nep-eur New Economics Papers
on Microeconomic European Issues
Issue of 2018‒11‒26
24 papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia

  1. Size and distributional pattern of pension-related tax expenditures in European countries By Salvador Barrios; Flavia Coda Moscarola; Francesco Figari; Luca Gandullia
  2. Euroscepticism and EU Cohesion Policy: The Impact of Micro-Level Policy Effectiveness on Voting Behavior By Julia Bachtrögler; Harald Oberhofer
  3. The Labor Market Integration of Migrants in Europe: New Evidence from Micro Data By Giang Ho; Rima Turk-Ariss
  4. The joint impact of the European Union emissions trading system on carbon emissions and economic performance By Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Daniel Nachtigall; Frank Venmans
  5. Euroscepticism and EU Cohesion Policy: The Impact of Micro-Level Policy Effectiveness on Voting Behavior By Bachtrögler, Julia; Oberhofer, Harald
  6. Skill of the Immigrants and Vote of the Natives: Immigration and Nationalism in European Elections 2007-2016 By Simone Moriconi; Giovanni Peri; Riccardo Turati
  7. Single mothers and their children: Evaluating a work-encouraging welfare reform By Loken, Katrine; Lommerud, Kjell Erik; Reiso, Katrine H.
  8. A Regression Discontinuity Evaluation of Reducing Early Retirement Eligibility in Poland By Komada, Oliwia; Strzelecki, Pawel; Tyrowicz, Joanna
  9. Long-Term Changes in Married Couples' Labor Supply and Taxes: Evidence from the US and Europe Since the 1980s By Alexander Bick; Bettina Brüggemann; Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln; Hannah Paule-Paludkiewicz
  10. Pension Communication in the Netherlands and Other Countries By Debets, Steven; Prast, Henriette; Rossi, Mariacristina; van Soest, Arthur
  11. Location choices of Swedish independent schools – How does allowing for private provision affect the geography of the education market? By Edmark, Karin
  12. Looking for the missing rich: Tracing the top tail of the wealth distribution By Stefan Bach; Andreas Thiemann; Aline Zucco
  13. Informing Students about College: An Efficient Way to Decrease the Socio-Economic Gap in Enrollment: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment By Frauke H. Peter; C. Katharina Spiess; Vaishali Zambre
  14. Inequality in Life Expectancies across Europe By Bohacek, Radim; Bueren, Jesus; Crespo, Laura; Mira, Pedro Solbes; Pijoan-Mas, Josep
  15. Economic incentives, disability insurance and labor supply By Hjellset Alne, Ragnar
  16. Long-Term Effects of the Swedish Congestion Charges By Maria Börjesson
  17. Networking theory of innovation in practice A Pan-European overview based on the Community Innovation Survey By Toth, J.; Torok, A.; Balogh, J.M.
  18. Voluntary standards as transaction governance: drivers of adoption for non-GMO certification in Europe By Stranieri, S.; Soregaroli, C.; Platoni, S.
