nep-eur New Economics Papers
on Microeconomic European Issues
Issue of 2017‒03‒19
twenty-six papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia

  1. The joint decision of female labour supply and childcare in Italy under costs and availability constraints By Figari, Francesco; Narazani, Edlira
  2. Wind, Storage, Interconnection and the Cost of Electricity Generation By Di Cosmo, Valeria; Malaguzzi Valeri, Laura
  3. Maternal Employment Effects of Paid Parental Leave By Annette Bergemann; Regina T. Riphahn
  4. Paid Parental Leave and Child Development: Evidence from the 2007 German Parental Benefit Reform and Administrative Data By Mathias Huebener; Daniel Kuehnle; C. Katharina Spiess
  5. Closing the gender gap in pensions. A microsimulation analysis of the Norwegian NDC pension system By Elin Halvorsen; Axel West Pedersen
  6. The Extension of Short-time Work Schemes during the Great Recession: A Story of Success? By Hertweck, Matthias Sebastian; Brey, Björn
  7. Changing incentives for early retirement - Causal evidence from a cohort based pension reform By Geyer, Johannes; Engels, Barbara; Haan, Peter
  8. Competition and physician behaviour: Does the competitive environment the propensity to issue sickness certificates? By Brekke, Kurt R.; Holmås, Tor Helge; Monstad, Karin; Straume, Odd Rune
  9. Do low-skilled employed workers benefit from further training subsidies? By Dauth, Christine
  10. Do hospitals respond to rivals’ quality and efficiency? a spatial econometrics approach By Francesco Longo; Luigi Siciliani; Hugh Gravelle; Rita Santos
  11. Can Television Reduce Xenophobia? - The Case of East Germany By Lars Hornuf; Marc Oliver Rieger
  12. Becoming an Entrepreneur - The Role of Profit Taxes By Berger, Melissa; Misch, Florian; Voget, Johannes
  13. Compensation Schemes for learning a Lingua Franca in the European Union By Victor Ginsburgh; Juan D. Moreno-Ternero
  14. Cost Pass-Through in the Swedish Coffee Market By Durevall, Dick
  15. Global Value Chains and Wages: International Evidence from Linked Worker-Industry Data By Aleksandra Parteka; Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz
  16. The income distribution of voters: a case study from Germany By Engelhardt, Carina; Wagener, Andreas
  17. Banks’ Adjustment to Basel III Reform; A Bank-Level Perspective for Emerging Europe By Michal Andrle; Vladimír Tomšík; Jan Vlcek
  18. Economic systems and risk preferences: evidence from East and West Germany By Neugart, Michael
  19. Outmigration and income assimilation during the first post-EU-enlargement migrants’ first decade in Sweden By Ruist, Joakim
  20. Long Term Impacts of Class Size in Compulsory School By Leuven, Edwin; Løkken, Sturla Andreas
  21. Income effects on children’s life satisfaction: Longitudinal Evidence for England By Knies, Gundi
  22. The Effects of Birth Weight on Hospitalizations and Sickness Absences By Helgertz, Jonas; Nilsson, Anton
  23. Should I Go by Bus? The Liberalization of the Long-Distance Bus Industry in France By Thierry Blayac; Patrice Bougette
  24. Has cultural heritage monetary value an impact on visits? An assessment using Italian official data By Calogero Guccio; Domenico Lisi; Anna Mignosa; Ilde Rizzo
  25. How Going to School Affects the Family By Rasmus Landersø; Helena Skyt Nielsen; Marianne Simonsen

  1. By: Figari, Francesco; Narazani, Edlira
    Abstract: It is widely recognized that childcare has important pedagogical, economic and social effects on both children and parents. This paper is the first attempt to estimate a joint structural model of female labour supply and childcare behaviour applied to Italy in order to analyse the effects of relaxing the existing constraints in terms of childcare availability and costs by considering public, private and informal childcare. Results suggest that Italian households might alter their childcare and labour supply behaviours substantially if the coverage rate of formal childcare increases to reach the European targets. Overall, increasing child care coverage is estimated to be more effective in enhancing labour incentives than decreasing existing child care costs, at the same budgetary cost.
