nep-eur New Economics Papers
on Microeconomic European Issues
Issue of 2017‒09‒24
thirty-one papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia

  1. European R&D networks: A snapshot from the 7th EU Framework Programme By Sara Amoroso; Alex Coad; Nicola Grassano
  2. Asymmetric wage adjustment and employment in European firms By P. Marotzke; Richard Meade; R. Bairrao; C. Berson; P. Tóth
  3. The development of corporate tax structures in the European Union from 1998 to 2015 - Qualitative and quantitative analysis By Bräutigam, Rainer; Spengel, Christoph; Stutzenberger, Kathrin
  4. Essays on the Economics of Sustainable Energy Policies By Luisa Dressler
  5. Bullied because younger than my mates? The effect of age rank on victimization at school By Ballatore, Rosario Maria; Paccagnella, Marco; Tonello, Marco
  6. The Effect of Increased Transmission and Storage in an Interconnected Europe: an Application to France and Ireland By Valeria Di Cosmo; Sean Collins; Paul Deane
  7. Poverty and Material Deprivation among the Self-Employed in Europe: An Exploration of a Relatively Uncharted Landscape By Horemans, Jeroen; Marx, Ive
  8. Interregional Migration, Human Capital Externalities and Unemployment Dynamics: Evidence from Italian Provinces By Basile, Roberto; Girardi, Alessandro; Mantuano, Marianna; Russo, Giuseppe
  9. The Role of Inbound Tourist Flows in Promoting Exports By Zouheir El-Sahli
  10. Beyond average energy consumption in the French residential housing market: A household classification approach By Emmanuel Hache; Déborah Leboullenger; Valérie Mignon
  11. Consumer Valuation of Fuel Costs and the Effectiveness of Tax Policy - Evidence from the European Car Market By Grigolon, Laura; Reynaert, Mathias; Verboven, Frank
  12. The impact of the mortgage interest and capital deduction scheme on the Belgian mortgage market By Annelies Hoebeeck; Koen Inghelbrecht
  13. Eco-innovation strategies: Spanish service and manufacturing firms By Jové Llopis, Elisenda; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
  14. Can Financial Incentives Reduce the Baby Gap? Evidence from a Reform in Maternity Leave Benefits By Anna Raute
  15. Direct Propagation of a Fiscal Shock: Evidence from Italy's Stability Pact By Decio Coviello; Immacolata Marino; Tommaso Nannicini; Nicola Persico
  16. Creativity and the City: Testing the Attenuation of Agglomeration Economies fo r the Creative Industries in Barcelona By Coll Martínez, Eva
  17. Place branding, embeddedness and endogenous rural development: Four European cases By Mechthild Donner; Lummina Horlings; Fatiha Fort; Sietze Vellema
  18. Culture, Privacy Conception and Privacy Concern: Evidence from Europe before PRISM By Omrani, Nessrine; Soulié, Nicolas
  19. Social harmonization in the eyes of Polish stakeholders – in search of consensus By Karolina Beaumont; Katarzyna Mirecka; Izabela Styczyñska
  20. Labour supply and informal care supply: The impacts of financial support for long-term elderly care By Hollingsworth, Bruce; Ohinata, Asako; Picchio, Matteo; Walker, Ian
  21. The Trend in Labour Income Share: the Role of Technological Change and Imperfect Labour Markets By Francesco Carbonero; Christian Offermanns; Enzo Weber
  22. Impact of Very High-Speed Broadband on Local Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence By Hasbi, Maude
  23. Minimum wages and vocational training incentives in Germany By Kellermann, Kim Leonie
  24. Inefficient Short-Time Work By Cahuc, Pierre; Nevoux, Sandra
  25. An Econometric Analysis of The Impact of Telecare By Momanyi, Kevin
  26. Female Brain Drain in Poland and Germany: New Perspectives for Research By Karolina Beaumont; Matthias Dauner; Matthias Kullas
  27. Information, belief elicitation and threshold effects in the 5X1000 tax scheme: a framed field experiment By Leonardo Becchetti; Vittorio Pelligra; Tommaso Reggiani
  28. Productivity, technical efficiency and technological change in French agriculture during 2002-2014: A Färe-Primont index decomposition By K Hervé Dakpo; Yann Desjeux; Philippe Jeanneaux; Laure Latruffe
  29. Reforming housing rental market in a life-cycle model By Michal Rubaszek
  30. Clusters of specializations in the automotive supply chain in Italy. An empirical analysis using text mining By Pasquale Pavone; Margherita Russo
  31. Fuel poverty and indoor pollution: Providing financial support vs. combatting poor housing? By DorothŽe Charlier; Berang re Legendre; Anna Risch

  1. By: Sara Amoroso (European Commission - JRC); Alex Coad (CENTRUM Católica Graduate Business School, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Perú); Nicola Grassano (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: Recent empirical studies have investigated the territorial impact of Europe’s research policies, in particular the contribution of the European Framework Programmes to the integration of a European Research Area. This paper deepens the analysis on the integration and participation of peripheral regions, by focusing on the differences in intensity and determinants of inter-regional collaborations across three groups of collaborations. We consider collaborations among more developed regions, between more and less developed regions, and among less developed regions. Building on the recent spatial interaction literature, this paper investigates the effects of physical, institutional, social and technological proximity on the intensity of inter-regional research collaboration across heterogeneous European regions. We find that the impact of disparities in human capital and technological proximity on regional R&D cooperation is relevant and differs across subgroups of collaborations. Moreover, despite the efforts of integrating marginal actors, peripheral regions have lower rates of collaborations.