  19. The Causal Analysis of the Development of the Unemployment Effect on Life Satisfaction By Nils Lerch
  20. Training participation and the role of reciprocal attitudes By Non, Arjan
  21. Exposure-Adjusted Road Fatality Rates for Cycling and Walking in European Countries By Alberto Castro; Sonja Kahlmeier; Thomas Gotschi
  22. Cross Cohort Evidence on Gendered Sorting Patterns in the UK: The Importance of Societal Movements versus Childhood Variables By Lekfuangfu, Warn N.; Lordan, Grace
  23. Substitution Between Online Distribution Channels: Evidence from the Oslo Hotel Market By Cazaubiel, Arthur; Cure, Morgane; Johansen, Bjørn Olav; Vergé, Thibaud
  24. Industrial relations reform, firm-level bargaining and nominal wage floors By Giannakopoulosa, Nicholas; Laliotis, Ioannis

  1. By: Salvador Barrios (European Commission - JRC); Flavia Coda Moscarola (Centre for Research on Pensions and Welfare Policies (CeRP) Collegio Carlo Alberto, Università degli Studi di Torino); Francesco Figari (Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, ISER University of Essex and CeRP); Luca Gandullia (Dipartimento di Scienze Politiche (DISPO), Università degli Studi di Genova)
    Abstract: Policy discussions on pension systems generally focus on their sustainability and design, including retirement age, income reference and contributory period while relative little attention is devoted to the tax treatment of pension contributions and pension benefits. However, tax expenditures – defined as deviations from an agreed benchmark tax system – are widely used in the EU Member States and little is known on their redistributive or fiscal impact. This paper quantifies the fiscal and distributional impact of tax expenditures related to public and private contributory pension schemes, affecting both contributions and pension benefits, in 28 European countries using EUROMOD, the EU-wide microsimulation model. We find that pension-related tax expenditures can have a sizeable revenue impact and strong effects on inequality and poverty. Moreover tax expenditures tend to be progressive at two levels. First, among elderly, favoring lower income pensioners, mainly through a favorable treatment of pension incomes. Second, among working-age individuals, through partial or no deduction of pension contributions, draining resources from those at the top of the income distribution.
    Keywords: EUROMOD, pensions, tax expenditures, inequality, taxation, fairness, life cycle
    Date: 2018–11
  2. By: Julia Bachtrögler (Austrian Institute of Economic Research); Harald Oberhofer (Department of Economics, Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: This study investigates whether there is a link between the successful implementation of European cohesion policy and the voters' attitudes towards the EU. Using the French presidential elections in 2017 as a case study, we do not solely consider regional funds expenditures but also its induced effects in a region as further potential determinant of pro-European or eurosceptic voting behavior. In order to measure the effectiveness of EU structural funds and Cohesion Fund assignment, firm-level employment effects in French NUTS-2 regions stemming from project allocation during the multi-annual financial framework 2007-2013 are estimated. The obtained average treatment effects are, in a next step, used together with other regional characteristics to capture the citizens' perceived exposure to the EU in an empirical voting model for the French presidential election in 2017. The estimation results reveal a significant negative relationship between the effectiveness of EU funds allocation and the vote share of the eurosceptic candidate Marine Le Pen.
    Keywords: Euroscepticism, EU cohesion policy, effectiveness, voting behavior, French presidential election
    JEL: C21 D72 E61 R11 R58
    Date: 2018–11
  3. By: Giang Ho; Rima Turk-Ariss
    Abstract: This paper presents novel empirical evidence on the labor market integration of migrants across Europe. It investigates how successfully migrants integrate in 13 European countries by applying a unified framework to analyze a rich micro dataset with over ten million individuals surveyed between 1998 and 2016. Focusing on employment outcomes, we document substantial heterogeneity in the patterns of labor market integration across host countries and by migrant gender and origin. Our results also point to the importance of cohorts and network effects, initial labor market conditions, and the differential impact of education acquired domestically and abroad in determining migrants’ subsequent employment prospects. The analysis has implications for the design of effective integration policies.
    Date: 2018–11–01
  4. By: Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Daniel Nachtigall; Frank Venmans
    Abstract: This paper investigates the joint impact of the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), Europe’s main climate change policy, on carbon emissions and economic performance of regulated companies. The impact on emissions is analysed using installation-level carbon emissions from national Polluting Emissions Registries from France, Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom complemented with data from the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR). The impact on firm performance is analysed using firm-level data for all countries covered by the EU ETS. A matching methodology exploiting installation-level inclusion criteria combined with difference-in-differences is used to estimate the policy’s causal impact on installations’ emissions and on firms’ revenue, assets, profits and employment. We find that the EU ETS has induced carbon emission reductions in the order of -10% between 2005 and 2012, but had no negative impact on the economic performance of regulated firms. These results demonstrate that concerns that the EU ETS would come at a cost in terms of competitiveness have been vastly overplayed. In fact, we even find that the EU ETS led to an increase in regulated firms’ revenues and fixed assets. We explore various explanations for these findings.