    Date: 2017–03–08
  2. By: Di Cosmo, Valeria; Malaguzzi Valeri, Laura
    Abstract: We evaluate how increasing wind generation affects wholesale electricity prices, balancing payments and the cost of subsidies using the Irish Single Electricity Market (SEM) as a test system, with hourly data from 1 January 2008 to 28 August 2012. We model the spot market using a system of seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) where the regressions are the 24 hours of the day. Wind has a negative impact on the system marginal price, with every MWh increase in wind generation (equal to about 0.2% of the average wind generation in our sample) leading to a decrease of the system marginal price of €0.018/MWh, or about 0.3% of its average value. We use time series models to analyse the balancing market and show that wind generation increases balancing payments, as do the forecast errors of demand and wind. Every MWh of additional wind generation is associated with an increase in constraint payments of €3.2, or about 0.01%. Lack of storage increases the impact of wind on balancing payments whereas the lack of interconnection has no effect. Overall, wind decreases costs through its effect on the electricity price more than it increases constraint payments, even when storage is on outage. The effect of wind remains positive after including the cost of subsidies given to wind generation.
    Keywords: Wind Generation, Constraints, Storage, Interconnection, Subsidies, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, L94, Q42,
    Date: 2017–03–03
  3. By: Annette Bergemann; Regina T. Riphahn
    Abstract: We study the short, medium, and longer run employment effects of a substantial change in the parental leave benefit program in Germany. In 2007, a means-tested parental leave transfer program that had paid benefits for up to two years was replaced by an earnings related transfer which paid benefits for up to one year. The reform generated winners and losers with heterogeneous response incentives. We find that the reform speeds up the labor market return of both groups of mothers after benefit expiration. The overall time until an average mother with (without) prior claims to benefits returns to the labor force after childbirth declined after the reform by 10 (8) months at the median. We show that likely pathways for this substantial reform effect are changes in social norms and mothers' preferences for economic independence.
    Keywords: female labor supply, maternal labor supply, parental leave, parental leave benefit, child-rearing benefit, parents' money
    JEL: J13 J21
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Mathias Huebener; Daniel Kuehnle; C. Katharina Spiess
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of a substantial change in publicly funded paid parental leave in Germany on child development and socio-economic development gaps. For children born before January 1, 2007, parental leave benefits were means-tested and paid for up to 24 months after childbirth. For children born thereafter, parental leave benefits were earnings-related and only paid for up to 14 months. Higher-income households benefited more from the reform than low-income households. We study the reform effects on children's language skills, motor skills, socio-emotional stability, and school readiness using administrative data from mandatory school entrance examinations at age six and a difference-in-differences design. We find no impact of the reform on child development and socio-economic development gaps. The effects are precisely estimated and robust to various model specifications and sample definitions. Our resultssuggest that such substantial changes in parental leave benefits are unlikely to impact children's development. These findings are consistent with recent studies showing that temporary unrestricted transfers and maternal part-time employment have a limited impact on parental investments in their children.
    Keywords: Parental leave benefit, child development, skill formation, parental investments, school readiness, motor skills, language skills, socio-emotional stability, socio-economic differences
    JEL: J13 J18 J22 J24
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Elin Halvorsen; Axel West Pedersen (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: In this paper we use an advanced micro-simulation model to study the distributional effects of the reformed Norwegian pension system with a particular focus on gender equality. The reformed Norwegian system is based on the NDC-formula with fixed contribution/accrual rates over the active life-phase and with accumulated pension wealth being transformed into an annuity upon retirement. A number of redistributive components are built into the system that makes it deviate from complete actuarial fairness: a unisex annuity divisor, a ceiling on annual earnings, generous child credits, a possibility for widows/widowers to inherit pension rights from a deceased spouse, a targeted guarantee pensions with higher benefit rates to single pensioners compared to married/cohabitating pensioners, and finally the tax system that is particularly progressive in its treatment of pensioners and pension income. Taking complete actuarial fairness as the point of departure, we conduct a stepwise analysis to investigate how these different components of the National Insurance pension system impact on the gender gap in pensions and on inequality in the distribution of pension income within a cohort of pensioners.