    Keywords: European Research Area, spatial interaction modelling, R&D collaboration, regional integration
    JEL: O38 L14 F15 R15
    Date: 2017–07
  2. By: P. Marotzke; Richard Meade; R. Bairrao; C. Berson; P. Tóth
    Abstract: We explore the impact of wage adjustment on employment with a focus on the role of downward nominal wage rigidities. We use a harmonised survey dataset, which covers 25 European countries in the period 2010-2013. These data are particularly useful for this paper given the firm-level information on the change in economic conditions and collective pay agreements. Our findings confirm the presence of wage rigidities in Europe: first, collective pay agreements reduce the probability of downward wage adjustment; second, the rise in the probability of downward base wage responses following a decrease in demand is significantly smaller than the rise in the probability of an upward wage response associated with an increase in demand. Estimation results point to a negative effect of downward wage rigidities on employment at the firm level.
    Keywords: Wage rigidity, Employment, Demand shocks.
    JEL: J23 J30
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Bräutigam, Rainer; Spengel, Christoph; Stutzenberger, Kathrin
    Abstract: Ongoing tax reform processes, competitive pressures and the consequences of the financial and sovereign debt crisis have considerably shaped the tax systems of the Member States of the European Union in the last two decades. Our paper combines a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the development of European tax structures based on a unique and comprehensive dataset for the EU-25 Member States between 1998 and 2015. Especially among the EU-15 Member States, we still find evidence for the often-cited trend of tax rate cut cum tax base broadening. In this context, we identify interest deduction limitation rules and loss provisions as main drivers of tax base broadening. Furthermore, the quantitative analysis of effective tax burden scenarios shows that Member States seem to additionally rely on an increased taxation of dividends to balance possible revenue losses associated with reduced corporate income tax rates.
    Keywords: Tax Policy,Corporate Taxation,European Union
    JEL: H20 H25 K34
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Luisa Dressler
    Abstract: This dissertation seeks to contribute to the policy discussion on how to design efficient and sustainable energy policies. In three self-contained chapters, it applies microeconomic theory and empirical analysis to identify three market failures in European energy markets and to evaluate specific policy measures that strive to overcome these failures in order to increase market efficiency and to enhance environmental or societal sustainability. Chapter 1 and 2 study European electricity markets, which play an important role in the transition towards a carbon-neutral energy future. Overcoming barriers to efficient electricity markets is a crucial step to keep the costs of this transition as low as possible to society. Both chapters focus on obstacles to electricity market efficiency that have recently been highlighted by the European Commission. On the supply side, subsidies for renewable electricity may distort production incentives and competition in wholesale electricity markets. Chapter 1 applies a theoretical model to study the effect of different subsidies on producer strategies and competition in wholesale electricity markets. On the demand side, the European Commission seeks to overcome the reluctance of residential electricity consumers to switch electricity supplier in order to ensure effective competition in the retail electricity market. Chapter 2 empirically quantifies different reasons for switching inertia using a structural discrete choice model and performs counterfactual analysis to study the effect of different policy measures that seek to overcome switching inertia. Chapter 3 looks at the building sector, which accounts for 40% of final energy consumption in Europe and is a major emitter of carbon emissions. In the residential housing market information asymmetries hamper incentives to invest in energy efficiency improvements of rental property. This chapter empirically analyzes the effect of a European policy that mandates the use of energy performance certificates aiming at establishing an efficient market for energy efficient dwellings.