    Keywords: carbon emissions reductions, competitiveness, EU Emissions Trading System, firm performance
    JEL: Q52 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2018–12–06
  5. By: Bachtrögler, Julia; Oberhofer, Harald
    Abstract: This study investigates whether there is a link between the successful implementation of European cohesion policy and the voters' attitudes towards the EU. Using the French presidential elections in 2017 as a case study, we do not solely consider regional funds expenditures but also its induced effects in a region as further potential determinant of pro-European or eurosceptic voting behavior. In order to measure the effectiveness of EU structural funds and Cohesion Fund assignment, firm-level employment effects in French NUTS-2 regions stemming from project allocation during the multi-annual financial framework 2007-2013 are estimated. The obtained average treatment effects are, in a next step, used together with other regional characteristics to capture the citizens' perceived exposure to the EU in an empirical voting model for the French presidential election in 2017. The estimation results reveal a significant negative relationship between the effectiveness of EU funds allocation and the vote share of the eurosceptic candidate Marine Le Pen.
    Keywords: Euroscepticism, EU cohesion policy, effectiveness, voting behavior, French presidential election
    Date: 2018–11
  6. By: Simone Moriconi (IÉSEG School of Management and LEM); Giovanni Peri (University of California, Davis); Riccardo Turati (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))
    Abstract: In this paper we document the impact of immigration at the regional level on Europeans’ political preferences as expressed by voting behavior in parliamentary or presidential elections between 2007 and 2016. We combine individual data on party voting with a classification of each party’s political agenda on a scale of their "nationalistic" attitudes over 28 elections across 126 parties in 12 countries. To reduce immigrant selection and omitted variable bias, we use immigrant settlements in 2005 and the skill composition of recent immigrant flows as instruments. OLS and IV estimates show that larger inflows of highly educated immigrants were associated with a change in the vote of citizens away from nationalism. However the inflow of less educated immigrants was positively associated with a vote shift towards nationalist positions. These effects were stronger for non-tertiary educated voters and in response to non-European immigrants. We also show that they are consistent with the impact of immigration on individual political preferences, which we estimate using longitudinal data, and on opinions about immigrants. Conversely, immigration did not affect electoral turnout. Simulations based on the estimated coefficients show that immigration policies balancing the number of high-skilled and low-skilled immigrants from outside the EU would be associated with a shift in votes away from nationalist parties in almost all European regions.
    Keywords: Immigration, Nationalism, Elections, Europe
    JEL: D72 I28 J61
    Date: 2018–09
  7. By: Loken, Katrine; Lommerud, Kjell Erik; Reiso, Katrine H.
    Abstract: Using rich administrative data from Norway, we evaluate a 1998 work-encouraging reform targeted at single parents. We especially focus on educational performance for the children of the involved single mothers. For these children, average school grades at age 16 dropped significantly by 0.7% of a standard deviation per additional year that their mothers were exposed to the reform. Furthermore, we find that the reform affected single mothers by increasing their working hours (and thereby reducing their time at home). We find no average effect on disposable income (mothers traded off reductions in benefits with increases in earnings). Thus, reduced parental time at home seems to be the main mechanism for the observed moderate drop in children's grades. In line with this, we find that the reform increased the use of formal after-school care, and we find a larger reform effect for children of mothers with no informal network to help with child care.