    Keywords: Pensions; Gender gap; Inequality; Micro simulation
    JEL: D31 E47 H55
    Date: 2017–01
  6. By: Hertweck, Matthias Sebastian; Brey, Björn
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effectiveness of short-time work [STW] extensions - e.g. relaxing eligibility criteria or implementing new STW schemes - in the OECD during and after the Great Recession. First, we find that the dampening effect of STW on the unemployment rate diminishes at higher take-up rates. Second, only countries with preexisting STW schemes were able to fully exploit the benefits of STW. Third, the effects of STW are strongest when GDP growth is deeply negative at the beginning of recessions. Our results indicate that STW is most effective when used as a fast-responding automatic stabilizer.
    JEL: E24 J23 J68
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Geyer, Johannes; Engels, Barbara; Haan, Peter
    Abstract: In this paper we exploit a cohort specific pension reform to estimate the causal employment effect of changes in the financial incentives to retire. In particular we analyze the effect of the introduction of pension deductions for early retirement on female employment. For the empirical analysis we use high-quality administrative data from the German Federal Pension Insurance (VSKT) and find positive and significant effects of the reform on employment.
    JEL: J18 J26 J14
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Brekke, Kurt R. (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Holmås, Tor Helge (Uni Research Rokkan Centre); Monstad, Karin (Uni Research Rokkan Centre); Straume, Odd Rune (University of Minho)
    Abstract: Competition among physicians is widespread, but compelling empirical evidence on the impact on service provision is limited, mainly due to lack of exogenous variation in the degree of competition. In this paper we exploit that many GPs, in addition to own practice, work in local emergency centres, where the matching of patients to GPs is random. This allows us to observe the same GP in two different competitive environments; with competition (own practice) and without competition (emergency centre). Using rich administrative patient-level data from Norway for 2006-14, which allow us to estimate high-dimensional fi…xed-effect models to control for time-invariant patient and GP heterogeneity, we …nd that GPs with a fee-for-service (…fixed salary) contract are 11 (8) percentage points more likely to certify sick leave at own practice than at the emergency centre. Thus, competition has a positive impact on GPs’sick listing that is reinforced by …nancial incentives.
    Keywords: Physicians; Competition; Sickness certification
    JEL: I11 I18 L13
    Date: 2017–02–12
  9. By: Dauth, Christine
    Abstract: I analyse the effects of further training subsidies for low-skilled employed workers on individual labor market outcomes in Germany for the period 2007 to 2012. Using detailed administrative data, I exploit cross-regional variation in conditional policy styles of local employment agencies, and use this fuzzy discontinuity as an instrument for program participation. I find that the subsidies caused significant gains in cumulative employment duration and earnings in the short run for the subgroup of compliers. These gains are particularly pronounced for women, younger workers and workers participating more than six months.
    JEL: J18 J24 I21
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Francesco Longo (Department of Economics and Related Studies, University of York, York, UK); Luigi Siciliani (Department of Economics and Related Studies, University of York, York, UK); Hugh Gravelle (Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK.); Rita Santos (Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK.)
    Abstract: We investigate whether hospitals in the English National Health Service increase their quality (mortality, emergency readmissions, patient reported outcome, and patient satisfaction) or efficiency (bed occupancy rate, cancelled operations, and cost indicators) in response to an increase in quality or efficiency of neighbouring hospitals. We estimate spatial cross-sectional and panel data models, including spatial cross-sectional instrumental variables. Hospitals generally do not respond to neighbours’ quality and efficiency. This suggests the absence of spillovers across hospitals in quality and efficiency dimensions and has policy implications, for example, in relation to allowing hospital mergers.
    Keywords: quality, efficiency, hospitals, competition, spatial econometrics
    JEL: C21 C23 I11 L3 L11
  11. By: Lars Hornuf (Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the EU, Trier University); Marc Oliver Rieger (Trier University)
    Abstract: Can television have a mitigating e?ect on xenophobia? To examine this question, we exploit the fact that individuals in some areas of East Germany – due to their geographic location – could not receive West German television until 1989. We conjecture that individuals who received West German television were exposed more frequently to foreigners and thus have developed less xenophobia than people who were not exposed to those programs. Our results show that regions that could receive West German television were less likely to vote for right-wing parties during the national elections from 1998 to 2013. Only recently, the same regions were also more likely to vote for left-wing parties. Moreover, while counties that hosted more foreigners in 1989 were also more likely to vote for right-wing parties in most elections, we find counties that recently hosted more foreign visitors showed less xenophobia, which is in line with intergroup contact theory.