    Keywords: Energy Policy; Renewable Electricity; Feed-in Tariff; Feed-in Premium; Cournot Model; Electricity Contract Choice
    Date: 2017–09–01
  5. By: Ballatore, Rosario Maria; Paccagnella, Marco; Tonello, Marco
    Abstract: Using census data on three cohorts of 5th grade Italian students we investigate how the ordinal rank in the within-school age distribution affects the probability of being bullied. Identification is achieved by exploiting within-school between-cohort variation in the age composition of different school cohorts, and through an IV strategy based on the discontinuity in the probability of enrolling in a given school year generated by an end-of-year cut-off rule. We find that being in the upper part of the school age distribution reduces the probability of being bullied: a one-decile increase in the within-school rank decreases the probability of being victimized by about one percentage point. The effects are stronger for females, children from disadvantaged backgrounds, and children spending the entire day at school; they do not depend on the choice of the reference group, as defined according to socio-demographic characteristics.
    Keywords: bullying,ordinal rank,relative age,school violence
    JEL: I21 J24 Z13
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Valeria Di Cosmo (FEEM); Sean Collins (MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork); Paul Deane (MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork)
    Abstract: A longstanding goal of the European Union (EU) is to promote efficient trading between price zones via electricity interconnection to achieve a single electricity market between the EU countries. This paper uses a power system model (PLEXOS-EU) to simulate one vision of the 2030 EU electricity market based on European Commission studies to determine the effects of a new interconnector between France and the Single Electricity Market of Ireland and Northern Ireland (SEM). We use the same tool to understand the effects of investment in storage, and the effects of the interaction between storage and additional interconnection. Our results show that both investments in interconnection and storage reduce wholesale electricity prices in France and Ireland as well as reduce net revenues of thermal generators in most scenarios in both countries. However, France is only marginally affected by the new interconnector. Renewable generators see a modest increase in net revenues. The project has the potential for a positive impact on welfare in Ireland if costs are shared between countries and remain below 45 million €/year for the scenarios examined. The owners of the new interconnector between France and SEM see increased net revenues in the scenarios without storage. When storage is included in the system, the new interconnector becomes less profitable.
    Keywords: Interconnection, Renewable Generation, Storage
    JEL: Q4 Q48
    Date: 2017–09
  7. By: Horemans, Jeroen (University of Antwerp); Marx, Ive (University of Antwerp)
    Abstract: In work-poverty has become a pressing social issue in Europe. The self-employed remain relatively uncharted terrain in this context. With about 15 percent of European workers in self-employment this group can no longer be ignored, especially since self-employment is on the rise in many countries, particularly own-account self-employment. Drawing on EU-SILC data this paper provides a systematic mapping exercise of poverty and living standards among the self-employed in the European Union. We find that the self-employed in Europe generally face significantly higher income poverty risks than contracted workers. Looking in more detail at the drivers of income poverty among the self-employed we find that in addition to lower reported earnings, lower overall work-intensity at the household level appears to be an important driver. However, while income poverty levels are quite significant among the self-employed, material deprivation rates are generally much lower. The discrepancy between income poverty measures and material deprivation measures is much larger for the self-employed than it is for employees. One possible explanation is that the self-employed can more often draw on assets accumulated over the life cycle or on business assets they control. The self-employed constitute a very mixed segment of the workforce and within-group inequality is quite significant. One group emerges as being particularly at-risk of poverty are own-account workers, substantiating worries about the rise of this form of self-employment. While the paper offers extensive descriptive analysis and some tentative explanations, an important and sizable research agenda remains.
    Keywords: in-work poverty, material deprivation, self-employment, Europe
    JEL: I32 I38 J21 J22 L26
    Date: 2017–09
  8. By: Basile, Roberto; Girardi, Alessandro; Mantuano, Marianna; Russo, Giuseppe
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of interregional migration on regional unemployment in Italy. With the help of a simple two-region model adapted to the main features of the Italian NorthSouth dualism, we illustrate the effects of labor mobility with and without human capital externalities. Using longitudinal data over the years 2002-2011 for 103 NUTS-3 Italian regions, we document that net outflows of human capital from the South to the North have increased the unemployment rate in the South, while it did not affect the unemployment rate in the North. Our analysis contributes to the literature on interregional human capital mobility suggesting that reducing human capital flight from Southern regions should be a priority.