    Keywords: child development; single mothers; time investments; welfare refom
    JEL: I24 I38 J13
    Date: 2018–09
  8. By: Komada, Oliwia (GRAPE); Strzelecki, Pawel (Warsaw School of Economics); Tyrowicz, Joanna (University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: The reform introduced in Poland in 2009 substantially and abruptly reduced the number of workers eligible for early retirement. This paper evaluates the causal effects of this reform on labor force participation and exit to retirement. We use rich rotating panel from the Polish Labor Force Survey and exploit the discontinuity imposed by this reform. We find a statistically significant, but economically small discontinuity at the timing of the reform. The placebo test shows no similar effects in earlier or later quarters, but in a vast majority of specifications the discontinuity is not larger for the treated individuals, i.e. those whose occupation lost eligibility. We interpret these results as follows: the changes in the eligibility criteria were not instrumental in fostering the participation rates among the affected cohort, i.e. the immediate contribution to increased labor force participation of these cohorts is not economically large.
    Keywords: retirement age, early retirement, regression discontinuity, Poland
    JEL: J14 J26
    Date: 2018–10
  9. By: Alexander Bick; Bettina Brüggemann; Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln; Hannah Paule-Paludkiewicz
    Abstract: We document the time-series of employment rates and hours worked per employed by married couples in the US and seven European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, and the UK) from the early 1980s through 2016. Relying on a model of joint household labor supply decisions, we quantitatively analyze the role of non-linear labor income taxes for explaining the evolution of hours worked of married couples over time, using as inputs the full country- and year-specific statutory labor income tax codes. We further evaluate the role of consumption taxes, gender and educational wage premia, and the educational composition. The model is quite successful in replicating the time series behavior of hours worked per employed married woman, with labor income taxes being the key driving force. It does however capture only part of the secular increase in married women’s employment rates in the 1980s and early 1990s, suggesting an important role for factors not considered in this paper. We will make the non-linear tax codes used as an input into the analysis available as a user-friendly and easily integrable set of Matlab codes.
    Keywords: taxation, two-earner households, hours worked
    JEL: E60 H20 H31 J22
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Debets, Steven; Prast, Henriette (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Rossi, Mariacristina (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); van Soest, Arthur (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)
    Abstract: In many countries, pension reforms reduce the generosity of collective pensions and shift the responsibility for an adequate standard of living after retirement to individuals and their households. Individuals have to make more decisions than before on supplementary pension savings, on how to invest their DC pension assets, etc. Making such decisions is challenging, since retirement planning requires intertemporal decision-making under uncertainty and is subject to behavioural and psychological biases. Many studies in different countries have shown that the large majority lack the interest, knowledge, or skills to make such decisions in a way that is in their own best interest. Governments and the pension industry try to assist individuals in making the right decisions through pension communication. This paper focuses on experiences with pension communication, and the lessons to be learned from them. First, the paper provides an overview of the literature, addressing how pension communication is organized across countries and what can be said about its efficiency. Second, using Dutch longitudinal data at the individual level, we analyse the relations between communication (receiving an annual pension overview), pension knowledge, and conscious pension decision-making. We investigate associations and aim at estimating causal effects exploiting the timing of events.
    Keywords: pension saving; involvement; pension knowledge; ageing; retirement
    JEL: D14 D83 H55
    Date: 2018
  11. By: Edmark, Karin (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the location decisions of Swedish start-up independent schools. It makes use of the great expansion of independent schools following a reform implemented in 1992 to test what local market characteristics are correlated with independent school entry. The results suggest that independent schools are more likely to choose locations with a higher share of students with high-educated parents; a higher student population density; and a lower share of students with Swedish-born parents. There is also some evidence that independent schools are less likely to locate in municipalities with a left-wing political majority. These results are robust to various alternative and flexible definitions of local school markets, which were employed in order to alleviate the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem. For some of the included variables, the definition of the local market however had a large impact on the results, suggesting that the issue of how to define regions in spatial analyses can be important.