    Keywords: Mass media; Television; Xenophobia; Attitudes towards foreigners; East Germany; Natural experiment
    JEL: D72 L82 P3
    Date: 2017–02
  12. By: Berger, Melissa; Misch, Florian; Voget, Johannes
    Abstract: In this paper we study the effects of profit taxation on the creation of new firms using a unique data set covering all firms created in Germany since 2000 irrespective of whether they are German or foreign owned. We exploit the fact that each municipality in Germany is able to independently set the rate of local profit taxation, whereas all tax-base related regulation is identical across municipalities. Our analyzes show that firms react to some incentives induced by profit taxes, but to a small extent and depending on the legal status of the firm.
    JEL: H25 H71 D22
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Victor Ginsburgh; Juan D. Moreno-Ternero
    Abstract: We discuss compensation schemes that should give incentives to EU countries and citizens to acquire a lingua franca. We consider three possible candidates: English, French and German, which are already the most widely spoken languages. In our model, countries can claim compensations linked to the number of citizens who do not speak a given candidate language, and the distance between the official language in the country and the suggested lingua franca. We study two sharing schemes that are rooted in ancient sources: the Aristotelian proportional rule and the Talmud rule. The former prevents coalitional manipulations among countries, whereas the latter guarantees meaningful lower bounds for all countries.
    Date: 2017–03
  14. By: Durevall, Dick (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: Cost pass-through to retail prices shows how changes in marginal costs are allocated between producers and consumers, and it is therefore closely related to market structure and competition. This paper uses Swedish data on coffee products at the barcode level to evaluate pass-through from the cost of green coffee beans, the main marginal cost, to the retail price of roasted and ground coffee. First long-run cost pass-through is estimated for each product, and then regression is used to analyse how pass-through varies across market shares, retailer-owned brands and other product characteristics. A general result is that pass-through is roughly complete for products with large market shares, while those with small market shares have low pass-through rates. There is no evidence that retailer-owned brands have higher pass-through than brand-name products with similar market shares, which would be the case if retailer-owned brands avoided double marginalization through vertical integration. Thus, although there is not perfect competition in the Swedish coffee market, a large part of it appears to be highly competitive.
    Keywords: Coffee market; Market power; Pass-through; Market shares
    JEL: L11 L13 L89
    Date: 2017–03
  15. By: Aleksandra Parteka; Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz
    Abstract: Using a rich dataset on over 110,000 workers from nine European countries and the USA we study the wage response to industry dependence on foreign value added. We estimate a Mincerian wage model augmented with an input-output interindustry linkages measure accounting for task heterogeneity across workers. Low and mediumeducated workers and those performing routine tasks experience (little) wage decline due to major dependency of their industries on foreign inputs. Workers from former EU15 are more in danger of unfavourable wage effects than workers from new EU member states. American workers employed in service industries are more exposed than manufacturing workers.
    Keywords: wage, global value chains, foreign value added, interindustry linkages
    JEL: F14 F16 J31
    Date: 2016–09
  16. By: Engelhardt, Carina; Wagener, Andreas
    Abstract: Although voter turnout in the 2013 general election to the German Bundestag differed considerably across income brackets, the income distribution of voters did not differ, in a statistically significant way, from that of the entire population. The non-uniform turnout, thus, is unlikely to affect the political support for, or the feasibility of, policies that are sensitive with respect to the income distribution.
    Keywords: Majority Voting; Income Distribution; Redistribution
    JEL: D72 H53 D31
    Date: 2017–03
  17. By: Michal Andrle; Vladimír Tomšík; Jan Vlcek
    Abstract: The paper seeks to identify strategies of commercial banks in response to higher capital requirements of Basel III reform and its phase-in. It focuses on a sample of nine EU emerging market countries and picks up 5 largest banks in each country assessing their response. The paper finds that all banking sectors raised CAR ratios mainly through retained earnings. In countries where the banking sector struggled with profitability, banks have resorted to issuance of new equity or shrunk the size of their balance sheets to meet the higher capital-adequacy requirements. Worries echoed at the early stage of Basel III compilation, namely that commercial banks would shrink their balance sheet by reducing their lending to meet stricter capital requirements, did materialize only in banks struggling with profitability.