    Keywords: Unemployment,Migration,Human Capital,Exernalities,Italian Regions
    JEL: C23 R23 J61
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Zouheir El-Sahli (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille)
    Abstract: While it is established that tourism benefits growth through increased employment and investments, it is not well understood whether tourism has an effect on exports. This paper explores exports as an additional channel through which tourism affects domestic economic activity. Using bilateral tourist and trade flows, I explore the causal effect of tourist flows on exports. To deal with endogeneity, I construct two instruments that I use on two different sets of exporters. The evidence points in the same direction. I find that tourism affects mainly the exports of differentiated products. Specifically, I find that tourism benefits the exports from non-OECD exporters of processed food products and this effect is only estimated for South-North trade with an elasticity close to 1. For European countries, the findings point in the same direction; tourism affects differentiated consumer products and processed food with elasticity close to 1, which adds plausibility to the earlier results. I also find a lagged effect for tourism mainly on the export of consumer goods (for the two samples) and processed food products (for European countries). The results suggest that exports is an additional channel through which tourism can stimulate domestic economic activity in the tourist destination.
    Keywords: tourism, globalization, trade, gravity, terrorism
    JEL: F1
    Date: 2017–05
  10. By: Emmanuel Hache (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles); Déborah Leboullenger (BPCE - BPCE, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Valérie Mignon (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique)
    Abstract: In a new environment marked by the growing importance of Green House Gas emissions, fuel poverty, and energy efficiency in the different national agendas, the comprehension of energy demand factors appears to be crucial for the effectiveness of energy policies. We consider the latter could be improved by targeting specific household groups rather than looking to follow a single energy consumption level target. This article explores the scope of having a disaggregated energy consumption market to design policies aimed at curbing residential energy consumption or lowering its carbon intensity. Using a clustering method based on the CHAID (Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detection) methodology, we find that the different levels of energy consumption in the French residential sector are related to socio-economic, dwelling and regional characteristics. Then, we build a typology of energy-consuming households where targeted groups (fuel poor, high income and high consuming households) are clearly and separately identified through a simple and transparent set of characteristics. This classification represents an efficient tool for energy efficiency programs and energy poverty policies, but also for potential investors, which could provide specific and tailor made financial tools for the different consumer groups. Furthermore, our approach helps designing some energy efficiency score that could reduce the rebound effect uncertainty for each identified household group.
    Keywords: Energy consumption,Residential sector,Clustering method,France
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Grigolon, Laura; Reynaert, Mathias; Verboven, Frank
    Abstract: To what extent do car buyers undervalue future fuel costs, and what does this imply for the effectiveness and welfare impact of alternative tax policies' To address both questions, we show it is crucial to account for consumer heterogeneity in mileage and other dimensions. We use detailed product-level data for a long panel of European countries, and exploit variation in fuel costs by engine type. Although we find there is modest undervaluation of fuel costs, fuel taxes are still more effective in reducing fuel usage than product taxes based on fuel economy. Importantly, fuel taxes also perform better in terms of total welfare even when usage demand is held completely fixed. The reason is that fuel taxes better target the right consumers, those with a high mileage, to purchase more fuel efficient cars.
    Date: 2017–08
  12. By: Annelies Hoebeeck (Department Public Governance, Management and Finance, Department Financial Economics, Ghent University); Koen Inghelbrecht (Department Financial Economics, Ghent University)
    Abstract: In 2005, mortgage interest, capital deductions and insurance premiums (MICPD) were assembled into one single deduction package to further stimulate home ownership in Belgium. Former research has shown that the MICPD did not raise the probability of becoming a home owner, due to its capitalisation into higher house prices. The objective of this paper is to investigate how the transmission of the capitalisation takes place. The analysis is based on data extracted from the Household Finance and Consumption Survey. The mortgage amount, the mortgage maturity, the interest rate and the house price are estimated simultaneously using a 3-SLS approach. The results suggest that the mortgage deduction does not result in more affordable housing by shortening the mortgage maturity. Most likely, the mortgage deduction results in larger amounts being borrowed, which in turn may indirectly push up house prices, the mortgage maturity and the interest rate as well. Although our estimation sample is rather small, these results suggest that the MICPD might be more beneficial for sellers and mortgage-granting institutions than for home owners.
