy affects workers' wages. To acknowledge that ownership linkages are not onedirectional, we propose an index of hierarchical distance to the ultimate owner that accounts for the complex network structure of business groups. After controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, we find a positive effect of larger hierarchical distance to the ultimate owner of a business group on workers' wages. To explain this finding, we develop a monitoring-based theory of business groups. Our model predicts higher wages to prevent shirking by workers if a larger hierarchical distance to the ultimate owner is associated with lower monitoring efficiency.
    Keywords: business groups, ownership networks, workers wages, difference-in-difference, hierarchical distance
    JEL: C23 J31 L23
    Date: 2021–12
  22. By: Rhoden, Imke; Weller, Daniel; Voit, Ann-Katrin
    Abstract: We apply a functional data approach for mixture model-based multivariate innovation clustering to identify different regional innovation portfolios in Europe. Innovation concentration is considered as pattern of specialization among innovation types. We examine patent registration data and combine them with other innovation and economic data across 225 regions, 13 years and 8 patent classes. This allows us to identify innovation clusters that are supported by several innovation- and economy-related variables. We are able to form several regional clusters according to their specific innovation types. The regional innovation cluster solutions for IPC classes for 'fixed constructions' and 'mechanical engineering' are very comparable, and relatively less comparable for 'chemistry and metallurgy'. The clusters for innovations in 'physics' and 'chemistry and metallurgy' are similar; innovations in 'electricity' and 'physics' show similar temporal dynamics. For all other innovation types, the regional clustering is different and innovation concentrations in the respective regions are unique within clusters. By taking regional profiles, strengths and developments into account, options for improved efficiency of location-based regional innovation policy in order to promote tailored and efficient innovation-promoting programs can be derived.
    Keywords: Functional Data Analysis (FDA),innovation concentration,spatio-temporal cluster modeling,multivariate cluster analysis,European innovation,cluster algorithm
    JEL: O33 R12 C38
    Date: 2021
  23. By: Susanne Elsas
    Abstract: Usually, it is expected that income increases life satisfaction. In recent years tough, research emerged that shows how subjective well-being, including satisfaction, influences objective measures, as for example income. This would then require explicit identification strategies for estimating effects of income on life satisfaction. I address this issue using German SOEP data and Lewbel’s (2012) method, which generates instruments from heteroscedasticity. This allows identification of two separate causal effects in the link between income and life satisfaction: (1) income affecting satisfaction and (2) satisfaction affecting income. This analysis focuses on life satisfaction and equivalized income, because this is the income measure most welfare analyses use to assess utility of income. Results show no significant effects of income on life satisfaction, but effects of satisfaction on income. This suggest that the effect of income on life satisfaction may be overstated in standard approaches that do not account for this reverse causality – possibly due to reverse causality, which is likely rooted in response behavior, rather than income generation.
    Keywords: Life satisfaction, income satisfaction, income, utility of income, reverse causality, instrumental variable estimation, internal instruments, lewbel instruments
    Date: 2021
  24. By: Dohse, Dirk; Goel, Rajeev K.; Göktepe‐Hultén, Devrim
    Abstract: Based on information from a large sample of German researchers and using business ownership and nascent entrepreneurship as alternative indicators of academic entrepreneurship, we use mediation analysis to analyze the direct effects of researchers' entrepreneurship attitudes, age, gender, and citizenship as well as the related indirect influences. Industrial cooperation, industry consulting, and patenting are used as alternative mediator variables. Focusing first on the overall drivers of academic entrepreneurship, the results show differences in the drivers of business ownership and nascent entrepreneurship. With regard to age, we find positive and significant indirect effects; they are negative for females; and positive for German citizens. The identification of direct and indirect channels of influence on academic entrepreneurship is the main contribution of this work.
    Date: 2021

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