    Keywords: Private provision; Mixed markets; Education sector; Modifiable Areal Unit Problem
    JEL: H44 I28 L19 R32
    Date: 2018–11–14
  12. By: Stefan Bach (German Institut for Economic Research (DIW Berlin)); Andreas Thiemann (European Commission – JRC); Aline Zucco (German Institut for Economic Research (DIW Berlin))
    Abstract: We analyze the top tail of the wealth distribution in Germany, France, and Spain based on the first and second wave of the Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS). Since top wealth is likely to be underrepresented in household surveys, we integrate big fortunes from rich lists, estimate a Pareto distribution, and impute the missing rich. In addition to the Forbes list, we rely on national rich lists since they represent a broader base for the big fortunes in those countries. As a result, the top percentile share of household wealth in Germany jumps up from 24 percent to 31 percent in the first and from 24 to 33 percent in the second wave after top wealth imputation. For France and Spain, we find only a small effect of the imputation since rich households are better captured in the survey.
    Keywords: Wealth distribution, missing rich, Pareto distribution, HFCS
    JEL: D31 C46 C81
    Date: 2018–11
  13. By: Frauke H. Peter; C. Katharina Spiess; Vaishali Zambre
    Abstract: Although the proportion of students enrolled in college increased in the last decades, students from non-college family backgrounds remain underrepresented in higher education around the world. This study sheds light on whether the provision of information in a randomized controlled trial with more than 1,000 German high school students results in higher college enrollment rates. One year prior to high school graduation, we treated students in randomly selected schools by giving an in-class presentation on the benefits and costs of higher education as well as on possible funding options for college education. We collected data from students prior to the information intervention and followed them for four consecutive years. We find evidence that an information intervention increases students’ application as well as their enrollment rates, in particular for students from non-college backgrounds with enrollment intentions prior to treatment. Moreover, treated students persist in college at a similar rate as students in the control group, i.e. they are not more likely to drop out of college. Our results indicate that a low-cost information intervention is an efficient tool to encourage students to translate their college intentions into actual enrollment.
    Keywords: college enrollment, college benefits, college costs, educational inequality, information, randomized controlled trial
    JEL: I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2018
  14. By: Bohacek, Radim; Bueren, Jesus; Crespo, Laura; Mira, Pedro Solbes; Pijoan-Mas, Josep
    Abstract: We use harmonized household panel data from 10 European countries (SHARE) plus US (HRS) and England (ELSA) to provide novel and comparable measurements of education and gender differences in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy, as well as in the underlying multi-state life tables. Common across countries we find significant interactions between socio-economic status and gender: (a) the education advantage in life expectancy is larger for males, (b) the female advantage in life expectancy is larger among the low educated, (c) education reduces disability years and this added advantage is larger for females, and (d) females suffer more disability years but this disadvantage is hardly present for the high educated. Common across countries we also find that the education advantage in disability years is due to better health transitions by the highly-educated, and that the female disadvantage in disability years is due to better survival in ill-health by females. Looking at the differences across countries, we find that inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, lowest in Scandinavia, and that the education gradient in life expectancy for males correlates positively with income inequality and negatively with public health spending across countries
    Keywords: education gradient; Gender Gap; healthy life expectancy; Life Expectancy
    JEL: I14 I24 J14 J16
    Date: 2018–09
  15. By: Hjellset Alne, Ragnar (University of Bergen, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Using a difference-in-difference model on full population data, I estimate the labor market response to a 2015 Norwegian disability insurance (DI) reform. The reform introduced an incentive program to encourage DI beneficiaries to increase their labor supply, and I find that the program significantly increased the average working hours and modestly affected the labor market participation of DI beneficiaries. There is significant heterogeneity in the estimated effects; young beneficiaries respond positively along the extensive and the intensive labor supply margins. The analysis accentuates the importance of analyzing both labor supply margins when evaluating the effects of DI reforms.
    Keywords: Disability insurance reform; labor supply; economic incentives; difference-in-difference; labor economics
    JEL: D60 H53 I38 J08 J22
    Date: 2018–06–14
  16. By: Maria Börjesson
    Abstract: This paper summarises the state of research on the long-term effects of congestion charging in Stockholm and Gothenberg. Sweden’s two largest cities introduced time-of-day dependent, cordon-based congestion charging systems in 2006 and 2013. Public support for congestion charging initially increased following the introduction, but then slightly declined after a revision of the systems. While travel demand in Stockholm has become more price sensitive over time, the reverse happened in Gothenburg. The study examines the reasons behind these findings and discusses policy implications.