    Keywords: Mortgages, tax policy, house prices, mortgage interest deduction, household borrowing
    JEL: G21 H24 H31
    Date: 2017–09
  13. By: Jové Llopis, Elisenda; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
    Abstract: The drivers for the adoption of an eco-innovation strategy have been widely explored in the recent literature but, to date, most of these studies have been carried out on manufacturing industries. Hence, this paper investigates the similarities and differences between service and manufacturing firms, distinguishing between the high-tech and lowtech sectors. Using panel data of 4,535 Spanish firms for the period 2008—2014, we specify a dynamic probit model with sample selection. In line with other contributions in the literature, our results confirm the importance of regulatory stimulus to eco-innovation, mainly in form of demand-pull and, especially, in terms of demand push (subsidies) for sectors with low technology intensities. Institutional sources of information seem to be a more important driver for services firms with high technology intensity, whereas manufacturing firms rely more on internal or other sources of information. Furthermore, we find that eco-innovation is highly persistent at the firm level in both sectors and at both technology intensities. Hence, past eco-innovation behaviour is clearly more decisive in explaining the current state of eco-innovation orientation. Keywords: eco-innovation strategy, environmental innovation, service sector, manufacturing sector, green strategy, Spain. JEL Classification Numbers: O31. Q55
    Keywords: Planificació estratègica -- Aspectes ambientals, Innovacions tecnològiques -- Aspectes ambientals, Sector terciari, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Anna Raute
    Abstract: To assess whether earnings-dependent maternity leave positively impacts fertility and narrows the baby gap between high educated (high earning) and low educated (low earning) women, I exploit a major maternity leave benefit reform in Germany that considerably increases the financial incentives for higher educated and higher earning women to have a child. In particular, I use the large differential changes in maternity leave benefits across education and income groups to estimate the effects on fertility up to 5 years post reform. In addition to demonstrating an up to 22% increase in the fertility of tertiary educated versus low educated women, I find a positive, statistically significant effect of increased benefits on fertility, driven mainly by women at the middle and upper end of the education and income distributions. Overall, the results suggest that earnings-dependent maternity leave benefits, which compensate women commensurate with their opportunity cost of childbearing, could successfully reduce the fertility rate disparity related to mothers’ education and earnings.
    JEL: J13 J16 J18
    Date: 2017–09
  15. By: Decio Coviello (HEC, Montreal); Immacolata Marino (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF); Tommaso Nannicini (Università Bocconi); Nicola Persico (Northwestern University)
    Abstract: This paper documents: the channels through which local governments propagate a fiscal shock; and the corresponding reaction by firms in the affected upstream sector (municipal procurement). The shock is provided by an Italian fiscal rule, called Patto di stabilita' dei comuni, which was tightened unexpectedly in 2008 and applied only to municipalities with population greater than 5,000. Using a difference-indifference identification strategy, we estimate that this shock led to a 13-20% reduction of infrastructure spending in treated municipalities, or equivalently, an 80% reduction in the average municipality. In contrast, current expenditure was not affected. In the upstream sector, i.e., the infrastructure procurement sector, firms reacted to the demand shock by cutting capital rather than labor. In both cases, then, the capital/investment sector is found to be a pre-eminent channel of direct shock propagation. In addition, the fiscal demand shock is found to propagate disproportionately through those private-sector firms which are most exposed to the shocked sector. This finding suggests that direct shock transmission depends on the higher moments of the exposure distribution, beyond the average sectoral exposure that is represented by the input-output linkages. Using procurement-market data we rule out the possibility that our estimates are attenuated by spillover effects operating through competition in the procurement market.
    Keywords: fiscal rules, industry dynamics, firm dynamics.