    Keywords: Banking sector;Europe;Commercial banks;Emerging markets;Bank supervision;Basel Core Principles;Bank reforms;capital adequacy, Basel III, balance sheet
    Date: 2017–02–10
  18. By: Neugart, Michael
    Abstract: For standard economic models it is typically assumed that preferences are given and stable. But do economic systems shape individuals' risk preferences? Using the reunification of East and West Germany as a natural experiment I evaluate differences in financial risk taking comparing Eastern and Western German households for almost two decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Controlling for a large set of socio-economic variables East Germans having been ``treated'' by a command economy were more prone to taking financial risk than West German citizens. The differences were quantitatively relevant after the fall of the Iron Curtain and almost vanished by 2008.
    JEL: D14 G11 P50
    Date: 2016
  19. By: Ruist, Joakim (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: This study follows a random sample of 20% of the earliest post-EU-enlargement immigrants during their first decade in Sweden, studying their patterns of outmigration and income assimilation. The results show that outmigration is low: around 80% appear to be still present in Sweden during the full year 2013. Annual outmigration probabilities are near zero among migrants that earned an income that was at least high enough to live on in the previous year. Those leaving Sweden are thus mostly “failed migrants”, who did not manage to provide for themselves. Early income is far higher for male than for female migrants, with most females who live in couples initially earning zero income. Yet after less than one decade the gender gap in income is not larger than that in the total Swedish population of similar ages. Together with female migrants being better educated when migrating, this indicates strong male dominance in the migration decision, yet mostly so in the short term: For migration to happen, the short-term job opportunities of the male partner, and the longer-term prospects of the female, both needed to be favorable.
    Keywords: EU enlargement; migration; outmigration; income assimilation; family migration
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2017–03
  20. By: Leuven, Edwin (University of Oslo); Løkken, Sturla Andreas (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: How does class size in compulsory school affect peoples' long run education and earnings? We use maximum class size rules and Norwegian administrative registries allowing us to observe outcomes up to age 48. We do not find any indication of beneficial effects of class size reduction in compulsory school. For a 1 person reduction in class size we can rule out effects on income as small as 0.087 percent in primary school and 0.12 percent in middle school. Population differences in parental background, school size or competitive pressure do not appear to reconcile our findings with previous studies.
    Keywords: class size, schooling, earnings, regression discontinuity
    JEL: I21 I28 J24 C30
    Date: 2017–02
  21. By: Knies, Gundi
    Abstract: Using longitudinal data for children aged 10-15 years living in England in 2009-2014 we test the hypothesis that income matters for children’s life satisfaction. The results suggest that children are more satisfied with life the more income their family has. Income effects are larger the less income the family has and statistically significant for children from the age of 13. Overall, the effects are small and governments aiming to increase population well-being in this group may expect greater returns from addressing satisfaction gaps experienced during school holidays and focussing on British/Irish white males and females from ethnic minority backgrounds.
    Date: 2017–03–07
  22. By: Helgertz, Jonas (Department of Economic History, Lund University); Nilsson, Anton (Department of Economic History, Lund University)
    Abstract: This study examines the causal effects of birth weight on two health-related outcomes: inpatient hospitalizations and sickness absences, distinguishing between different diagnoses. Our analysis exploits differences within siblings and within twin pairs, using full population Swedish register data on cohorts born between 1973 and 1995, observed through childhood and in adulthood. In childhood, there is a strong relationship between birth weight and days in inpatient care. This is mostly driven by perinatal conditions during infancy, but substantial effects on other conditions are also found. Effects reduce in size when the child grows older. There are also significant and important effects in adulthood, and these are stronger than the ones found in late childhood. In adulthood, the strongest and most consistent effects are obtained for mental conditions. This holds for both hospital visits and sickness absences, but is most striking for hospital visits, where mental diagnoses may account for almost the entire effect of a lower birth weight. Overall, we provide evidence that birth weight does matter for both short- and long-term health outcomes and that the effects may not be smaller than what more traditional OLS regressions suggest.