    Date: 2018–10–12
  17. By: Toth, J.; Torok, A.; Balogh, J.M.
    Abstract: According to the European Innovation Scoreboard report, there is a big difference between the European Union (EU) member states innovation performance. The majority of the Southern-European countries and Member States joined to the EU in 2004 are considered as moderate innovators. On the top of the list there are the Scandinavian and the Benelux countries, the UK and Germany, while Bulgaria and Romania are the modest innovators in Europe. From an innovation point of view food industry is seen as slow one, which is lagging behind the technology pushed possibilities, but sometimes behind the costumers desires and requirements as well. In our research, we determine why the food companies in the examined European countries - do not engage in innovation activities and - if they do so, what are the main drivers of their innovation performance? We use the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) 2012 data and employ double hurdle estimation because of the nature of the innovation distribution. This method also helps in overcoming the selection bias problem, which necessarily occurs in this situation. Results prove that networking scope as well as networking intensity, play important role in explaining innovation performance. The size and market obstacles are also significant factors. Acknowledgement : Research was supported by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office of Hungary (K 120563 - Innovation resilience in food production and consumption)
    Keywords: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2018–07
  18. By: Stranieri, S.; Soregaroli, C.; Platoni, S.
    Abstract: The adoption of food standards to regulate product characteristics or its processing methods is widely widespread. Food economics literature has intensively explored the firm incentives for the adoption of safety and quality standards. A growing body of literature discusses on voluntary standards as alternative forms of governance of vertical relationships due to the increase of information transparency provided. There is a gap in the understanding of the determinants leading food firms to choose such alternative forms of transaction governance. The present study aims at exploring the significant drivers of voluntary standard adoption. To answer the questions we start from Transaction Cost Economic theory and we refer to an extended conceptual framework based on transaction risks, namely, risks arising from the opportunistic behaviour of economic agents (internal risks) and other risks related to unexpected changes in the economic environment (exogenous risks). Data was collected through interviews on an EU representative survey concerning the non-GMO voluntary standard in the soybean supply chain. The survey includes 363 companies from 15 EU countries. Preliminary results of the logit model suggest a positive relationship of transaction internal risks with the adoption of the voluntary non-GMO standard and a negative relationship of exogenous risks with the implementation of the standard. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2018–07
  19. By: Nils Lerch
    Abstract: The long-term negative effects of unemployment, especially on subjective well-being, have been indicated by many studies. Therefore, unemployment and its effects on the individual life course must remain an important challenge for social policy. Many studies have focused on the cognitive component of subjective well-being, i.e., life satisfaction, and have analysed in particular its development during the unemployment period. The trajectory is usually characterized by the effects of anticipation, reaction and adaption. Studies have shown different findings regarding the shape of the effect development. The present study discusses the effect development in greater detail and analyses whether the development of the effect is different depending on unemployment experience using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and applying fixed effects regressions. The findings of this study support a non-linear effect development, which begins with the anticipation of unemployment. The trend can be described by a linear function and polynomials up to the fifth degree. The introduction of a model according to modern causal analysis and the interpretation of the dynamic development of the counterfactual outcomes are the secondary focuses of the study. A detailed discussion of causal assumptions and necessary control variables is needed to reveal the effect of unemployment on life satisfaction. The SOEP provides information about employment status on a monthly basis. This study shows possibilities for using this information for the construction of control groups and treatment groups and analyses with ideal episode patterns.