    JEL: D44 D72 D73 H57 H70
    Date: 2017–09–13
  16. By: Coll Martínez, Eva
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to infer the spatial extent of agglomeration economies for the creative service industries (SCI) in Barcelona and its relationship with firms’ performance. Using data from Mercantile Register (SABI) that provides micro-geographic data of firms between 2006 and 2015 I estimate the effect of intra-industry and inter-industry agglomeration in rings around location on productivity in Barcelona. Main results are that, (1) for CSI, at a micro-spatial level, localisation economies are not so relevant, although much work still remains to be done on this issue ; (2) while for Non-SCI having creative workers in the near proximity (250 metres) seems to enhance their productivity; and (3) for the symbolic - based CSI localisation economies – mainly understood as networking and knowledge externalities – have positive effects on TFP at shorter distances (less than 250 metres), while for the two other knowledge based CSI (i.e., synthetic and analytical) localisation economies seem not to be so relevant. These results strongly suggest the importance of networking or information spillovers in CIs, which are strongly concentrated in the largest cities. Keywords: creative industries, agglomeration economies, distance - based methods, micro-geographic data, Barcelona
    Keywords: Creativitat en els negocis -- Barcelona, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2017
  17. By: Mechthild Donner (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Lummina Horlings (Planning Department - University of Groningen); Fatiha Fort (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Sietze Vellema (Knowledge, Technology and Innovation group - WUR - Wageningen University and Research Centre [Wageningen])
    Abstract: This article deals with place branding on the regional scale, in the rural context of food and tourism networks in Europe. Place branding is linked to the concepts of endogenous rural development, territory and embeddedness, by analysing how the valorisation of specific rural assets takes shape. The overall objective is to provide more understanding of how the branding of rural regions can contribute to endogenous rural development. Four European regional rural cases on place branding are explored, two from France, one from Ireland and one from Germany. Described are pre-conditions for branding, brand management, cooperation forms and development outcomes. The analysis is based on interviews as primary data and various secondary data. The cases all involve multiple stakeholders, and integrate the capacities and needs of local people. The findings show different levels of societal, structural and territorial embeddedness, and that higher degrees of embeddedness contribute to a successful branding process. The results indicate that place branding can support endogenous rural development and benefits from the adoption of common values and joint reflections on brand extensions, although there remains a need for more consistent impact measurement methods.
    Keywords: place branding,rural areas,food network,embeddedness,regional development,endogenous development,public image,vertical integration,ireland republic,image de marque,milieu rural,intégration,développement endogène,développement régional,marketing,France,allemagne,irlande
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Omrani, Nessrine; Soulié, Nicolas
    Abstract: This article analyses individuals’ online privacy concerns between cultural country groups. We use a dataset of more than 14 000 Internet users collected by the European Union in 2010 in 26 EU countries. We use a probit model to examine the variables associated with the probability of being concerned about privacy, in order to draw policy and regulatory implications. The results show that women and poor people are more concerned than their counterparts. People who often use Internet are not privacy concerned. Privacy concerned people are those who have heard bad privacy experience in the media, through word of mouth or have acquaintance who have bad privacy experience. Trusting Internet company leads to no privacy concern. Individuals in hierarchical and competitive countries are privacy concerned and those in countries characterized by equality, cooperation, and favorable for change are not privacy concerned. And finally, having a large view of information considered as personal leads to be privacy concerned.
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Karolina Beaumont; Katarzyna Mirecka; Izabela Styczyñska
    Abstract: Aspects of labor mobility and discrepancies in social benefits schemes in Member States became an urgent matter to address. Revision of the Posting of Workers Directive, the European Pillar of Social Rights and the European Mobility Package were aimed at introducing more harmonization within the EU countries. However, the EU propositions faced a strong resistance from some groups of stakeholders and Member States. Moreover, the debate has been evolving quickly given recent events such as the economic and migration crises and Brexit. CASE held a forum with various Polish stakeholders, where CASE experts gathered views on the future of social situation in the EU. They are all summarized in this Policy Brief. Main policy recommendations emphasize that proposed legislation is important for Poland, however it still needs more debate, since under current form certain policies might be harmful for many EU Member States.
    Keywords: posted workers, labor mobility, social harmonization, social model, social rights, social convergence, labor market
    JEL: J31 J32 J61 H53
    Date: 2017–03
  20. By: Hollingsworth, Bruce; Ohinata, Asako; Picchio, Matteo; Walker, Ian
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of a policy reform, which introduced free formal personal care for all those aged 65 and above, on caregiving behaviour. Using a difference-indifferences estimator, we estimate that the free formal care reduced the probability of co-residential informal caregiving by 12.9%. Conditional on giving co-residential care, the mean reduction in the number of informal care hours is estimated to be 1:2 hours per week. The effect is particularly strong among older and less educated caregivers. In contrast to co-residential informal care, we find no change in extraresidential caregiving behaviour. We also observe that the average labour market participation and the number of hours worked increased in response to the policy introduction.
    Keywords: Long-term elderly care,ageing,financial support,informal caregiving,difference-in-differences
    JEL: C21 D14 I18 J14
    Date: 2017
  21. By: Francesco Carbonero; Christian Offermanns; Enzo Weber
    Abstract: The non-constancy of factor shares is drawing the attention of many researchers. We document an average drop of the labour share of 8 percentage points for eight European countries and the US between 1980 and 2007. We investigate theoretically and empirically two mechanisms: the substitution between Information Communication Technology (ICT) and labour and the presence of hiring costs. We find that the ICT-labour replacement is a promising channel to explain the decline of the labour share, though labour market frictions takes part of its explanatory power over. In particular, hiring costs have a bigger role in Europe than in the US. Finally, by modelling the elasticity of substitution between ICT and labour as a function of institutional and structural variables, we find that it correlates with the share of routine occupations (positively) and with the share of high-skill workers (negatively).