    Keywords: birth weight; childhood Health; adulthood Health; fetal origins hypothesis
    JEL: I10 I12 N10
    Date: 2017–03–17
  23. By: Thierry Blayac (Université de Montpellier; LAMETA); Patrice Bougette (Université Côte d'Azur; GREDEG CNRS)
    Abstract: The opening up of the French long-distance bus industry is one of the outcomes of the Loi Macron. In this study, we build a unique data set of several representative bus routes and show that the effects of the liberalization have been encouraging in terms of fares, new entry, higher frequency, and higher quality. First, with regard to international routes that used to be under cabotage, we find that relaxing quantitative restrictions has led to the expected results on the Lyon-Torino and Paris-London routes. Second, with regard to domestic routes newly created from the Loi Macron, mostly all procompetitive expected variations in the variables have been observed, except for fares. Indeed, we show that bus operators used an initial aggressive pricing strategy to induce demand for the new services and then increased fares once customers became accustomed with the service.
    Keywords: Transportation services, deregulation, bus industry, Loi Macron, intermodal competition, France
    JEL: L43 L91 G38 R40
    Date: 2017–03
  24. By: Calogero Guccio (Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania); Domenico Lisi (Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania); Anna Mignosa (Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania); Ilde Rizzo (Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania)
    Abstract: In this paper we try to investigate which factors affect the visits to Cultural Heritage (CH), using Italy as a case study. We adopt a broad definition of CH including archaeological and historical sites, historical buildings and, also, museums, focusing our attention on State CH. In our empirical analysis we use a rather innovative indicator of CH value, i.e. the monetary value of State CH, officially provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. Using these data, this paper aims at evaluating if such monetary value has a significant role in stimulating visits to cultural sites for the years 1996-2010. We also control for other factors potentially affecting the number of visits to cultural sites, such as alternative tourist attractors and the regional performance in the tourism sector. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that attempts to investigate the effect of CH monetary value on cultural participation.
    Keywords: cultural heritage, monetary value, cultural visitors, tourist arrivals
    JEL: Z11 Z18 Z32
    Date: 2017–02
  25. By: Rasmus Landersø (Rockwool Foundation Research Unit, Denmark); Helena Skyt Nielsen (Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University, Denmark); Marianne Simonsen (Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University, Denmark)
    Abstract: This paper investigates intra-family spillovers from the timing of school start on outcomes for the entire family. We document how the timing of a child’s school start affects the timing of all subsequent transitions between tiers in the educational system. Exploiting quasi-random variation in school starting age induced by date of birth, we find that the timing of transitions affect parental outcomes - including marriage and maternal employment - and older siblings’ academic performance. Our results indicate that families redistribute resources across the entire family in response to a single family member’s experiences as for example school start and graduation.
    Keywords: marital capital, marital dissolution, educational transition, regression discontinuity, spillover effects
    JEL: I21 J12
    Date: 2017–02–22
  26. By: Julita E. Wasilczuk (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland); Katarzyna Stankiewicz (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: Unproductive entrepreneurship is not a common theme undertaken by researchers. The author defines the basic concepts of unproductive entrepreneurship and explains the role of cultural and economic differences in transition countries, in terms of institutional environment. However the main aim is to identify the nature of unproductive entrepreneurship in Poland. The theory for the research was based on the Baumol work. The research model on the Ajzen TPB. 270 Polish entrepreneurs were surveyed in order to define and describe unproductive entrepreneurship in Poland. The surveyed entrepreneurs present a permissive subjective standard regarding tax evasion when the existence of their enterprise is endangered, however they are also quite indulgent in the case of desire to maximize profits. The entrepreneurs represent more negative behavioural beliefs regarding the effectiveness of tax avoidance than regarding the effectiveness of making arrangements with tender participants or paying bribes.
    Keywords: unproductive entrepreneurship, types of unproductivity
    JEL: D22 D23 O43
    Date: 2017–03

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