    Keywords: unemployment, SOEP, life satisfaction, causal analysis, FE-estimations, cognitive well-being
    Date: 2018
  20. By: Non, Arjan (iza university of bonn)
    Abstract: Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), I examine the relation between workers’ reciprocal attitudes, as measured in 2005 and 2010, and participation in work-related training courses in 2007 and 2013, respectively. Theory predicts that employers find it more profitable to invest in human capital of workers who have positively reciprocal attitudes, because they are more likely to return their employer’s kindness with higher effort and/or loyalty. The findings are mixed, depending on the survey year. I find that positively reciprocal workers are more likely to participate in employer-financed training in 2007, in particular when training is general. Also consistent with theoretical expectations, I do not find a relation between workers’ reciprocal attitudes and participation in training that is not financed by the employer. However, workers’ reciprocal attitudes are not related to training participation in 2013. A possible explanation is that employers use training to induce reciprocal feelings in a slack labour market only.
    Keywords: Reciprocity, training, SOEP
    JEL: M53 D91
    Date: 2018–11–13
  21. By: Alberto Castro (University of Zurich); Sonja Kahlmeier (University of Zurich); Thomas Gotschi (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: This paper presents fatality rates for walking and cycling in European Countries used in the World Health Organization’s Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT). It evaluates and ranks the quality of data sources and gives fatality rates adjusted by exposure (i.e. distance travelled). It also discusses the different methodologies applied for national exposure data, as well as the proposed solutions to make these figures comparable across countries.
    Date: 2018–09–25
  22. By: Lekfuangfu, Warn N. (Chulalongkorn University); Lordan, Grace (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: We consider the extent to which societal shifts have been responsible for an increased tendency for females to sort into traditional male roles over time, versus childhood factors. Drawing on three cohort studies, which follow individuals born in the UK in 1958, 1970 and 2000, we compare the magnitude of the shift in the tendency of females in these cohorts to sort into traditionally male roles as compared to males, to the combined effect of a set of childhood variables. For all three cohorts we find strong evidence of sorting along gendered lines which has decreased substantively over time. We also find that there has been no erosion of the gender gap in the tendency to sort into occupations with the highest share of males. Within cohort, we find little evidence that childhood variables change the tendency for either the average or highest ability female to sort substantively differently. Our work underlines the importance of societal shifts, over and above childhood variables, in determining the sorting patterns we have seen over the last number of decades, and also those that remain today.
    Keywords: occupational choice, gender, societal change, childhood influences
    JEL: J16 J4
    Date: 2018–10
  23. By: Cazaubiel, Arthur (CREST, ENSAE ParisTech); Cure, Morgane (CREST, ENSAE ParisTech); Johansen, Bjørn Olav (University of Bergen, Department of Economics); Vergé, Thibaud (CREST, ENSAE ParisTech and University of Bergen, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Using an exhaustive database of bookings in one large chain of hotels active in Oslo (2013-2016), we estimate a nested-logit demand model that allows us to evaluate substitution patterns between online distribution channels. Making use of the chains’ decision to delist from Expedia’s platform, we can then compare simulated and actual effects of such an event on prices and market shares and identify ways to improve on simulated counterfactual outcomes.
    Keywords: Multi-channel distribution; Pricing; Structural demand estimation; Online substitution
    JEL: D22 D43 L11 L81
    Date: 2018–08–01
  24. By: Giannakopoulosa, Nicholas; Laliotis, Ioannis
    Abstract: Decentralised bargaining is an important wage setting mechanism that promotes wage flexibility which in turn determines how earnings and employment are affected by economic shocks. We investigate the impact of the 2011 industrial relations reform in Greece that allowed firms with less than 50 employees to participate in firm-level bargaining. Matching administrative contractual data with longitudinal firm-level data we identify treated and non-treated firms. We find that during the first post-reform year, treated firms with less than 50 employees experienced a 4.8 percent increase in firm-level bargaining and a 12 percent drop in wage floors relative to non-treated firms. We also document a positive employment impact.
    Keywords: Firm-level bargaining,Wages,Reform,Greece
    JEL: J31 J41 J52
    Date: 2018

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