    Date: 2017–09
  22. By: Hasbi, Maude
    Abstract: I estimate the impact of very high-speed broadband networks on some measures of local economic growth in France. I use panel data estimations with time- and municipal-fixed effects. I show that municipalities with a very high-speed broadband network tend to be more attractive for companies. I find a positive impact on the number of companies of all non-farm market sectors operating locally, along with a positive impact on company creation. In addition, municipalities with a very high-speed broadband network provide a more favorable environment for entrepreneurship, as it has a positive effect on the creation of sole proprietorships. The estimation results also show a positive impact on unemployment reduction.
    Keywords: Fiber,Very High-Speed Broadband,Local Economic Growth,Company Creation
    JEL: L13 L50 L96
    Date: 2017
  23. By: Kellermann, Kim Leonie
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of sector-specific minimum wages in Germany on the willingness of youths to undergo vocational training. The theoretical impact of wage floors on educational incentives is ambiguous: on the one hand, they raise the opportunity cost of education and prevent further skill accumulation. On the other hand, they lower the employment probability of unskilled workers which promotes additional training. We use a GSOEP-based sample of youths aged 17 to 24, covering a time period between 1994 and 2014 in order to estimate the probability of opting for an apprenticeship employing a mixed logit model. Contrasting with evidence from other countries, we find that increasing sectoral wage floors have a positive effect on already high training probabilities of youths. In case of binding minimum wages, demand for unskilled workers declines which lowers the opportunity cost of education. This effect is reinforced by high requirements concerning professional skills.
    JEL: C33 I21 I28 J24
    Date: 2017
  24. By: Cahuc, Pierre; Nevoux, Sandra
    Abstract: This paper shows that the reforms which expanded short-time work in France after the great 2008-2009 recession were largely to the benefit of large firms which are recurrent short-time work users. We argue that this expansion of short-time work is an inefficient way to provide insurance to workers, as it entails cross-subsidies which reduce aggregate production. An efficient policy should provide unemployment insurance benefits funded by experience rated employers' contributions instead of short-time work benefits. We find that short-time work entails significant production losses compared to an unemployment insurance scheme with experience rating.
    Keywords: experience rating; Short-time work; Unemployment insurance
    JEL: J63 J65
    Date: 2017–09
  25. By: Momanyi, Kevin
    Abstract: This paper presents some preliminary results of a study investigating the effect of telecare on the length of stay in hospital using linked administrative health and social care data in Scotland. We make various assumptions about the probability distribution of the outcome measure and formulate three Negative Binomial Models to that effect i.e. a basic Negative Binomial Model, a zero-inflated Negative Binomial Model and a zero-truncated Negative Binomial Model. We then bring the models to data and estimate them using a strategy that controls for the effects of confounding variables and unobservable factors. These models provide an alternative to the Propensity Score Matching technique used by the previous studies. The empirical results show that telecare users are expected to spend a shorter time in hospital than non-users, holding other factors constant. The results also show that older individuals, females, rural residents and individuals with comorbidities have a longer length of stay in hospital, on average, than their counterparts, all things equal. Future research will involve conducting a sub-group analysis, investigating the effectiveness of various telecare devices and determining the impact of telecare on admission to hospital.
    Keywords: Telecare,Negative Binomial Models,Length of stay in hospital
    JEL: C32 C36 D13 I12
    Date: 2017
  26. By: Karolina Beaumont; Matthias Dauner; Matthias Kullas
    Abstract: This report provides an analysis of the issues related to female brain drain between Poland and Germany in the years 1989-2015: female and male migration patterns during specific time periods, the challenges of female migration, the emigration of highly-skilled individuals in Poland and Germany, as well as the issues regarding brain drain from a gender perspective.
    Keywords: Brain drain, brain gain, brain circulation, labour migration, intra-EU migration, Poland, Germany, gender equality, women’s migration, highly-educated migrants
    JEL: J11 J16 J24 F22 O15 R23
    Date: 2017–03
  27. By: Leonardo Becchetti; Vittorio Pelligra; Tommaso Reggiani
    Abstract: In this paper, we study by means of a framed field experiment on a representative sample of the population the effect on people's charitable giving of three, substantial and procedural, elements: information provision, belief elicitation and threshold on distribution. We frame this investigation within the 5X1000 tax scheme, a mechanism through which Italian taxpayers may choose to give a small proportion (0.5%) of their income tax to a voluntary organization to fund its activities. We find two main results: (i) providing information or eliciting beliefs about previous donations increases the likelihood of a donation, while thresholds have no effect; (ii) information about previous funding increases donations to organizations that received fewer donations in the past, while belief elicitation also increases donations to organizations that received most donations in the past, since individuals are more likely to donate to the organizations they rank first.
    Date: 2017
  28. By: K Hervé Dakpo; Yann Desjeux; Philippe Jeanneaux; Laure Latruffe
    Abstract: The objective of the article is to assess productivity change in French agriculture during 2002-2014, namely total factor productivity (TFP) change and its components technological change and technical efficiency change. For this, we use the economically-ideal Färe-Primont index which verifies the multiplicatively completeness property and is also transitive, allowing for multi-temporal/lateral comparisons. To compare the technology gap change between the six types of farming considered, we extend the Färe-Primont to the meta-frontier framework. Results indicate that during 2002-2014, all farms experienced a TFP progress. Pig and/or poultry farms had the lowest TFP increase, while beef farms had the highest (19.1%). The latter farms had the strongest increase in technical efficiency, while technological progress was the highest for mixed farms. The meta-frontier analysis shows that field crop farms’ technology is the most productive of all types of farming.
    Keywords: total factor productivity (TFP), Färe-Primont index, meta-frontier, French farms
    JEL: D24 O47 Q10
    Date: 2017
  29. By: Michal Rubaszek
    Abstract: Housing rental market share in most countries around the world is low. We explore the reasons behind this underdevelopment with a survey conducted among a representative group of 1005 Poles. It turns out that strong tenure preferences of households toward owning can be attributed to both economic and psychological factors. Building on these findings, we develop a life-cycle model and evaluate the effect of the following reforms aimed at improving the functioning of the rental market: (i) changing the quality of rental services, (ii) reducing the risk of investment in rental housing and (iii) removing fiscal incentives for owning. The results indicate that the reforms, if introduced simultaneously, significantly increase the rental market share.
    Keywords: Housing rental market, survey data, life-cycle model, heterogenous agent model.
    JEL: D91 E21 R21
    Date: 2017–09
  30. By: Pasquale Pavone; Margherita Russo
    Abstract: The wide literature exploring supply chains is polarized on two perspectives: micro analyses focusing on management strategies of companies, and macro assessment of cross-country interdependences. In order to explore the ongoing innovation paths, this paper adopts a third perspective on the supply chain, focusing on the internal structure of specializations within the automotive supply chain in Italy. If we compare the degree of fragmentation across global value chains, the automotive supply chain has the highest degree of fragmentation. With regard to Italy, its structural characteristics (number, size of companies, location) and dynamics of change deserve attention both for its large share in domestic production and for its interconnections with other supply chains. In this paper, we explore a strategy to identify a classification of specializations within the automotive supply chain grounded on the textual description of activities provided by companies when they register their business. Pending the acquisition of the database for the other years of the Observatory, in this work the analysis refers only to 2017 data.
    Keywords: automotive supply chains, industrial specialization, fragmentation, textual analysis, regional analysis, similarity analysis, IRaMuTeQ, Taltac2
    JEL: L62 R12 Z13
    Date: 2017–08
  31. By: DorothŽe Charlier (IAE Savoie Mont Blanc); Berang re Legendre (IAE Savoie Mont Blanc); Anna Risch (UniversitŽ Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the causal effect of two social policies on fuel poverty. The potential spillover effects of such policies on pollution are also considered. We apply matching methods to assess the impact of social energy tariff and social housing on fuel poverty. We show that social housing, probably by impacting the housing energy efficiency, allows reducing fuel poverty by about 5.9%. On the contrary, the price based policy Ð the social energy tariff- has no impact on fuel poverty. By demonstrating that fuel poor households emit significantly more pollutant gazes, we foresee then the potential spillover effects of policies decreasing fuel poverty: developing social housing could lead to reduce pollution and improve public health. The present research opens up space for a public debate on the image of social housing, which needs clearly to be rehabilitated in France.
    Keywords: Fuel Poverty, Social housing, social energy tariff, indoor pollution, matching method
    JEL: Q41 C52 Q51
    Date: 2017–09

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